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1 ***** KOHTeKCT IIpOIpaMMbI AByXCTOpOHHerO COTpy - ^eCTBa ACHEKTEII,D;BO0HOrO UPUMEHEHUS! BHOTEXHO~OrMM IIO MePe rIPH6JIM*eHMB HOBOrO T~CHTIe~eTHR 6MCTPMe IIPO1BH*eHM~ B 6HO~OrHqeCKHX HaYKaX H 6HOTeXHO~OrHH 06eHIaIOT Pe3KOe Y~Yq~eHHe TaKHX aCneKTOB ~KH3HH He~OBeKa, KaK 30PaBOOXPaHeHHe, CeBBCKOe XO3~HCTBO ~ apogee. XOTH 60~HHCTBO OTKpLITHlI lI HOBIIIeCTB HpOMCXO~T B P~B~TBIX HPOMM~eHHEIX CTPaHaX, ~HPOKOe PaCTIPOCTPaHeHHe 3HaHHM ~ BO3MO*HOCTeM rIo3Bo=IoT ~PYr~M CTPaHaM TaK*e BOCIIO~b30BaTECH 3THMM YCIIeXaMH. TeM He MeHee, paCIIpOCTpaHeHHe 6~0TeXHOJIOrHM corIposo~aeTcn IIOTeHUM=bHbIM PHCKOM. BO3MO)KHOCTH, CBH3aHHbIe C HCC~e~OBaHHeM OnaCHblX Ye~OBeqeCKHX, ~KHBOTHbIX H PaCTHTe~BHB1X {IaTOreHOB, UPeRCTaB=IOT CRO*HYIO TeXHO~OrHIO, HMeIOWY1O RBO}1HOe rIP~MeHeHHe; HeKOTOPMe 3HaHHR B 06JIaCTH MeQHUHHM, CeJIbCKOrO XO3~HCTBa ~ 6noTexHonornn YaCTH~HO COBHa~a~T CO 3HaHH~MM, HeO6XO~HMMMM ~ MCHORB30BaHH~ riaTOreHOB BO Bpa7KZle6HbIX ~e~x. ~ KpOMe TOrO, HeKOTOpOe 060py~0BaHHe H Pa60qHe IlOMe~eHMR HMe]OT YH~BePCaJIbHEIM XaPaKTeP; HaIIP~MeP, OIIPe~eHeHHBIe B~LI 06~eKTOB rIO IlOJIYYeHHIO BaKLIIIH MOrYT 6bITB rIPeO6Pa30BaHEI ~ rIPOH3BO~CTBa 6~0~0rHYeCKHX CPe~CTB, HpeDHa3HaYeHHEIX ~H MCHO~B30BaHHR BOOpy~eHHEIMM C~aMM H~n TeppOpUCTaMH.2 XOTH rIpH HeKOTOpE,IX 06CTORTeRBCTBaX 6~0~0rHYeCKHe B=hI opy*~H MOryT HaHocHTB ypoH TaKoro ~Ke ypOBH~, YTO ~ ~epHbIe BM~hI op~, conocTaBuMbIe no seGy, BO3MO*HOCTb ~OCTH)KeHHR 3THX H nPOYHX Pe3Y~bTaTOB HOCHT ropa3~0 MeHee Onpe,QeXeHHblH xapaKTep. 9Ta HeOUPeJe~eHHOCTB rIPUBe~a MHOr~X CI[eUHa~HCTOB K 3aKnIOYeHHIO, YTO 6~0~0rHYeCKHe BM~LI OPY*~H, B 06IUeM CJlyYae, He Ilpe,QCTaB=IOT oco60ro MHTepeca, IIO Kpa~HeH Mepe, ,~L>q Tpa,QHUMOHHb1X TaKTHYeCKHX BOeHHbIX ueReH.3 O'0HaKO' pemilTeJIBHbIe ,QenCTBHSI ~paKa HIO C03~aHM~ apCeHa~a 6~0~0rHYeCKHX BHDOB Opy*~R Hp~BO~T K H~eBOO~O*eHH~. UTO HeKOTOphIe CTpaHbI B03MO*HO He pa3De~T 3TOH OUeHKH- ~ OUeHKe OT0e~a TeXH~YeCKOM OUeHKH 3a 1993 rO~ 6BLRO yKa3aHO BOCeMb CTpaH, 0 KOTOpb~ 6~mo "c~e~aHo o6mee coo6~ueHne KaK O HMeIO~MX HeO6~HB~eHHMe OpOrpaMMbI HaCTyHaTe~bHbIX BOeHHbIX ~e~CTBHM C lICHO~B30BaHHeM 6~0~0rHYeCKHX BHAOB Opy*~H .4 B ~ 996 rODY D~PeKTOP AreHTCTBa H0 Da30DV*eHlIIO II KOHTOO~ 3a BOOp~eHHeM C~ ~*OH XO~YM yKa3= DIO*HHy ~ , ~ HeyTOYHeHHbIX CTpaH, OTKOMeHTHpOBaB 3TO TeM, YTO, H0 MHeHHIO COe~HHeHHb~ ~TaTOB AMePlIKlI, 3TO YIICJIO B DBa pa3a HPeBbI~aeT KOH~YeCTBO CTPaH B 1975 rODY, KOr~a KOHBeHUMB 0 6Ho~orHHecKHx BHDax opy*~H 6~ma sse'~eHa B ~e~CTBMe.S B HacToHlueM oTHeTe orIacHBIe IlaToreHbI oripeAe=IoTcH KaK IIaTOreHbI, KOTOpLIe RB=IOTC~ BbICOKO lIHteKUMOHHbIMM ~ KOTOpMe BM3LIBaIOT Cepbe3HbIe onaceH~ y BCeM~pHOrO 06~eCTBeHHOrO 3~paBOOXpaHeH=. Oco6~n ~HTepec r~pe,rcTas=~oT naToreHbI, KoTop~Ie MoryT ncn0~30saTbcn ~p~ 6nonoraqecKon sonHe. ~ypHa~ AMep~KaHcKo~ MeunUnHcKoh accoUnaunn ~ypHv~ AMepUKeN Me8UKa~ ACCOCUeU~eH HOCB~T~ Ue~n BMOYCK (T. 278, N 5 3a 6 aerycTa 1997 ro~a) TeMe 6Mo~orHHecKoH BOMHM ~ 6~0TePPOPH3MY. 3 OT~e~ TeXHM~eCKOH OUeHK~, KOHrpeCC C~A. 1993 ro~. pacnpocmpaHeHue Opy'U~ MaCCOBOBO yHUUmO=eHUR: O~eHKa pUCKa. Ba~HHrTOH, OKpyr KORYM6~: T~norpa~ ~pasuTe~bcTsa C~A, CTP. 52-62; Me~yHaponHun nHCTnTyT cTpaTer~HecKnx nccJIe~osaHnN, 1997 ro~. CmpamezuvecKuu o630p 1996/1997~. J]OH~OH, CTP. 37. OT~e~ TeXH~eCKOH OUeHK~, BM6. U~T., CTp. 65. CTpaHaMM 6bMH: ~paH, ~pv8K, ~3pa~L, ~HB - , CHp~, K~TaH, ceBepHaR KopeH lI TallBaHb. ~ HpUBe~eH~ CTpaHM B Hepe~He OT~e~a Te~eCKOM OUeHKH CTpaHa AO~Ha 6MTb yKa3aHa, I10 Kpa~HelI Mepe, B HeTupex H3 IIIeCTH KpylIHb~ HeCeKpeTHb~ ~CCRe~OBaH~ (~TH aMep~KaHCKMX ODHOM pOCCH~CKOM). AIeHTCTBO I10 pa30p~CeHlIl0 ~ KOHTpO~IO 3a Boop~eHMeM c~, Balll~HrTOH, OKp~ KO~M6~, 1996 rou. ~OCTODO~eHHMM ~*OH 0. Xo~, 0HpeKTOp, 3aMeHaH~ HO ~eTBepTOM peBM3~0HHOH KOHepeHUHM HO KOHBeHUHM 0 6llo~orHHecKHx B~aX op~, ~eHeBa, ~BeM~ap~, 26 HoR6pR. 13

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B 1997 rosy B ~eTbIpeX~eTHeM 0630pHoM aHaRH3e BOUpOCOB 060pOHbI, H30aBaeMOM M~H~CTepCTBOM 060pOHb! COLA, 6b~0 CDe~aHO cReDy~ee 3aK~HeHHe: Op~MeHeHHe H~H yRpo3a lIplIMeHeHlIR X~MHHeCKHX ~ 6HoRorHHecKHx BHDOB Opy*~H Hp~HUMaeT xapaKTep BepO~THbIX yC~OBHM Be~eHH~ 6y~y~eH BOMHbI, BK~HaR paHHHe 3TaUbI BOeHHbIX De~CTBHM, HaDpaB~eHHbIe Ha HO~pbIB 60eBb~ ~e~CTBHM C~ ~ MaTepHaBbHO-TeXHH~eCKOrO CHa6*eHH B yCJIOBlI~X Tb~a .6 ~OHO~HUTe~bHO K OHaCHOCTH CO CTOpOHbI CTpaH, pa3pa6aTbIBa~UX 6~0~0rHHeCKOe opy*ne B KaHeCTBe Cpe~CTBa Be~eHMB BO~HbI, paCTy~y~ TpeBO~ UpeDCTaB~eT B03MO*HOCTb 3aHeCeHHR 6~0~0rHYeCKHX BHBOB 0~H B apCeHaR Teppop~CToB.7 nD~MeHeHMe TeppOp~CTaMM bHO~OrM~eCKHX Cpe~CTB MO*eT Hp~BeCTH K 60~bW0My ypOHy. TO~HOCTb, HpOrH03HpyeMOCTb ~ CBOeBpeMeHHOCTb MOryT He TaK CH~bHO 3a60THTb TeppOp~CTOB, KaK O H~X 3a60THTCH 06b~HbIe BOOpy~eHHbIe CH~bI. Bo~ee Toro, ~ co3~aHun cMepToHocHoro apceHa~a 3Toro