GROUND-BASED SOLAR RESEARCH: AN ASSESSMENT AND STRATEGY FOR THE FUTURE

Task Group on Ground-based Solar Research

Space Studies Board

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C. 1998



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GROUND-BASED SOLAR RESEARCH: AN ASSESSMENT AND STRATEGY FOR THE FUTURE GROUND-BASED SOLAR RESEARCH: AN ASSESSMENT AND STRATEGY FOR THE FUTURE Task Group on Ground-based Solar Research Space Studies Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1998

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GROUND-BASED SOLAR RESEARCH: AN ASSESSMENT AND STRATEGY FOR THE FUTURE NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committees responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Support for this project was provided by Contract NASW 96013 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Grant AST-9618081 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsor. Cover: Contours of equal solar internal rotational rate from an analysis of data from the first year of GONG (Global Oscillations Network Group) operation. Noteworthy is the strong shear at the base of the convection zone (r = 0.7). Deeper rotation rates are uncertain. (From H.M. Antia, S. Basu, and S.M. Chitre. 1998. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 298:543.) Copies of this report are available from Space Studies Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 Copyright 1998 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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GROUND-BASED SOLAR RESEARCH: AN ASSESSMENT AND STRATEGY FOR THE FUTURE TASK GROUP ON GROUND-BASED SOLAR RESEARCH EUGENE N. PARKER, University of Chicago, Chair KAREN L. HARVEY, Solar Physics Research Corporation GORDON J. HURFORD, California Institute of Technology JUDITH L. LEAN, Naval Research Laboratory RICHARD A. McCRAY, University of Colorado, Boulder RONALD L. MOORE, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center ROBERT ROSNER, University of Chicago PHILIP H. SCHERRER, Stanford University CAROLUS J. SCHRIJVER, Stanford-Lockheed Institute for Space Research PETER A. STURROCK, Stanford University ALAN M. TITLE, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center ARTHUR CHARO, Senior Program Officer CARMELA J. CHAMBERLAIN, Senior Project Assistant

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GROUND-BASED SOLAR RESEARCH: AN ASSESSMENT AND STRATEGY FOR THE FUTURE SPACE STUDIES BOARD CLAUDE R. CANIZARES, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Chair MARK R. ABBOTT, Oregon State University FRAN BAGENAL, University of Colorado DANIEL N. BAKER, University of Colorado LAWRENCE BOGORAD,* Harvard University DONALD E. BROWNLEE, * University of Washington ROBERT E. CLELAND, University of Washington GERARD W. ELVERUM, JR., TRW Space and Technology Group ANTHONY W. ENGLAND, * University of Michigan MARILYN L. FOGEL, Carnegie Institution of Washington RONALD GREELEY, Arizona State University BILL GREEN, former member, U.S. House of Representatives CHRISTIAN JOHANNSEN, Purdue University ANDREW H. KNOLL, Harvard University JONATHAN I. LUNINE, University of Arizona ROBERTA BALSTAD MILLER, CIESIN-Columbia University BERRIEN MOORE III, * University of New Hampshire GARY J.OLSEN, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign MARY JANE OSBORN, University of Connecticut Health Center SIMON OSTRACH, * Case Western Reserve University MORTON B. PANISH, * AT&T Bell Laboratories (retired) CARLÉ M. PIETERS, * Brown University THOMAS A. PRINCE, California Institute of Technology PEDRO L. RUSTAN, JR., U.S. Air Force (retired) JOHN A. SIMPSON, * Enrico Fermi Institute GEORGE L. SISCOE, Boston University EUGENE B. SKOLNIKOFF, Massachusetts Institute of Technology EDWARD M. STOLPER, California Institute of Technology NORMAN E. THAGARD, Florida State University ALAN M. TITLE, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center RAYMOND VISKANTA, Purdue University PETER VOORHEES, Northwestern University ROBERT E. WILLIAMS, * Space Telescope Science Institute JOHN A. WOOD, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics JOSEPH K. ALEXANDER, Director (as of February 17, 1998) MARC S. ALLEN, Director (through December 12, 1997) * Term ended in 1998.

