proliferation concern. Although consolidation in the Russian research complex would appear to be inevitable, such consolidation should be carefully managed.

If the United States and Russia are able to work together constructively over the long term, the tone of international diplomacy in this field could be significantly improved, resulting in new and important mitigation of the threat of proliferation and terrorism and improved U.S.-Russian relations in an area that too frequently has been punctuated with acrimony. In addition, long-term joint efforts would make major contributions to reducing global risks from emerging and reemerging infectious diseases.

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