Opy*ll~ He Tpe6yeTcs MaCCHBHOH MHlpaCTp~bI.8 00 HacTonmero BpeMeHM IlpUMeHeHHe 6noJIornUecKoro opy*Ha TeppOpIICTaMI1 OrpaHIlHIlBanOCb He3HaHUTe~bHbIM HUC~OM HeKpy0HbIX MHUH0eHTOB, OT KOTOpbIX nocTpaDano orpaHHHeHHoe KonHHecTBo nmDeH. ODHaKO, ycH~H Ky~bTa AyMa ~HHp~KHO H0 OB~aDeHH~ 6~0~0rHHeCK~MM CpeDCTBaMM ~ 60nee ~MpOKOrO HpUMeHeHHR, XOTH ~ TaK ~ He 6bMM pea~30BaHbI, HO~HepK~Ba~T IIoTeHuMaJlbHyIo yrpo3y.9 llpe,qoTspameHne, c,qep*nsaH~e ~ pearnposaHne Ha OIIaCHOCTb, C03~aHHy~ HanHq~eM 6llo~orHMecKoro opy*~H, TaK~M 06pa30M, OpeDCTaB=IOT K~HeBy~ 3a~a~y B o6RacTH 6e3onacHocTH' CTOn~yIo riepe~ COe,QHHeHHbIMn }~TaTaMn AMeplIKH lI Me~yHapO,QHbIM C006lUeCTBOM B nepnoa r~oc~e XORO~HOH BO~HbI. ME~YI]APO,D;HASI PEAKIllIfl HA YIP03Y BlIOJIOrII'IECKOrO OPY=I51 Me~yHapo'~Hoe coo6~ecTBo oTpearnpoBano Ha yrpo3y 6HonorHHecKHx BH~OB Op - ~H C03DaHHeM Me~yHapO~HOrO pe*HMa B He~x 3anpemeHMn ux pa3pa6oTKH' HpoH3BoDcTBa' XDaHeHIIB ~ MCHOnb30BaHHR ~ UpeDOTBpa~eHHR MX upno6peTeHns CTpaHaMM ~ rpyIlrIlIpOBKaMII, De~CTBy~HMM BHyTpH CTpaH. ~eHeBCKHM HpOTOKO~ OT 1925 ro~a 3anpeluaeT McrIoJIb3osaHne 6aKTepnoJIornHecKmx MeToRos seaeHnn soeHHbIx leucTsHu, a TaK*e X~MHHeCKHX BM~OB Opy*~H B BOMHe (HORHbIM TeKCT CM. B ~pH~o~eHHM ry. TaK KaK HpOTOKOR 3aUpe~aeT TO~bKO ucnonwoBaHue 6aKTepHonorHHecKHx (6HonorHHecKHx) MeTo~oB Be~eHHR BOeHHbIX De~CTBMM, p~ CTpaH, B~IOHaH COeD~HeHHbIe ~TaTbI AMep~KH ~ 6bIB~H COBeTCKlIlI COIO3, pa3pa60Ta~H 6~0~0rHHeCKHe BM~bI Opy*~H ~ HaCTyHaTeJIbHbIX ~ o6opoH~Te~bHb~x He~eH.~ ODHaKO, B 1969 roDy Hpe3~DeHT H~KCOH 6e3oroBopo~Ho oTBepr yMaCTHe C~ BO BCeX MeTODaX BeDeHH~ 6~0~0rM~eCKOM BOMHbI, HODrOTOB~B HOYB M~H~CTePCTBO 060POHM CIIIA. 1997 rO,0. yem~pexQemHuu 0630pHblU ana~us no ffOnpOCaM 060poHN. B~MH"OH, oKpyr KonyM6~: oT~en o6~ecTBeHHb~x ~en M~H~cTepcTBa 060poHu, CTP. 13. CM., HanP~MeP, KaYMaHH A. O., MenbTUeP M. JI. ~ IIIM=T [. n. 1997 rO~. BO3~e~CTBMe Ha SKOHOM~KY Haria~eH~ 6HoTeppopucToB: o6ocHoBaHb! nH ripOrpaMMbT ripe'RoTspa~eHm Hana'~eHMn ~ BMemaTenbCTBa rIocne Haria~eH~? HOff~e UHe'CHUOH~ble Sa60neBaHUR 3: 83-94. ~ p;HpeKTop LleHTpanEHoh Pa3BeAKH. 1997 ro,1. llpno6pemeHue mex~o~o~uu, uMe~ou~eu" omnou~enue K Opy~CU~O MaCCOBOBO yHu~mo~cenu~ u cosepu~encmeocannoMy 06~noMy 60er~umanu~o, u~o~b-de~cadpb 1996 coda. BaW~HrTOH, OKpyr KonyM6~q: THriorpa4?m HpaBuTenbCTBa CIIL\, CTP. 3. OnCOH K. 13. 1995 ro~. I]oKa3aHm, DaHHble IIOCTORHHOMY nO~KOMuTeTy paccne`DosaHnH KoMuTeTa rocy~apcTBeHHbIx ~en CeHaTa, 31 OKTH6PH, CTP. 16. lIorIbITKH KynbTa AyMa IIO co3DaHHIo ~ McIIonb3oBaHHIo DencTBylo~Mx 6Honor~ecKHx cpe~cTB He yseHManucb ycHexoM; He H3BecTHo ~o6Hnacb nH 6bI rpyrIna ycHexa B KOHe~HOM HTOre. CM. KaTInaH ,ZI. E. ~ MapmaRn A. 1996 rO,0. Kynbm ~ nepuod ~con~a ceema. HblO-0OpK, ~TaT HB~- ~OpK: H3DaTeRECTBO "KpayH ~a6nnmep3". ~OHOnH'enbHO K 3TOMy, p~ CTpaH, BKnIOHaR COe~HHeHHMe ~TaTbI AMep~K~, He UpOM3BenH CBOeBpeMeHHOM PaTH+HKaUHM nPOTOKO~a. PaTHHKaU~ IlPOTOKOna B CIIIA 6bIna HIPOH3BeReHa B 1975 rO~Y, ORHOBPeMeHHO C paTut~KaUnen KOHBeHUHM O 6~onorn~ecKux B=aX opy~c~. COBeTCKHM Co~os HpOH3Be~ paTH~HKaUH~ ~eHeBCKOrO IIPOTOKO~a B 1928 ro~y, a paTH~HKaUHIO KoHBeHuHn O 6HonorHHecKHx BmaX Opy:Km B 1975 roDy. CM. AreHTCTBO no pa3opy~ceHHIo ~ KoHTponio 3a Boopy~ceHHeM. 1990 rO~. coenauieHuR 0 pa3opy~fceHuu U ~coHmpone sa BOOpyOtCeHUeM: TeKcmb! U ucmopuR nepeBOffOpOB. Ba~HHrTOH, OKpyr KOJIYM6~: THnorpa~ HpaB~TenbcTBa C~A, CTP. 15-18. 14

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HeperOBOpOB O KOHBeHUMM O 6~0~0rM~eCKHX BHDaX Opy*~H OT 1972 rosa. (nO~HMM TeKCT CM. B npII~O*eHHM An. KoHseHun~ o 6nonornYecKnx surtax Opy:Kn~ meet Acme ~CeHescKoro upoToKo~a, Ha~araH 3aUpeT Ha pa3pa60TKy, HpOM3BODCTBO ~ XpaHeHHe 6aKTepHO~OrMMeCKHX (6~10~0rHHeCKHX) BHDOB Opy*~H ~ FIX Cpe~CTBa ~OCTaBKH. CTaTB~ X KOHBeHUMM O 6~0~0rM~eCKHX BH~aX Opy*~H ECHO pat HpOBe~eHHe MCC~eDOBaHHM B 06~aCTH 6~0JIOrMMeCKHX CpeDCTB ~ TOKCHHOB ~ MX MCHO~B30BaHHR B M~pHbIX ue~x, Hpu3Hasan ocHosorIonara~oluy~o DH~eMMy DBOMHOrO Hp~MeHeHHH. ~OrOBOp O HepaCHpOCTpaHeHMM epHoro Opt ~ KOHBeHUMR O X~MHHeCKHX BMDax Opt TaK*e co~ep~aT nono~eH~n, HpH3Ha~He, HTO MepbI Ho HepaCHpOCTpaHeHM~ He ~O~HbI OTKa3bIBaTb CTOpOHaM DOrOBOpa B DOCTyDe K TeXHOnOrHM, MCHORb3yeMOH B M~pHb1X ue~x). Aanee B CTaTbe X yKa3bIBaeTCH, HTO HpH Han~q~H HMe~MXCH B03MO*HOCTeH CTOpOHbI ~O~HbI COTpy~H~HaTb B here DanbHeMmerO pa3B~THR ~ HpuMeHeHMR Hay~Hb1X OTKpbITHM B 06RaCTH 6aKTepHOnOrHM (6HonornH) B ue~x Hpe'~oTspa~eHH~ 3a6onesaHHM ~ Ha 6~aro uPyrux MnpHb1X ueneH, rIpuBHocH BKJIa,~ nn60 CaMOCTORTenbHO, J1~60 COBMeCTHO C ,lpyrnMn rocy'~apcTBaMn HnH Me~yHapODHbIMM opraHu3aUH~Mu. 11 TeM He MeHee, KOHBeHUl1H 0 6nonor~qecKnx BH~aX opy*~n He ~pe~ycMaTp~saeT HO~O*eHM~ O KOHTpOnbHOM HpOBepKe ~ CODep*HT TO~EKO OrpaH~HeHHbIe HpeDH~CaHM~ B OTHOIlleHlIlI II0,~03peBaeMOrO HapyIIIeHMH.12 c 198 1 ro,Qa