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GROUND-BASED SOLAR RESEARCH: AN ASSESSMENT AND STRATEGY FOR THE FUTURE COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS PETER M. BANKS, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Co-chair W. CARL LINEBERGER, University of Colorado, Co-chair WILLIAM BROWDER, Princeton University LAWRENCE D. BROWN, University of Pennsylvania MARSHALL H. COHEN, California Institute of Technology RONALD G. DOUGLAS, Texas A&M University JOHN E. ESTES, University of California at Santa Barbara JERRY P. GOLLUB, Haverford College MARTHA P. HAYNES, Cornell University JOHN L. HENNESSY, Stanford University CAROL M. JANTZEN, Westinghouse Savannah River Company PAUL G. KAMINSKI, Technovation, Inc. KENNETH H. KELLER, University of Minnesota MARGARET G. KIVELSON, University of California at Los Angeles DANIEL KLEPPNER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOHN KREICK, Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company MARSHA I. LESTER, University of Pennsylvania M. ELISABETH PATÉ-CORNELL, Stanford University NICHOLAS P. SAMIOS, Brookhaven National Laboratory CHANG-LIN TIEN, University of California at Berkeley NORMAN METZGER, Executive Director

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GROUND-BASED SOLAR RESEARCH: AN ASSESSMENT AND STRATEGY FOR THE FUTURE This page in the original is blank.

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GROUND-BASED SOLAR RESEARCH: AN ASSESSMENT AND STRATEGY FOR THE FUTURE Preface This report was prepared by the Task Group on Ground-based Solar Research, which was formed in response to a request from the National Science Foundation (NSF). Given the intimate complementarity between ground- and space-based studies of the Sun, the task group's work was also supported by NASA. The original charge to the task group called for an assessment of the scientific and financial context in which ground-based solar research will be conducted in the coming decade, consideration of strategies and priorities for ground-based solar research, an evaluation of the posture and roles of solar observatories and other research institutions (with special attention to the mission and management of the National Solar Observatory; NSO), and an assessment of whether projected capabilities will be able to meet U.S. scientific and programmatic needs for ground-based solar research. (The complete statement of task for the study is presented in Appendix A). The task group held three 3-day meetings over the course of the study and heard presentations from NSF and NASA officials, the directors of the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) and the NSO, staff scientists based at the NSO (Kitt Peak and Sacramento Peak), and researchers based at Air Force and Navy laboratories and at universities. (Meeting agendas are presented in Appendix B; brief biographies of task group members are given in Appendix C.) Community input to the study was solicited at national meetings and in newsletters. In addition, the task group created a public discussion group that was posted on the World Wide Web. As the study progressed, the task group concluded that issues related to future instrumentation for ground-based research were central to developing a strategy for dealing with current needs and future directions in solar research. Therefore, that aspect of the charge received particular attention, along with the attendant implications for the future role and structure of the NSO. Chapter 1 of the report addresses the scientific context for ground-based solar research. In Chapter 2, the current program is assessed from the perspective of a three-part strategic framework, and needs for the future are addressed. Chapter 3 then presents a strategy for ground-based solar research for the next decade and a set of prioritized recommendations to implement that strategy. Appendix D, Appendix E, Appendix F, Appendix G, Appendix H, Appendix I, Appendix J supply illustrative and supporting details, and Appendix K gives definitions for the acronyms used in the report.

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GROUND-BASED SOLAR RESEARCH: AN ASSESSMENT AND STRATEGY FOR THE FUTURE Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The contents of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Marshall H. Cohen, California Institute of Technology, Harold K. Forsen, Bechtel Corporation (retired), Peter V. Foukal, Cambridge Research and Instrumentation, Inc., Peter Goldreich, California Institute of Technology, Martha P. Haynes, Cornell University, Louis J. Lanzerotti, Lucent Technologies, Jeffrey Linsky, University of Colorado, Dimitri M. Mihalas, University of Illinois, Sabatino Sofia, Yale University, and Roger K. Ulrich, University of California, Los Angeles. Although the individuals listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the authoring task group and the NRC.