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TABLE B-1 Inventory of Innovation Metrics

Category of Indicator

Some Indicators/Metrics

I. Direct Measures of Innovation (Used to show changes in the level, rate, direction, and composition of innovation—defined as the invention and commercialization of new products, processes and services.)

 

  • Invention/introduction of new products, processes, and services

 

  • Invention/innovation disclosures, new product announcements

 

  • Level, rate, direction, and composition (by industry, technology area, character of innovation, funder, performer) of innovation

 

  • Innovation counts

 

 

  • Patent counts (by industry, technology area), weighted by forward citations

 

 

  • New products, processes, services introduced

 

 

  • Shares of sales attributable to new products and services (new sales ratio)

 

  • Diffusion of new products, processes, and services

 

  • Use over time and space of new products, processes, services, (by industry, technology area)

II. Determinants of Innovation

A. Industrial Innovative Effort

 

  • R&D spending

 

 

  • Reported corporate R&D expenditures

 

  • Reported company R&D expenditures (by industry, technology area, character of work)

 

  • Informal R&D activities in other business units

 

  • Survey questions on R&D performed and funded by non-R&D business units

 

  • Non-R&D innovation-related spending

 

  • Survey questions on innovation-related expenses: design, engineering, prototyping, production, and marketing

 

  • Technical human resources

 

  • Number of technical employees, by industry and technology area

 

 

  • Survey of doctoral recipients (matched to company innovation indicators)

B. Organization and Structure of Innovative Activity: Technical knowledge generation and transfer

 

  • Organization within the firm

 

  • Survey questions regarding: Relations of R&D to other business functions

 

 

  • Survey questions: Central vs. business unit R&D

 

  • Alliances, collaborative arrangements

 

  • Strategic technology alliance counts (international)

 

  • Interfirm alliances and collaboration

 

  • Licensing agreements

 

 

  • Cooperative R&D ventures


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