Ka~Me rIsTb ~eT HIpOBO,~TCH KOHtepeHUHM IIO paCCMOTpeHHIO COCTORHHR 11 IlpOrpeCCa B paMKax lorosopa. B l986 ro~y BTopan peBl13110HHaR KoHtePeHUHR ~p~Hnna p~ Mep no yKpenneHum ~osepus, sm~oqan 06MeHb! MHtOpMaU~eH O0 HaUMOH=bHbIM B03MO*HOCTHM ~ ~eUCTBH~M B ctepax, csa3aHHb~x c KoHseHunen rIo 6noJIor~qecK~M sn~aM opy*~. B 1991 ro~y TpeTb~ pes~3~0HHa~ KOH~epeHUHR D06aBH~a DOHO~H~Te~bHbIe MepbI. ~epEHeHb Mep, Hp~H~Tb~ B 1986 ~ 1991 rr., MO)KHO BH~eTb BO Bpe3Ke 1- l. TpeTb~ peBH3HOHHaH KOHtepeHUHR TaK~e C03~aHa Me~yHapo~Hy~o rpyIIIly TeXHHHeCKHX CHeUM=HCTOB B ue~nx ~3yqeHun HayqHo-TexH~ec~x B03MO*HOCTeM ,~S! KOHTpO~bHOH HpOBepKH KOHBeHUHM O 6HOROrMHeCKHX BMDaX Opy*~. ~ 3 Ha cocTonHne cepe~nHbI 1997 ro~a qpe3sbIqa~iHan rpyIIIla, B KOTOpOlI MOr~H Up~HUMaTb yqaCTlIe BCe yHaCTBylOIUMe B ~OrOBOpe CTpaHM, HaH=a HeperOBOpbI O HpOTOKO~e O IOpH~HMeCKH 06~3aTe~bHOH KOHTpORbHOH nposepKe. ~OCTH*eHHe WHpOKOrO KOHCeHCyCa OTHOClITeJlbHO yKpeIIJIeHH~ Me~yHapO~HOrO pe*HMa B 3TOH OTBeTCTBeHHOH 06RaCTH 3aTpy0HHeTCH p~OM taKTOpOB, He HOCRe~H~M cpe~ KOTOpbIX RB~eTCH r~y60Ko yKopeH~sIIIeecn He~osepne Me~y cTpaHaMn 3ar~a~a ~ Poccne~i B OTHOIIIeHIllI DeUCTBMM, Kacalo~MxcH 6Ho~or~HecKHx BM~OB Opy*~. (OCHOBHble BOUpOCbI, Kaca~HecH PoccHM, o6cy~aloTcH B c~e~y~eM pa3~e~e). TaM ~ce, CTp 133-138. B cny~ae Ilo`Ro3peBaeMoro HapymeH - , cTpa~Ha' nB=IOIUa=CH y'IaCTBylO~eH CTOpOHOU KoHBeHU-U--U-, MO~CeT ^~qmY~r~r~ ~2O Yr~l~rUlTT~T~lTTUP.li;; k' ~.Tt1~M-W~CT~U]~3M KOHBeH0~U U Ope~O~Tb HO~aTh aDOe=UHIo B COBeT vv~xr~A~ ~ ~ ~^ ~ .~ ^ ~~ --r~~~~- J 6e3or~acHocTu 06~e,quHeHHbIx Hanuu. ,D;aH,qo M. P. u IIupcoH F. C. 1997 rou. ~IeTsepTa~ pesn3uoHHa~ KoHepeHUum r~o KoHseHUnn o 6~o~oru~ecKnx BOlIpOChI, pe3y~bTaTM U He3aBepmeHHoe De~o. "nO~UmUKC ~au- Cau-. ~ 16: 1 18-120. lI TOKClIHHBIX BU~a~ Opy~: 15

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BPE3KA 1-1 MePLI HO YKPe~eH~O ,AOBeP=, BIP~Tbie Ha BTOPOM ~ TPeTLeM PeBM3~0HHb]X KoH`pepe~x Rio KoHseH~ o 6uo~or~qecKmx s~,a,ax opt (1986 ~ 1991) A. 06MeH cse,reHnsMn o Hay~Ho-ncc~e~osaTe~bcKnx neHTpax ~ ~a6opaTopn~x: 06MeH cseaeHnsM~, sKn~o~a~omuMn Ha3saHne, MecTo Haxo~eHnn, ctepy ~ o6mee or~ncaHne ~enTe~bHocTu, no Hay~Ho- MCCDeDOBaTe~bCK~M ~eHTpaM ~ ~a60paTopH9M, KOTOpble COOTBeTCTBy~T Hpe3BbIHa~HO BbICOK~M HaUMOHa~bHbIM ~H Me~yHapOAH~M CTaHDapTaM 6e30HaCHoCTH, yCTaHOB~eHHbIM B OTHO~eHHM pa60Tb! (B upeDycMoTpeHHb~x ne~Rx) C HpeDCTaB=K)~HMM BbICOKHM pack ~SI OT~e~bHb1X ~HU ~ 06~eCTBa 6llo~orM~ecK~MM MaTepHaHaMM, ~H KOTOpble cHeUMaHM3MpyI0TcH B Hpe~yCMOTpeHHOM 6HoRorMMecKoM ~eRTeRbHOCTH, HeDIOCPe0CTBeHHO CBS3aHHOH C KOHBeHUMeM (1986 rOQ). B. 06MeH MHtOpMaUMe~ n0 BCUbl~KaM MHteKUMOHHb1X 3abo~esaHnu ~ aHa~OrM~HbIM HpOMC~eCTBH9M, BbI3BaHHbIM TOKCHHaMM: 06MeH MHtOpMaUMeM n0 BCHM~KaM MH~eKUMOHHb1X 3a60ReBaHHM ~ aHa~OrM~HbIM HpOMC~eCTBH~M, Bbl3BaHHbIM TOKCHHaMM, ~ H0 BCeM H0~06H~M C06bITH~M, KOTOpble C03Da~T BUeHaTReHMe OTKHOHeHHR OT HOpMaDbHO~ CXeMb! B OTHO~eHHM B=a, pa3B~TH~, MeCTa H~H BpeMeHM BBReHHR. IIH~opMaUMS' HpeDOCTaBDHeMaH HO C06bITHaM, KOTOphle oTK~oHsIoTcH OT HOpMbI, 6y'~eT BKrIlOYaTb rIo Mepe ee HpeDOCTaBReHHs,QaHHbIe O BH~e 3a6o~esaHMH' HpH6~3HTe~bHo 3aTpOHyTOM 06~aCTH ~ KO~HeCTBe C~YHaeB (1986 rOR). B. [IOO~PeHMe Or1Y6~HKOBaHMB Pe3Y~bTaTOB ~ CTHMYD~POBaHMe MCrIORb30BaHM~ 3HaHMM: [loompeHne ODy6~HKOBaHHS pe3y~bTaTOB 6no~orn~ecKnx MCC~e~OBaHHM, HeHOCpeDCTBeHHO CBS3aHHbIX C KoHBeHuMeH' B HaylIHbIX ~cypHa~ax' KOTOpbIe o6lue'RocTyr1HbI ,~ yYaCTBylO~nX CTpaH, a TaK~Ce CTHMy~MpOBaHHe McHo~b3oBaHHR B Ilpe,lyCMOTpeHHbIX ue~Rx 3HaHHH, rIO~ylIeHHbIX B 3TOM MCC~e,lOBaHHM (1986 rOD). ~. AKTHBHoe CO,lenCTBMe ycTaHoBReHnIo KOHTaKTOB: AKTHBHoe CO,Qe~CTBMe yCTaHOBReHHIO KOHTaKTOB Me~Y Y~eHbIMM, DPYr~MM CrIeUHaRMCTaMM ~ 06~eKTaMM, YHaCTBY1O~HMM B 6~0~0rM~eCKHX MCCRe,lOBaHH~X, HerIocpe'QcTBeHHo CBH3aHHbIX C KoHBeHUMeH' BKnIoHaR o6MeHbI ~ BM3HTbI B paMKaX COBMeCTHbIX MCC~eROBaHHM H0 B3aMMHOMY COr~aCOBaHHIO (1986 rOR). CrIOCO6bI: B ue~x aKTHBHOrO CO,Qe~fCTBHn Hana~BaHnIO HpOteCCHOHa~bHbIX KOHTaKTOB Me~y y~eHbIMM, COBMeCTHbIMM HpOrpaMMaMM HayqHb1X MCC~e~OBaHM~ ~ Dpyr~MM MepOOpHSTH~MM, HaUpaBReHHbIMM Ha r~pe,qoTspameHne ~H coKpameHne c~y~aes B03H~KHOBeHMS HeOUpeDeReHHOCTH, COMHeHHM ~ H0003peHMM Ha COBePmeHCTBOBaHMe Me~YHaPO0HOrO COTPYQHM`IeCTBa B 06naCTH MnPHOH 6aKTePHOJIOrM~eCKOM (6~0JIOrM~eCKOH) DeRTeRbHOCTH, YHaCTBY]O~He CTPaHbI rIPH3bIBaIOTCH K rIPe~OCTaBJIeHMIO MH+OPMaUMM, B rlpe~eJIax ~orIycT~Moro, rIo rLrIaHosbIM Me~yHapo~HbIM KoH~epeHUn~M, ceM~HapaM, cuMIIo3~yMaM ~JI~ aHaHOrM~HbIM CO6bITH9M, CBR3aHHbIM C 6~0~0rMUeCK~MM MCC~eDOBaHH9MM, HMeIO~HMM HerIOCPe0CTBeHHOe OTHOWeHMe K KOHBeHUMM, ~ rIO DPYr~M BO3MO~CHOCT)RM 06MeHa Y~eHbIMM, COBMeCTHbIMM MCCDe~OBaH~RMM ~H rIpoHuMM MePaMM IIO HaJIa~BaHMIO KOHTaKTOB Me=Y YYeHbIMM, Y\IaCTBY}O~MMM B 6~0JIOrM1IeCKHX MCCRe0OBaHH~X, MMeIO~MX HerIOCPeDCTBeHHOe OTHO~eHHe