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TABLE B-1 Inventory of Innovation Metrics

Category of Indicator

Some Indicators/Metrics

I. Direct Measures of Innovation (Used to show changes in the level, rate, direction, and composition of innovation—defined as the invention and commercialization of new products, processes and services.)


  • Invention/introduction of new products, processes, and services


  • Invention/innovation disclosures, new product announcements


  • Level, rate, direction, and composition (by industry, technology area, character of innovation, funder, performer) of innovation


  • Innovation counts



  • Patent counts (by industry, technology area), weighted by forward citations



  • New products, processes, services introduced



  • Shares of sales attributable to new products and services (new sales ratio)


  • Diffusion of new products, processes, and services


  • Use over time and space of new products, processes, services, (by industry, technology area)

II. Determinants of Innovation

A. Industrial Innovative Effort


  • R&D spending



  • Reported corporate R&D expenditures


  • Reported company R&D expenditures (by industry, technology area, character of work)


  • Informal R&D activities in other business units


  • Survey questions on R&D performed and funded by non-R&D business units


  • Non-R&D innovation-related spending


  • Survey questions on innovation-related expenses: design, engineering, prototyping, production, and marketing


  • Technical human resources


  • Number of technical employees, by industry and technology area



  • Survey of doctoral recipients (matched to company innovation indicators)

B. Organization and Structure of Innovative Activity: Technical knowledge generation and transfer


  • Organization within the firm


  • Survey questions regarding: Relations of R&D to other business functions



  • Survey questions: Central vs. business unit R&D


  • Alliances, collaborative arrangements


  • Strategic technology alliance counts (international)


  • Interfirm alliances and collaboration


  • Licensing agreements



  • Cooperative R&D ventures

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