The development of recommendations for long-term cooperation involved consultations with Russian colleagues through a variety of venues. Nine U.S. and sixteen Russian specialists took part in a roundtable hosted by Biopreparat in the Moscow suburb of Petrovo-Dalnyee in April 1997 to consider the general framework for cooperation. Specialists from Biopreparat and the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) joined public health-oriented researchers and other specialists to discuss the organizational framework, financial aspects, technical dimensions, and research themes for a cooperative program. A joint summary of the conclusions of the meeting can be found in Appendix G.

Discussions continued at a smaller follow-up meeting organized by the NAS committee in Moscow in June 1997, attended by representatives of Biopreparat and directors of several of its key research institutes. This meeting brought into sharper focus future project directions and approaches for joint planning and development of specific research activities. At that time, Biopreparat informed the committee that it was organizing a Russian working group to serve as the point of contact for future discussions of bilateral cooperation, with the invited membership listed in Box 2-1. If all invited members of the working group choose to participate, it will have an excellent composition for this purpose.

Box 2-1 The following organizations have been invited by Biopreparat to form the working group for future discussion of bilateral cooperation:

  • Biopreparat

  • President's Committee for Conventional Problems of Chemical and Biological Weapons

  • Ministry of Defense

  • Ministry of Health

  • Ministry of Science and Technology

  • Russian Academy of Sciences

  • Russian Academy of Medical Sciences

Individual institutes invited include the following

  • State Research Center for Virology and Biotechnology, “Vector” (Koltsovo)

  • State Research Center for Applied Microbiology (Obolensk)

  • Institute of Immunology (Lyubuchany)

  • Institute for Biological Scientific Instrumentation (Moscow)

  • Plague Research Institute, “Microb” (Saratov)

  • Central Scientific Research Institute for Epidemiology (Moscow)

NOTE: Biopreparat officials have indicated that other organizations will be involved as appropriate.

The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) sponsored an international symposium in the Kirov region in June 1997, with ISTC taking the lead in the organization: 30 Russian scientists, joined by 14 American, 6 Japanese, and 3 European specialists, covered a wide range of topics of broad interest. Some of the Russian participants presented specific project proposals.

A number of biotechnology activities and facilities previously associated with the former Soviet BW program are located in and near Kirov, which is 1,000 km east of Moscow. The symposium and subsequent visits to various organizations in Kirov provided opportunities for initial discussions with local specialists and with experts from other parts of Russia about future cooperation. A brief report prepared at the meeting and a list of attendees are included in Appendix H. The facilities visited are listed in Appendix C.

In addition to the organized meetings and visits, committee members participated in a number of

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