K KOHBeHUMM (1991 ro,~. ,D. B KaHeCTBe YKa3aHHR MeP' nPeDnPUHaTBIX HMH ~nH sbInonHeHHs KoHseHuHH, yHacTsyloluHe CTPaHbI DO=CHbI 3aRBDBTb O UMe]O1UeMCH Y H~X 3aKOHO0aTe~bCTBe, rIOCTaHOB~eHMM ~H HPOH~X MePaX: a) rIO 3arIpemeHn~o pa3pa60TKlI, IlpOlI3BODCTBa, XpaHeHHR, upno6peTeHn~ mM y~ep*HBaHHS M~KpO6~0~0rMUeCKHX HRM DIPO9MX 6~0JIOrM~eCKHX CPeDCTB, H~H TOKCHHOB, OPY~CHR, 060PY~OBaHMS ~ CPe0CTB ~OCTaBK~, YKaSaHHb1X B CTaTbe I KoHseHuu~, Ha r~pe~e~ax ~x Tepp~Top~ m~ rae-~60 no~ ~x ~op~c~nKu~eu H~H KOHTPOReM; 6) B OTHO~eHMM 3KCHIOPTa ~H MMDIOPTa M~KPOOPraHM3MOB, riaTOreHHbIX ~ HeROBeKa, ~BOTHbIX ~H PaCTeHH0, ~H TOKCHHOB B COOTBeTCTBMM C KOHBeHUMeM; YHaCTBYIO~He CTPaHbI ~O~HbI 3alIOJIHlITb IIpilJIaraeMyX) 0)OpMy ~ ~ AO~HbI 6bITb rOTOBbI H0 3aDpOCy Hpe~OCTaB~Tb KOHMM 3aKOHOB, IIOCTaHOB~eHMM ~H H~CbMeHHbIX HO~pO6HOCTeM HpOY~X Mep B OT~eR H0 BOUpOCaM pa30py~eHMR 06beanHeHHbIx Haunn mn KOHKpeTHO~ yHacTBylo~eH cTpaHe. E~cero'~Ho yHacTsylo~He CTpaHb! RO=CHbI yKa3bIBaTb, TaK~Ce B Hp~araeMO~ ~OpMe, O HaB~q~H ~H OTCyTCTBHM KaKHX-~60 HOOpaBOK B MX 3aKoHo,qaTe~bcTse, rIocTaHos~eHn~x mn ,qpyrux Mepax (1991 rou). E. B lIHTepecax IloBbIIlIeHMR TpaHcHapeHTHocTH ~ OTKPbITOCTH YHaCTBY}O1UHe CTPaHbI ~O~KHbI 06,baBuTb O TOM, rIpoBo`~Hcb JlM MMM, ~H HeT, B rIepHo,~ C 1 RHBaPH 1946 ro~a KaK~e-~60 r~porpa Pa3Pa60TOK ~ HaYYHbIX MCCReDOBaHHM B OTHO11IeHHM 6~0JIOrHHeCKHX CPe~CTB HaCTYIIaTenbHOrO ~H o6opoHuTe~bHoro xapaKTepa. ECJIM IIpOBO~HCb, YYaCTBYK)IIlHe cTpaHbI'~o~HbI rIpe,QOCTaBuTb MH$OPMaUHIO H0 TaK~M HPOrPaMMaM B COOTBeTCTBMM C 4>OpMOh E (1991 ro~. *. ,jJIS ~anbHehmero HOBbI~eHHR TpaHCHapeHTHOCTH 6no~ornYecKnx MCC~eDOBaHM~ ~ pa3pa60ToK, HMe1O~MX OTHOWeHHe K KOHBeHUHM, ~ =H PaC~MPeHMB HaY~HO-TeXHRYeCKHX 3HaHH~, KaK COr~aCOBaHO B cTaTbe x, Ka~aH yHaCTBylO~aH CTPaHa 3aRB~T 060 BCeX 06beKTaX' KaK rOCy,QapCTBeHHbIX, TaK ~ HerOCY~aPCTBeHH~X, HaXODR~MXCH B rlpeDeJIax ee TeppuTopHM ~ r,le-~60 rIo,~ ee lop~c,~HKuMeH mn KOHTPOReM, KOTOPMe 3aH~MaIOTCH rIpoH3BoDcTBoM BaKUHH rIO B~UeH3~H YHaCTBY}O~eM CTPaHbI ~ 3a~HTM RIo,QeH. IIH~opMauHn Do~cHa 6bITb rIpeDcTaB~eHa B HP~araeMOM OOPMe ~ (1991 rou). 16

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~OHO~H~ CTaTb~ }~} KOHBeHUMM O 6~0~0rHYeCKHX BHAaX Op~H, KOTOpaR SaUpe~aeT nepe,QalIy H3~RenHH H~H noMoluB KaKoMy-nH6o rocy'~apcTBy' rpynne rocy,QapcTB HJIH Me~yHapO,JHbIM opraHH3auH~M B HapyllleHHe KOHBeHLtHH 0 6HonorHtlecKHx BH,QaX Opy:KHR, MHOrHe rocy,lapcTsa BBenH B DeHCTBHe nOCTaHOb~eHHn o HaL\HOHanbHOM 3KCnOpTHOM KOHTpOne. ~bITaRcb rapMOHH3HpOBaTb 3TH nOCTaHOBReHH~, OKOnO 30 rocyDapcTB o6~e'~HHH~Hcb B HeotHL\Ha~bHbIH KOOp,QHHHpylOIUHH MeXaHH3M, H3BeCTHblH noD Ha3BaHHeM ABcTpa'THHcKaR rpynna. 9ToH rpynnoH 6bI3IH COCTabaeHbI CnHCKH MHKpOOpraHH3MOB H TOKCHHOB, a TaK~Ke o6opy,JoBaHH~R~ KoTopbIe MOryT HcHo3Ib3oBaTbcsI ,~5E 6Ho~orHHecKHx BH,lOB Opy'RHR. 3TH CnHCKH npe,lHa3HalIeHbI B nOMO~b no onpe'~eJleHHlo pellleHHH ee HOB B OTHOmeHHH HauHoHanbHoro 3KCnOpTHOrO KOHTpO=. (CnHCKH npHBe,leHbI B ~pHnO;KeHHH E). 14 ,~[eHCTBHn, cocpe,loToHeHHbIe Ha OT,le~bHblX CTpaHaX, Rb~lOTCH e~e O~HOH HaCTb}O Me~yHapO,QHbrX yCH~HH no npe,Qynpe~eHHlo H~H pearHpOBaHH}O Ha pacHpocTpaHeHHe 6Ho~orHHecKHx BH,lOB Opy~CHR. B HacTon~ee BpeMa, OCHOBHbIM npHMepOM AeHCTBHs, CneDHanbHO Hanpab~eHHoro Ha OT,Qe~bHylO CTpaHy, Rb~aeTCH ~paK, KOTOpbIH OCTaeTCH cy6~eKToM, Ha KOTOpbIH BC~e,QCTBHe pacKpbITbEx noc~e BOHHbI B ~epCH,QCKOM 3anHBe nonbIToK co3~QaHHR HM ~epHoro H - ononorn~ecKoro Opy*ll~ HaDpaMeHbI cTporne CaHKUHM ~ HeOpepbIBHbIe MHCHe~H, Hp~MeHHeMbIe 0613eDHHeHHbIMH HaUH~MH.15 COe~HHeHHbIe ~TaTbI AMepHKH TaK*e Bbl6pa8H npo~He KOHKpeTHble cTpaHbI B KaHeCTBe o6beKToB ,~ CBOHX HHHUHaTHB, Hanpab~eHHbrX npOTHB pacHpocTpaHeHHs! ~ H CTpeMaTCH K COTpy,QHH~eCTBy co CBOHMH coIo3HHKaMH ~ OrpaHHHeHHn DocTyna 3THX CTpaH K Op~KH~ MaCCOBOrO yHH~TO*eHHS ~ MX Cpe~CTB ~OCTaB~.16 OCOBOE PACCMOWEHME POCCHM Pocc~ r~pe~cTas~eT ~n CoeanHeHHbIx ~TaTos AMep~Ku ocoGy~o o3a6o~eHHocTb KaK o6 HcTo~HHKe pacnpocTpaHeHHn. noc~e pacna~a COBeTCKOrO C0103a B 1991 rO~Y POCCMB YHaC~e~OBaBa 60J[blilylO ~aCTb 06WHpHOrO COBeTCKOrO BOeHHOrO annapaTa. OcTasmaacn HaCTb npesb~maeT HMeToluHecil y POCCHH B03MO)KHOCTH no ee IlO,~ep)KaHH10 H 06C~y)KHBaHH10; 3Ta Hpe3MepHaR MOlUb yCHJIHBaeT 03a60lIeHHOCTb B OTHOIIleHHH paCnpOCTpaHeHHSI OnaCHbrX MaTepHanOB, 060pyD0BaHH51, TeXHHHeCKHX,QaHHbIX H TeXHOJIOrHH ''HOy-xAy''. Henocpe~cTseHHb~e nocneacTsHn pacna~a CoBeTcKoro C0~03a npHKosa~H sHHMaHHe CWA K 6e3onacHocTH H COXpaHHOCTH coBeTcKoro ~epHoro Opy)KHR. B OTBeT Ha HHX, B 1991 rO~Y, KOHrPeCC npHH~1 3aKOH O COKpalUeHHH COBeTCKOH S~epHOH yrpo3b~ (HaCTO HMeHyeMb1H ~HHUHaTHBOH HaHHa JIyrapa) ~a o6ecnelIeHHs OCHOBbI ,Z~S[ aMepHKaHCKOrO COTpy,DHH`leCTBa CO CTpaHaMH 6bIBlllero CoseTcKoro C0~03a. Ero OCHOBHbIe UelIH 3aK}llO'Ia)lHCb B IIpe,IloTBpalueHHH paCnpOCTpaHeHHSI