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Ocean Drilling Research: An Arctic Perspective Ocean Drilling Research: An Arctic Perspective Polar Research Board Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1999
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Ocean Drilling Research: An Arctic Perspective NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for writing this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. Limited copies of this report are available from: Polar Research Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 202-334-3479 Copyright 1999 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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Ocean Drilling Research: An Arctic Perspective POLAR RESEARCH BOARD DAVID L. CLARK, Chair, University of Wisconsin, Madison* RICHARD B. ALLEY, Pennsylvania State University, University Park JOHN B. ANDERSON, Rice University, Houston, Texas ANTHONY J. GOW, U.S. Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Hanover, New Hampshire BERNARD HALLET, University of Washington, Seattle DAVID J. HOFMANN, Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado DONAL T. MANAHAN, University of Southern California, Los Angeles JAMES H. MORISON, University of Washington, Seattle WALTER C. OECHEL, San Diego State University, California CAROLE L. SEYFRIT, Old Dominion University, Richlands, Virginia GLENN E. SHAW, University of Alaska, Fairbanks THOMAS N. TAYLOR, University of Kansas, Lawrence ROBERT M. WALKER, Washington University, St. Louis ROBERT A. WHARTON, JR., Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada Staff CHRIS ELFRING, Director ROB GREENWAY, Project Assistant *As of February 1999, the chair rotated to Dr. Donal Manahan.
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Ocean Drilling Research: An Arctic Perspective COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES GEORGE M. HORNBERGER, Chair, University of Virginia, Charlottesville RICHARD A. CONWAY, Union Carbide Corporation (ret.), South Charleston, West Virginia THOMAS E. GRAEDEL, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut THOMAS J. GRAFF, Environmental Defense Fund, Oakland, California EUGENIA KALNAY, University of Oklahoma, Norman DEBRA KNOPMAN, Progressive Policy Institute, Washington, D.C. KAI N. LEE, Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts RICHARD A. MESERVE, Covington & Burling, Washington, D.C. JOHN B. MOONEY, JR., J. Brad Mooney Associates, Ltd., Arlington, Virginia HUGH C. MORRIS, Canadian Global Change Program, Delta, British Columbia H. RONALD PULLIAM, University of Georgia, Athens MILTON RUSSELL, University of Tennessee, Knoxville THOMAS C. SCHELLING, University of Maryland, College Park ANDREW R. SOLOW, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts VICTORIA J. TSCHINKEL, Landers and Parsons, Tallahassee, Florida E-AN ZEN, University of Maryland, College Park MARY LOU ZOBACK, United States Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California NRC Staff ROBERT M. HAMILTON, Executive Director GREGORY H. SYMMES, Associate Executive Director CRAIG SCHIFFRIES, Associate Executive Director for Special Projects JEANETTE SPOON, Administrative Officer & Financial Officer SANDI FITZPATRICK, Administrative Associate MARQUITA SMITH, Administrative Assistant/Technology Analyst
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Ocean Drilling Research: An Arctic Perspective ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Although many people had a role in the preparation of this report and deserve thanks, special appreciation goes to the reviewers. These individuals were chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. This independent review provided candid and critical comments that assisted the authors and the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and ensured that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The content of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Arthur Grantz, U.S. Geological Survey Jacqueline M. Grebmeier, University of Tennessee John B. Mooney, Jr., J. Brad Mooney Associates, Ltd., Arlington, VA Neil D. Opdyke, University of Florida Frank J. Schuh, Drilling Technology, Inc., Plano, TX Fred N. Spiess, University of California, San Diego Philip M. Smith, McGeary and Smith, Washington, DC While the individuals listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the authoring committee and the NRC.
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Ocean Drilling Research: An Arctic Perspective The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.