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COLLOQUIUM ON GEOLOGY, MINERALOGY' AND HUMAN WELFARE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES WASHINGTON, D.C. 1999

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NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Colloquium Series In 1991, the National Academy of Sciences inaugurated a series of scientific colloquia, five or six of which are scheduled each year under the guidance of the NAS Council's Committee on Scientific Programs. Each colloquium addresses a scientific topic of broad and topical interest, cutting across two or more of the traditional disciplines. Typically two days long, colloquia are international in scope and bring together leading scientists in the field. Papers from colloquia are published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).

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Geology, Mineralogy, and Human Welfare A Colloquium sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences November 8-9, 1998 PROGRAM Sunday. November 8, 1998 AGRICULTURAL MINERALOGY/SOILS, SURFACES 9:40am GarIison Sposito, University of California, Berkeley, Surface geochemistry of the clay minerals 0:20am Paul M. Bertsch, University of Georgia/SREL, Characterization of complex mineral assemblages: implications for contaminant transport and environmental rem ediation 11:20am Samuel I. Traina, Stanford University, Contaminant hiouvailability in soils, sediments and aquatic environments 2:00pm Gordon E. Brown, Ir., Stanford University, Mineral surfaces and bioovailability of heavy metals: A molecular-scale perspective AEROSOLS AND CLIMATE 2:00pm 2:40pm Joseph M. Prospero, University of Miami RSMAS, Long-range transport of mineral dust in the global atmosphere: Impact of African dust on the environment of the southeastern United States Peter R. Buseck, Arizona State University, Airborne minerals anclt related" aerosol particles: Elects on climate and the environment OCEANS AND BIOMINERALOGY 3 :40pm 4:20pm 5 :OOpm Miriam Kastner, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Oceanic minerals and rocks, their origin, occurrence, and economic significance Keith A. Kvenvolden, U.S. Geological Survey, Potential effects of gas hydrates on human welfare Jillian F. Banfield, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Biological impact on mineral dissolution - application of the lichen mode! to understanding mineral weathering in rhizosphere

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Mondav. November 9, 1998 RADWASTE, MINING, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 9:10am Rodney C. Ewing, University of Michigan, Nuclear waste forms of actir~ides 9:50am Robert B. Finkelman, U.S. Geological Survey, The health impacts of domestic coal use in China lO:SOam Robert P. Nolan, City University of New York, A risk assessment for exposure to grunerite asbestos (amosite) in an iron ore mine Il:30am D. Kirk Nordstrom, U.S. Geological Survey, Negative pH, efflorescent mineralogy, and consequences for environmental restoration at the Iron Mountain Superfund site, California PURE AND APPLIED MINERALOGY 2:00pm David R. Pevear, Exxon Production Research Co., Illite and hydrocarbon exploration 2:40pm Jeffrey E. Post, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Manganese oxide minerals: crystal structures & economic and environmental significance 3:40pm John D. Sherman, UOP Research Center, Synthetic zeolites and other microporous oxide molecular sieves 4:20pm Fredenck A. Mumpton, SUNY - College, Natural zeolites - la rocca do magical 5 :OOpm I.V. Smith, University of Chicago, Biochemical evolution: IlI. Polymerization on organophilic silica-rich surfaces; crystal-chemical modeling; formation offirst cells; geological clues

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oq~- \\~\ o~l ~h' PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Table of Contents Papers from a National Academy of Sciences Colloquium on Geology, Mineralogy, and Human Welfare Geology, mineralogy, and human welfare Joseph V. Smith Characterization of complex mineral assemblages: Implications for contaminant transport and environmental remediation Paul M. Bertsch and John C. Seaman Surface geochemistry of the clay minerals Garrison Sposito, Neal T. Skipper, Rebecca Sutton, Sung-ho Park, Alan K. Soper, and Jeffery A. Greathouse 3358-3364 Contaminant bioavailability in soils, sediments, and 3365-3371 aquatic environments Samuel J. Traina and Valerie Laperche Airborne minerals and related aerosol particles: 3372-3379 Effects on climate and the environment Peter R. Buseck and Mihaly Posfai Oceanic minerals: Their origin, nature of their 3380-3387 environment, and significance Miriam Kastner Mineral surfaces and bioavailability of heavy metals: 3388-3395 A molecular-scale perspective Gordon E. Brown, Jr., Andrea L. Foster, and John D. Ostergren Long-range transport of mineral dust in the global atmosphere: Impact of African dust on the environment of the southeastern United States Joseph M. Prospero Biological impact on mineral dissolution: Application 3404-3411 of the lichen model to understanding mineral weathering in the rhizosphere Jillian F. Banfield, William W. Barker, Susan A. Welch, and Anne Taunton A risk assessment for exposure to grunerite asbestos (amosite) in an iron ore mine 3350-3357 R. P. Nolan, A. M. Langer, and Richard Wilson 3412-3419 Potential effects of gas hydrate on human welfare 3420-3426 Keith A. Kvenvolden Health impacts of domestic coal use in China Robert B. Finkelman, Harvey E. Belkin, and Baoshan Zheng Nuclear waste forms for actinides Rodney C. Ewing Illite and hydrocarbon exploration David R. Pevear Manganese oxide minerals: Crystal structures and economic and environmental significance Jeffrey E. Post Negative pH, efflorescent mineralogy, and consequences for environmental restoration at the Iron Mountain Superfund site, California D. Kirk Nordstrom and Charles N. Alpers 3427-3431 3432-3439 3440-3446 3447-3454 3455-3462 La roca magica: Uses of natural zeolites in agriculture 3463-3470 and industry Frederick A. Mumpton Synthetic zeolites and other microporous oxide 3471-3478 molecular sieves John D. Sherman Biochemical evolution III: Polymerization on 3479-3485 organophilic silica-rich surfaces, crystal-chemical modeling, formation of first cells, and geological clues Joseph V. Smith, Frederick P. Arnold, Jr., Ian Parsons, and Martin R. Lee