OIIaCHbIX H IIOTeHUHalIbHO OIIaCHbEX H3,Qe~HH H TeXHOHOrHH H3 KOMn~eKCa sLlIepHoro Boopy~ceHH5I 6blBlllerO COBeTCKOrO COK)3a ~ B CO,Qe~CTBHM BbIHO~HeHMIO COr~a~eHHM O COKpalUeHnH BOOP~KeHMH. nocne~y~o~Tran nporpaMMa no cosMecTHoMy cHH:KeHH~o yrpo3b~ no~ pyKOBO,QCTBOM MHHHcTepcTBa 060pOHbl C~A, 6bma pa3pa6oTaHa B Ue~x orpaHHqeHH51 B03MO]KHOCTH pacOpocTpaHeHH51 KaK BOOpy)KeHH5I' TaK H TexHHHecKHx cneuHanHcToB. TaKHM 06pa30M, ,QonolIHHTeJIbHo K nporpaMMaM no 3alUHTe BOOpy]KeHHsI H MaTepHa~OB, nporpaMMa no coBMecTHoMy cHH:KeHHIo yrpo3bI npe~ocTasuna nepBoHaHaRbHoe ~HHaHCHpOBaHHe MHT~ B Ka`leCTBe Cpe,QCTB ~ nepeOpHeHTHpOBaHHS 6blB~HX yyeHbIx H HH)KeHepOB B 06JlaCTH BOOpy)KeHHS Ha HoBbIe MHpHbIe HCCne,QOBaTe~lbCKHe 3a,QaXH H L~SI r~o ~ep;KaHnn nHTepecos CWA B 06~aCTH HepaCHpOCTpaHeHMSI. ~ 7 ABcTpaQu~cKaH rpyr~na 6bma n3Ha~anbHo co3~aHa,~M cr~oco6cTsosaHm pa3s~Tn~o coo6pa3Horo 3Kcr~opTHoro ne.rvnUnc)BaH~ B OTHOlIIeHHlI XlIMlItIeCKOrO Op~K~; B 1990 ro,qy ABcTpaJIH~cKasI rpyrIIIa paclImpma c4?epy csoe~i r--~---- ~ ,leRTeABHOCTH, BKJIlO~HB Ty~Ra BOIIpOCbI, KaCalOIUlIeCSI 6Ho~or~HecKHx B=OB Opy]K=. IIpaKoM y:Ke 6~mo paspaboTaHo ~ upuMeH~nocB x~MmecKoe opy~e KaK B xo,re ero BO~HM C [ipaHOM B KOHUe 1980-x roBoB. TaK ~ Ha CBO~X co6cTBeHHLIx rpa~aHax. Iloc~e BOnHM B ~MBe HpaKCKaST HpOpaMMa X~M~eCKOrO . . , opy~ 6~ma BKDIoHeHa B CaHKUHM OOH. CM, HarIpuMep' fIepp~ Y. ,l~K, M~H~CTP 060poHu. 1996 rou. E:7fCeBOdHb!U omllem npe3udeumy u Kouepeccy. Bam~HrroH, oKpyr KOJIYM6~: TurIorpa~ r~pas~Te~bcTsa CIIIA, CTP. 53-59. HaL~noHaJI~Hu}~ coseT IIo HayqHuM ncc~e~osaH~M. 1996 ro,~. OqeuKa Me;,fcdynapoduo~o nay~no-mexHuz~ec~co~o geHmpa. Bam~HrroH, OKpyr KO~YM6~: II=aTenbcTso AKa~eMnn HayK. 17

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- $- - ~r ~ ' ~ ~bIB~aR COBeTCKaH HpOrpaMMa B 06~aCTH 6~0~0rHHeCKOrO BOOpy~eHMB TaK*e sbI3bIsana o3abo~eHHocT~ y Me~yHapo~Horo coo6~uecTsa. B 1992 rosy Cocci r~p~3Ha~a, HTO COBeTCKlIl1 COIO3 HpOBO~ HpOrpaMMy HO 6~0~0rHHeCK~M BH~aM Optic, BE ~CTBHR, Hapymammne KOHBeHUMIO O 6no~orn~ecKnx Blat opt, TeM CaMbIM no~Tsep~an ~asHne pet 3anaaa.~8 B MoMeHT csoero Ky~bM~HaunoHHoro pa3suT~ Hay~HbIe MCC~e,JOBaHMR ~ pa3pa6oTKH ~ BB=Io~HecH COCTaBHOH HacTbIo COBeTCKOM HpOrpaMMbI, no~ep*nsan~ OCHOBHbIe MCCReDOBaHH~, HpOBO~HMbIe KaK BOeHHbIMM, TaK ~ HeBOeHH~MM OpraHH3aUH~MM, B ue~x o6ecHeHeHH~ Hat ~yHDaMeHTa~bHbIx TeopeTHlIecKHx 3HaHHM ~ crIeuHa~bHbIx 3HaHMH; rIo,~ep*HBanH ceTb crIeuHa~3MpoBaHHbIx Hay~HO-HCC~e,QOBaTe~bCKHX ripe'lUpHsTHM ~ KOMrI~eKC 6HouperIapaT , KOTOpbIn HeC oTBeTcTBeHHocTb 3a Hay~HbIe MccRe'~oBaHHR ~ rIpon3Bo'lcTBo Cpe~CTB B 06~aCTH BOOp~eHH~, a TaK*e 3a pa3pa6oTKy ~ IIpOH3BO,QCTBO BaKunH ~ ,Qpyr~x Mep o6opoHHoro xapaKTepa; a TaK*e 06C~y:K~BaBn rIpOn3BO'lCTBeHHbIe ~ MCC~e,QOBaTe~bCKne Hpe'~DIpH~TH~ CTpOrOH CeKpeTHOCTH B CTpyKType M~HUCTepCTBa 060pOHbI, O KOTOpb1X CpaBHUTe~bHO Ma~O H3BeCTHo.~9 Bo spe3Kax c 1-2 H0 1-4 HepeH~CRH~TCH BbI6paHHbIe ~pe~eHH~ M~HUCTepCTBa 060pOHbI, ''li~oIIpeIIapaTa'' ~ Ipa~aHcKne opraH~3aun~. Bpe3Ka 1-2 Yqpe~,eH~R M~ICTepCTBa 060pOHb! C Mporpa~a~ 6~o~o~qecK~ Ha~ nCc~e`~'oBa . . HayqHO-HCC~e~OBaTe~bCKHM MHCTHTyT M~Kpo6no~ornn, ~pOBa B~pyco~or~qecKn~i HeHTp, Ceprnes Hoca~a ~eHTp BOeHHO-TeXHMUeCKHX upo6~eM 6no~orn~ecKoH Sa~HTbI, EKaTeplIH6ypr 2. HaylIHO-HCCJIe,QOBaTeJIbCKHM MHCTHTyT BOeHHOM Me,~HLIMHbI, CaHKT-[IeTep6ypr 3AMETIAH[IE: 3a OH~CaHMeM DeRTe~bHOCTH 3T~X MHCTHT~OB o6paTHTecb B p~MM~HrToH A. 1996 rO~. OT BOeHHOrO KOM~eKCa K upOMbI~eHHOMy? KoHBepcHn Hpe~rIpHsTHM no rIpOMaBODCTBy 6Ho~orMUecKHx B~OB opy~H Ha TeppuTopHn POCCH~CKOM ~e,QepaUHH. ``KoHmeMn. CeKa~opumu nonucu 17: 80-112. HacTBoBan B cHMrIoSHyMe MHTLI, KOTOpblM HpOBORmCH B 1996 rO~Y B ~OKpOBe. [ICTO~H~K: o6cy~eHHn KOMuTeTa B poccHH, 1997 rOQ. ~8 XaHrep II. 1996 ro~. Ynpovuenue Konsenuuu o 6uo~o~u~ecKux euda~c opy~cu~: ~q~ove-ab~e MoMeumb' Yem-sepmou pe~su3uonuou KOHepeNU,UU, rIMpCOH [. C. ~,jaH~O M. P., pe~. ~(eHesa: KsaKepcKnn onc IIpu OOH, CTP. 84. CM. TaK)Ke TeKCT MHTepBBlO C reHepanOM AHaTOnMeM KyHUeB~YeM B POCCUUCKUX Becm~x 3a 22 CeHR6PH 1992 ro~a ~ FBIS- SOV 92 186 3a 24 CeHTH6PH 1992 ro~a. CM. TaK)Ke TeKCT MHTepBBlO C Ope3~eHTOM ~Op~COM ~bUHH~M B POCCUUVCKUX Becm~x 3a 27 MaH 1992 ro~a ~ FBIS-SOV-92-103 3a 27 MaH 1992 ro~a. P~MM~HrTOH A. 1996 ro~. OT BOeHHOrO KOM=eKCa K IlPOMMIIIJIeHHOMY? KOHBePCMR TIPe,LIIP~THI! IIO HpOM3BO~CTBy 6~0~0~HeCKHX B~OB Opy~ Ha Tepp~TOpHM POCCHUCKOH ~e~epaUMH. KoHmeMn. ceKampumu llo~ucu 17: 80. HeO6XO~MMO OTMeTHT5, HTO Y HPaB~Te~bCTBa C~AMO*HO HO~HTB OrPaHM~eHHY~ HeCeKPeTHY1O MH+OPMaUHIO B OTHOWeHMM Pa3MePOB ~ ~eRTe~bHOCTH COBeTCKOrO KOMIL1eKCa IIO IIPOM3BO~CTBY ~ HaYYHbIM MCC~e~OBaH~M 6HOHOrHYeCKHX B~OB OPY~C=. 18

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Bpe3Ka 1-3 Ba6paHHb~e MHC~nY~I ~ HPe,~P-TIER "I;MOMPeHaPaTa" C BO3MO~OCTHMB, MMe]O~MM OTHOmeHMe K OIIaCHbIM naTOreHaM, KOTOPbIe B~Pa3~ CBO1O 3aBHTePeCOBaHHOCTb B Me~HapO~HOM COTpy~eCTBe ~HO-MCCRe~OBaTe~bCKHe MHCTHTyTb! . . [OCy~apCTBeHHblM Hay~HblM HeHTp B~pyCO~OrMM ~ 6noTexHo~or~n "BEKTOP", Ko1lbL~ogo a, 6, B. r [OCy~apCTBeHHblM Hay~HbIM lleHTp HpH=a~HOM M~Kpo6no~or~n, 060JIeHCK a, 6, B. r IIHCTHTYT MH~CeHePHOl] MMMYHO~OrMM, JI1O6YqaHbI 6, B. r [OCy~apCTBeHHblM Hay~HO-MCCRe~OBaTe~bCKHM MHCTHTyT 6uo~or~ecKoro IIPH60POCTPOeHMS, MOCKBa 6, B. r [IHCTHTYT oco60 H~CTb1X 6HonpenapaToB, CaHKT-IIeTep6ypr r Focy~apcTseHHbIN HIIII 6HoRor~HecKoro OpOn3BO,QCTBa, MOCKBa r HayqHO-HCC~e~OBaTe~bCKHM HpOeKTHbIM MHCTHTyT 6noTexHo~orn~ecKon lIH,ZI;yCTpilil, liHoTlIH , KIIPOB B' ~ 2. HayqHb~e ~n rIpon3so,qcTseHHb~e KoM~eKcbI . . . HayqHa5I 3KClIepilMeHTaJIbHO-lIpOMbIIILJIeHHa5I 6a3a7 OMYTH~HCK B, r' 3aBo,D; 6HoRorHHecKHx OpeHapaToB, IIOKpOB B KOMIIJleKC lIHCTlITyTa Hay~HOrO HpOeKTHpOBaHH~ ~ 3aso~a 6~onpenapaTos, ~ep~CK ~ 3AME~IAHlIE: IICTOqH~KH MHtOpMaUMM O 3a5IB~eHHOM MHTepeCe 60~b~MHCTBa 3T~X y~pe~C,D;eHHM OTHeTbI MHTLt O CHMH03MyMaX B K~pOBe ~ IIOKpOBe ~ HeCeKpeTHbIe KpaTKHe OH~CaHHS Hpep;~o~eHHM, Hpe,QCTaB~eHHbIX B MHTLt. B nIoHe 1997 ro~a ~o~cHocTHbIe nnua "~nonperIapaTa n3secT~u KoMuTeT O TOM, HTO B ero KoMrmeKce HacHnTbIsaeTcn 47 rIpeQnpn~TuM, B TOM Hnc~e 1l Hay~Ho- MCC~eDOBaTe~bCKHX MHCTHTyTOB. MHor~e He HepeH~C~eHHbIe BbI~e Hpe~UpH~TH~ HeCOMHeHHO 3aNHTePeCOBaHbI B Me~YHaPO,QHOM COTPY0HM~eCTBe, HO MX BO3MO~CHOCTH, CBH3aHHbIe C OIIaCHbIMM IIaTOreHaMM, KOM~TeTy HeM3BeCTHbI. YYaCTBOBa~ B 3KCHeP~MeHTa~bHbIX HPOeKTaX, OPraHM30BaHHbIX HAH. ~IneH pa60HeH rpynDbI 6HorIperIapaTa rIo'1ByxcTopoHHeMy COTpy,QHMMeCTBy. YHaCTH~K ~H 3KCrIOHeHT Me~YHaPO,QHOrO CHMIIO3HYMa B IlOKPOBe (1996 ro,~) ~H B KUPOBe (1997 ro,~. [IPe=O~CeHMS, OTOCRaHHbIe B MHTLI. YKa3aHMe Ha MHTePeC, HeO~Ha~bHO rIePe,QaHHbI~f B HAH. 6 B r 19

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Bpe3Ka 1-4 Bbl6paHHbIe pocc~cKMe rpa~aHcKMe yqpe~eH~q' MMeIo~e OMbIT B 06~aCTM OMaCHbIX IIaTOreHOB ~ CBR3M C 6bIBm~ CIIe~a~CTaMB B outacts 6~o~or~qecK~ B=OB Opy~, II KOTOpbIe BbIpa3~ CBOIO 3aIIHTepeCOBaHHOCTb B Me~HapO,ZlHOM COTpy,Z~I~qeCTBe M~H~CTepCTBO Sp;paBooXPaHeHMSI, B TOM quickie POCCH~CKaH aKa,QeMM~ Me,Zl;~HHCKHX HayK UeHTpa~bHbIM HayqHO-HCC~e~OBaTe~bC~H MHCTHTyT 3~meM~o~or~, MOCKBa a, 6 [IHCTIITYT BlIpyCOJIOrilil lIM. [IBaHOBCKOrO, MOCKBa a~ 6~ B~ r [IHCTHTYT 3~eMMO~OrMM ~ M~KpO6~0~0rMM MM. [aMa~eH, MOCKBa 6, r iIHCTHTyT ITO~HOMMe~HTa ~ B~pyCHbIX 3HUe4?alI~TOB MM. {IyMaKOBa, MOCKBa r ~OCy,QapCTBeHHbl~ HayYHO-HCC~eDOBaTeRbCKHM MHCTHTyT CTaH,QapTH3aUHM KOHTpOR~ Me,0HUHHCKHX 6~0JIOr~qeCKHX HpeHapTOB MM. TapaCeBMMa, MocKBa a, 6 I IHCTHTYT MMMyHOnOrMM, MocKBa Me,D;HUHHCKaSI aKa,QeMM51 MM. Ce~eHosa, MocKBar Hay~Ho-Hcc~e,QoBaTe~bcKHn MHCTHTyT BaKUHH ~ CbIBOpOTOK, caHKT [leTep6ypr6 Hay~HO-MCCRe~OBaTeRbCKHM UeHTp TOKCHKO~OrMM ~ CaH~TapHOrO Ha~aopa, CeprIyxos6 HayqHO-HCCRe~OBaTe~bCKHM HpOTHBO~yMHbIM MHCTHTyT, CaPaTOBr, HayqHO-HCC~eDOBaTe~bCKHM HpOTHBO~yMHbIM MHCTHTyT, CTaBpOHO~br, 2 Pocc~pcKa5~ aKa,qeMM51 HayK I IHCTHTYT 6~00praHHHeCKOM X~MMM, MocKBa B [IHCTHTYT 6HoRorMM reHa' MocKBa6 [IHCTHTYT o6~e~f reHeT~K~, MocKBa 6 3. M~HucTepcTBo Ce~bCKOrO X0351HCTBa, B TOM H~cne AKa'~eMM~ ceRbcKoxo3~HcTBeHHbIx HayK 4. {IpoHHe BcepoccHucKHM HayqHO-MCC~e,QOBaTe~bCKHM MHCTHTyT Sa~HTb! ~CHBOTHbIX, BJIarQHM~pa BcepoccHucKnIi Hay~HO-HCCne,lOBaTe~bCKHn MHCTHTyT BeTep~HapHbIX rIpeIIapaTosa BO~rO-B9TCKHM UeHTp Hp~K~a~HOH 6~oTexHo~orn~, ~pOBa, E;~HCKHM OReyMHbIM 3aBO,Q, ARTaMCKHM KpaH6 Hay~HO-TeXHHHeCKHM UeHTp JIeK6~0TeX 6 ~HHOBaUMOHHbIM 6~oTexHo~or~ecK~ UeHTP, Cep~yxos6 3AME~AHIIE: 9ToT nepeHeHb He rIpeTeH~yeT Ha CBOlO HO~HOTy, HO OCBe~aeT 60~b~MHCTBO BOSMO~CHOCTeH, MMelO~MX OTHOWeHMe K ~nuquamuee ~ o6~acmu namocenoe. YHaCTH~K ~H :3KCHOHeHT Me~yHapO,ZlHOrO CHMH03HyMa B I]OKpOBe (1996 ro,~) ~ B K~pOBe (1997 ro~. 6 1lpeP;~O~CeHMSI, OTOCRaHHMe B MHTIl. Be~yma~ pO~b B Hpe,Z[b~y~MX, HpOBOp;HMb1X C HAH r~poeKTax, css3aHHux c or~acHb~Mn aToreHaMu. ~JIeH pa6olIe~ rpyIIrIbI ' liHonpeIlapaTa rIo ,QByXCTOpOHHeMy COTpy,QHH`IeCTBy ~H yHaCTH~K rIeperOBOpOB B [IelpOBO-p;aJIbHeM (1997 ro~. I,IHTepeC, HeO~HUMa~bHO Hepe,ZlaHHMM B HAH. B 1992 ro,qy poccn~cKn~i IIpe3~eHT E~bUHH H3~aJI AfKa3q B KOTOPOM 3aRB~OCb. HTO _ . , ~ , BCe HeSaKOHHMe De~CTBMR 6bMM HpeKpameHu, ~ 6y~ymaH pa6oTa B Hapy~eHMe KOHBeHUMM O 6~0~0rMUeCKHX BHDaX Opy*~H 6b~a 3aDpe~eHa.20 HeCMOTpH Ha 3T0 3aH=eHHe, POCCH~CKOe HpaB~Te~bCTBO 6b~0 He B COCTORHHM y6e~HTB COeD~HeHHMe ~TaTb! AMep~KH B TOM, HTO POCCHSI B HaCTORIUee BpeMs HO~HOCTb~ C06~10DaeT CBOH DOrOBOpHMe 0693aTe~bCTBa. B ceHTn6pe 1992 ro~a Coe~HeHHue ~TaTb~ AMep~K~, Be~Ko6p~TaH~ ~ Pocc~n o~II~can~ cosMecTHoe 3ansneHne 0 co3~aHn~ MexaH~3Ma ~n pa3pemeH~n 3aTaHysm~xcn ~OCORbCTBO POCCH~CKOM Oe~epaUHM, BaW~H=OH, OKpyr Ko~6~. 1992 ro~. YK~ OPe3=eHTa POCCH~CKOH (~)e~epaUHM OT 1 1 arIpe~ 1992 roua (No390); ~ p~MM~HrToH, BbI6. UlIT., CTp. 80. 20

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BOUpOCOB ~ ~eMOHCTpaUHM 060pOHHOrO XapaKTepa OCTaB~e~CH YaCTH pOCCHUC~X BOeHHb[X BOSMO*HOCTeM B outacts 6HoRorHHecKoro op~.2~ Locke HepBb~ BSaHMHb1X BH3HTOB Ha Bbl6paHHble 06~eKTbI B Ka=OH HS TpeX CTpaH, HpaB~Te~bCTBa 6b~H He B COCTO~HHM BbIpa60TaTb HpHeM~eMble DOrOBOpeHHOCTH B OTHO~eHHM thee 06~HpHb[X B3aHMHb1X BH3HTOB H~H MHCHeKUMM. POCCHUCKOe HpaBUTe~bCTBO yTBep~a~O, HTO upouecc ~o~*eH TaK*e MCHO~bSOBaTbCR B ue~nx uposepK~ saKoHHocT~ uporpaMM CWA ~ Be~Ko6p~TaHnn. CCb~aBCb Ha OTCYTCTBMe ~OKaSaTeRbCTB KaKoro-~6o HeC06~DeHH~ CO CTOPOHb! C~A n~n Be~HKO6P~TaHMM, HPaB~TeRbCTBa ST~X ~BYX CTPaH OTBePr~H STOT ~OBO~, HaCTaMBaH Ha TOM, HTO pemeHHe sonpoca poccHucKoro co6~Io,leHHn RB=eTCH e,1nHCTBeHHOn ~e~blo C~A B ~pose~eHnn TpexcTopoHHero r~pouecca. TpexcTopoHHnn upouecc HpO,lO~aeT OCTaBaTbC~ B TYH~Ke, 3aBH3HYB BO B3aHMHOM H0~03PeHHM ~ BCTPe~Hb1X 06B~HeHH~X.22 nOSTOMY, B ~eKa6Pe 1996 ro~a ~npeKTop AreHTcTsa no pa30py~eHn~o ~ KOHTPO~IO 3a BOOPY)KeHHeM r-H XO~YM 3aRBH~ Ha ~eTBepTOM peBH3~0HHOM KOHtepeHUMM no KOHBeHUMM O 6HoRornHecKmx BHDaX Op~ll9, HTO DeMOHCTpaUM~ HO~HOrO MCKOpeHeHM~ 3TOM [COBeTCKOH] UpO~aMMM BCe eme OCTaeTCH UpO6~eMaTHUHOM .23 ~Me~aRCH HeyBepeHHOCTb ~OHORH~TeREHO HO~KpeH=eTCH ODH~M TORbKO pa3MepOM 6usmero COBeTCKOrO KOMU~eKCa 6no~orn~ecKoro BOOpy~eHHR. HanpuMep, no HMe~MMCH OUeHKaM, B KOHUe 1 970-~n ro~os linonper~apaT o6~e,~nHs~n 50 r~pon3so,qcTseHHb~x ~ HayyHo-Mcc~e'~oBaTe~BcKHx ~ IlpoeKTHbIx rIpe,QIlpH~THn, ~ YnC~eHHOCTb ero COTpy,JH~KOB cocTas~a 100000 HenoseK.24 OHHaHcosoe no~ep~aHMe "}iHonpenapaTa" ~ ,lpyr~x HpeDUpHSTHM HpeDCTaBRReTCH Tpy~H~M =H PoccHM, BHe 3aB~CHMOCTH OT HpeDyCMOTpeHHOrO Ha3HaHeHHR ST~X 06~eKTOB B HacToR~ee BpeMH. MHorMe aneMeHTM sToro KoMn~eKca Bce e~e Cy~eCTByK)T B TeX H~H MHbIX ~OpMaX, BbI3bIBaH y 3ana~a cTpax no nOBO~y Toro' HTO OHaCHbIe MaTepHaRbI, 060py~0BaHHe ~ TeXHO~OrH~ HOy-Xay MOryT 6hITB MCHOnBSOBaHEI HeHa~JIe)KaILllIM 06pa30M, lIJIM MO*eT HpOH30HTH MX yTe~Ka K CTOpOHaM, BbI3MBa~HM OHaCeHHR B OTHO~eHHM MX paCHpOCTpaHeHHR. TaK~M 06paS0M, Ba*HEIM aCHeKT HO~HTHKH HepaCHpOCTpaHeHH~ COeD~HeHHEIX ~TaTOB AMep~KH 3a=~HaeTCH B MOTHBaUMM PoccHM HpOM3BeCTH HepeCTpO~Ky CTpyKTypbI HeKOTOpLIX H3 ST~X 06~eKTOB ~ BMHO~HeHH~ Ha H~X pa60TbI B 06~aCTH OHaCHEIX HaTOreHOB B M~pHbIX ~e~x ~ nepecTponTB ~pyrne o6~e MX MCHOnB30BaHH~ B M~pHbIX ue~x, Hecs~3aHH~Ix c onacH~IMn naToreHaMn. HporpaMMa cosMecTHoro cHn~eH~n y~po3~I ~ MHT~ B ~ 994 ro~y pacm~pun~ CBO~ ,Z ;eRTeRBHOCTB, Hpe,Z ;ycMaTp~BaIo~- BKnH)HeHHe 06~eKTOB ~ CHeUHaRMCTOB H3 6hIB~erO KoMn~eKca 6~onorn~ecKoro soopy~eHnn. B nep~o,~ 1996 ~ 1997 rr. pn~ ~pyr~x HpaB~TeRECTBeHHEIX Be,Z;OMCTB C~A HaHaRH BbICKa3bIBaTB 3a~HTepeCOBaHHOCTb B COBMeCTHbIX uporpaMMax c COCTaBH~MM HaCTHMM 6~Ismero COBeTCKOrO KOMU~eKCa 6no~or~ecKoro BOOpy~eHIISI. (3TII IlpOIpaMMbI yKa3aHEI B Ta6JI~ue E- ~ ). TaK*e KaK ~ IIpoeKT~I MHTU, 60~bILI~HCTB0 3T~X MepOllpIISITlII! IIOp~ep*lIBalOT IIepeOpileHTaLIlIX) Hay~IHEIX COTpyL ;H~KOB 11 06~eKTOB 6bIB~erO KOMH~eKCa 6no~orn~ecKoro BOOpy~eHHR Ha pa60Ty, CBH3aHHy ~c focy~apcTseHHun ~erIapTaMeHT CIIIA, cRy;K6a noMomH~Ka ceKpeTapn/ ripe~qcTasHTenn. 1992 ro,1. cosMecTHoe 3aRBReHMe CIIIA, BenHKO6P~TaHHM ~ POCCHM O 6HOnOrHHeCKHX B~aX OPY)K~. 14 CeHTH6PH. ,8;aH~O ~ [IMPCOH, BM6. U~T., CTP 108. AreHTCTBO r~O Pa30PY)KeHHIO ~ KOHTPO~IO 3a BOOPY~CeHHeM CIIIA, Ba~HHrrOH, OKPYr KO~YM6~q. 1996 ro,~. ,JOCTOTIORTeHHMM ,0;]KOH ,D,. XOJIYM, D~PeKTOP, 3aMeYaH~ IIO IIeTBePTOM PeBH3~0HHOM KOH+ePeHL[~H IIO KOHBeHUMM O 6HOROrM~eCKHX B~aX OPY)K~, ~eHeBa, IllBeHuapm, 26 Hon6pn. I~aBa pOCCH~CKOH ~eReraUHn [pHropHM BeP~eHH~KOB 3aRB~ Ha KOHlePeHUHM, HTO POCCH~CKaH Oe,QePaU~ BMHOnHHeT BCe YC~OB~ KOHBeHUMM H~Kor~a He pa3paGaTusaria, He IIpoH3Bo~ma, He HaKarLQHBana ~ He xpaHma 6HoJIormecKHe B=M OPY~" (II3PPHIII C. 1996 rOA. Poccu~ ompu~aem naJ~u~ue y nee 6uo~oeuvec~co~o opy~cu~. "OMP1I Ll;e~H LI;a~KeCT"~ 27 HOH6PR). CM. TaK)Ke AreHTCTBO HO paSopy~ceHM~o ~ KOHTpORIO Sa BOOP~eHHeM C~. 1996 rO~. Ynpae~enue y~posou nocpedcmeoM Koumpo~ sa soopy~cenueM. E'fcecodua~u om~em Kouepeccy. B~frMHrToH, OKp~ KO~YM6~: AreHTCTBO HO Pa3OPY)KeHMIO ~ KOHTPOnIO Sa BOOPY~CeHHeM CIIIA, CTP. 86-87 P~MM~HrTOH, Bbl6. U~T., CTp. 87. OUeHKa OCHOBaHa Ha HepeBeDeHHb1X OTHeTaX H3 pOCCH~CKOH UpeCCb! ~ Ha HpOBeAeHHOM aBTOpOM MHTepBb~ DO~HOCTHb1X nHu 6HOUpeHapaTa . ~O~HOCTHble nHUa '6HO~peHapaTa CO06~HnH KOM~TeTy O TOM, HTO B HaCTOR~ee BpeM~ H~CReHHOCTb MX C~Y*a~MX COCTaBn~eT 40000 RenOBeK, HS KOTOpbIX OKO~O 1000 RBnHIOTCH BbICOKOKBaBMHUMpOBaHHbIMM y~eHbIMM, 06~a~a~HMM CHeUHanH3HpOBaHHbIMM 3HaHlIRMI1 I1 HaBbIKaMlI, lIMelOILIlIMM OTHOIIleHIle K OIIaCHbIM IlaTOreHaM. 21

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peIlleHHeM rpa~aHcKnx 3a,qalI, KOTOpbIe HelIOCpeDCTBeHHO He CBH3aHbI C ODaCHbIMM rIaToreHaMn. BACKHOE 3HAIIEHIIE POCCIIIICKO-AMEPIIKAHCKOrO COTPY,D;HMIIECTBA B OI;J1ACT1I OIIACHEIIX ITATOrEHOB KOM~TeT HPH3HaeT, YTO POCCHR 6Y~eT HPOJO~)KaTB HO~eP*MBaTb UPe0YCMOTPeHHMe HayYHble MCC~eDOBaHH~ B 06HaCTH ODaCHb~ HaTOreHOB, HpH STOM MX 3HaY~Te~bHaR YaCTb 6y,qeT BepO9THO cocpe~oToYeHa Ha o6~eKTax 6bIB~erO COBeTCKOrO KOMHReKCa 6no~or~YecKoro BOOpy)KeHMH. nO MHeHHIO KOM~TeTa, aKTHBHOe yYaCTHe aMep~KaHCKHX CHeUHaHUCTOB B COBMeCTHbIX MCC~e~OBaHM~X, HpOBO~HMbIX Ha ST~X 06~eKTaX, HOC~HT Ha HO~b3y MHTepeCaM COeD~HeHHbIX ~TaTOB AMep~KH. TaKoe COTpy~H~YeCTBO HMeeT Ba*HOe 3HaYeHne no DByM OCHOBHbIM HpHY~HaM: ~ 1 ~ 06eCHeY~Tb MeXaHM3M HOBbl~eHH~ B3aMMHOM yBepeHHOCTH B TOM, YTO DeRTe~bHOCTb B o6RacTH onacHbIx HaToreHoB nocBR~eHa HpeDycMoTpeHHbIM He~M ~ (2) lICIIOJIb30BaTb 06~MpHbIM pOCCH~CKHM OUbIT ~ pa3B~THR Ha~HOHa~BHOM ~ Me~yHapO~HOM 6a3b! 3HaHHM ~ B03MO*HOCTeM 06~eCTBeHHOrO 3DpaBOOXpaHeHH~, CBR3aHHbIX C HpOtH~aKT~KOM ~ KOHTpOReM 3a OHaCHbIMM MHteKUMOHHbIMM sa60~esaHn~M~.25 PeKOMeH,LYeMBIe B HaCTOHIUeM OTHeTe rIRTH~eTH~ ~HURUamUffa ff o6~acmu namozenoe noc~elyloman MO,QeRB CTa6~bHOrO COTPY,QHHHeCTBa B nepno,~ Oa3bI 2 O6eCne~nsaIOT OCHOBy ,Ws 60Ree COr~aCOBaHHbIX MepOripH~THn rIo HpuB~eHeHHIO MHTemeKTyanbHOrO ~pa 6bIB~eM COBeTCKOM I1POrPaMMbI HO 6~0~0rHHeCKOMY BOOPY~eHHIO. XOTH H0006HOe COTPY~HHHeCTBO JO~*HO 6bITb atteKTHBHbIM, KaK no CBOeMy OCy~eCTB~eHnIO, TaK ~ rIo CBOMM pe3y~bTaTaM, KOMUTeT TaK*e CHUTaeT, HTO Hpe~araeMaH HporpaMMa Do~Ha 6bITb ysH3aHa c ,lpyrnMM MepOnpH~TH~MM HpaB~Te~bCTBa C~A ,~R Hp~B~eYeHH~ 6bIBm~X COBeTCKHX Y~eHbIX B 06~aCTH 6~0nOrHHeCKOrO BOOPY*eHMR K COBMeCTHOM ,LeBTeRbHOCTH B o6~acTu MCC~e,QOBaHHM ~ 06~eCTBeHHOrO 3~paBOOXpaHeHHR, KOTOpaR HpOCTHpaeTCH ~a~bme OHaCHbIX HaTOreHOB. B CBOeM COHeTaHHM STH I1POrPaMMbI 6Y~YT COQe~CTBOBaTb Hpo'~o~calolueMycH nepexo,Qy 6bIBm~X COBeTCKHX YYeHbIX B 06RaCTH 6~0~0rHYeCKOrO BOOpy~CeHHR Ha MHOrMe o6~acT~ rpa~aHcKnx MCC~eDOBaHMH. KpOMe TOrO, HOCpe~CTBOM yKpenneHnn cBR3eH Me~y Ipa~aHCK~M ~ BOeHHbIM CeKTOpaMM rIOBbICHTCH TpaCIIapeHTHOCTb, TeM CaMuM, BCe 60~ee coKpa~an OrIaCHOCTb McrIonb3oBaHHR COBMeCTHbIX HpOrpaMM MCCRe,QOBaHHR B He3aKOHHbIX ueR~x ~ O,QHOBpeMeHHO rIOBbImaR pe3y~bTaTbI Hay~HOH pa6oTbI. ~0 OUeHKe KOM~TeTa, pe3y~bTaTbI T~aTeRbHO pa3pa60TaHHoro pOCCHUCKO- aMep~KaHCKOrO COTpy,QHHHeCTBa B 06~aCTH MCCRe~OBaHHM OHaCHbIX HaTOreHOB (UeHTpanbHbIM MOMeHT NHURUamUffb! ~ odnacmu namOBeHOB) HaMHOrO HpeBbI~a~T p~CK, HpH 3TOM p~CK He MO)KeT ~ He DO~eH C6paCbIBaTbCH CO CHeTOB. TpaHc''apenTHocTs KaK pea~ Ha p~CK KOM~TeT HpH3HaeT, HTO ~axe Hanbo~ee mnpoKoe coTpy~Hn~ecTso Me~y pOCCH~CK~MM ~ aMep~KaHCK~MM y~eH~MM He 06eCHeH~T HeHOKO~e6MMOM yBepeHHOCTH B TOM, UTO BCH Hay~HO-MCCReDOBaTe~bCKaH pa60Ta H0 OHaCHbIM HaTOreHaM BbIHO~HReTCH B COOTBeTCTBHM C KOHBeHUMeM O 6~o~orn~ecKnx BH~aX opy*~. ~ ~OCTH*eHM~ 3TOrO ypOBHR H~KaKoro cpe~cTsa Han~eHo He 6bm0. KOM~TeT yBepeH, HTO B BH~y ~OrOBOpeHHOCTH O TpaHCHapeHTHOCTH, Hpe,JycMaTpusammeH B3aHMHbIe o6MeHbI Ha MeCTaX HpOeKTHbIMM MCCJIe,lOBaTe=MM, puCK 3RoyIIoTpe6ReHHIi IIpH IlpOBe,QeHHn SKCIIepuMeHTaJIbHb~ IIpOeKTOB M~H~Ma~eH. KoM~TeT HpHme~ K 3aKRIOHeHMIO, HTO B yC~OBH~X OrIMCaHHbm HH*e v DOrOBOpeHHOCTeH O TpaHCHapeHTHOCTH paCW~peHH~ COBMeCTH~ DeRTe~bHOCTb MO*eT OTCYTCTY}OT KaKHe-~60 ~OKaSaTeRbCTBa, TIORTBeP=aIO1UMe H0~03PeH~ OTHOCHTe~bHO HeCO6~10~eH~ CIIIA KOHBeHUMM O 6~0~0rMMeCKHX B~aX OPY~C~. TeM He MeHee, OCHOBbIBaRCb Ha OnbITe KOMUTeTa B POCCHM, P~ pOCCH~CKHX rpa~aH, KOTOpble 6y~yT MrpaTb OCHOBH~O pORb ~ yCHe~HOrO BblHO~HeH~ Hpe~araeMOM lIHuuuamueu ~ odnacmu namocenoe, saTaHsaloT McKpeHHMe no~oSpeH~ B OTHOWeHHM CO6JI10~eH~ CWA KoHseHunn 0 6noJIor~ecKnx s~ax Opy:K~. Ilo MHeHn~o KoMuTeTa, Heo6xo~nMo co speMeHeM yKper~nTb ~osepne BePY Y POCCH~CKHX rPa~aH; rIo3ToMy B HaCTORWeM OTIIeTe IIo~HepK~BaeTcH IIoTpe6HocTh BO B3aUMHOU yBepeHHOCTH. 22

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BblHO~H~TECH TaK~M 06paS0M, HpH KOTOpOM rapaHTHpyeTCH CHH*eHHe NO HpHeM~eMOrO ypOBH~ pUCKa 3~0yMbI~ReHHOrO MCHO~b30BaHHR TaKOH HpOrpaMMbI. PaC~MpeHHble MepM no yCH~eHM~ TpaHCHapeHTHOCTH, HaMeHeHHble OTHOCHTe~bHO Rnuu,uamueb~ ~ odnacmu r~amocenoe ~ ee r~ocne,qy~o~ue~ tabby, ,QOn*Hn BK~HaTb BSaHMHOe COr}IaIlleHIle B OTHOIIIeHlIlI IIpe~yCMOTpeHHOM De~TeRbHOCTH B paMKaX Ka~OrO OT~e~BHOrO HpOeKTa; pery~pHMM ~ COr~aCOBaHHMM DOCTyO Ha 06~eKTbI, K 06C~y*HBa~eMy HepCOHa~y K MHIOpMaUMH; ~ 06~3aTeRbHOe CO6~10DeHHe Hp~HUMBa, KOCH B TOM, UTO r~pe,qocTas~eHne rapaHTn~ BBnHeTCH cKopee aKTHBHOH, HeM HaCCHBHOH, 06~3aHHoCTblo HaIlplIMep, HOCpe~CTBOM pery~pHoro Hpe~OCTaB~eHMR OTHeTOB ~ UpOBe~eHHR KOHCy~bTaUMM. np~H~MaH BO BH~MaHMe HeH36e*Hble OHaCeHHR B OTHO~eHHM ABOMHOrO Hp~MeHeHHR lICCRe~OBaHHM OHaCHbIX HaTOreHOB, KOM~TeT CH~TaeT, HTO Hay~HOe COTpy~HM~eCTBO CO CHeUHa~HCTaMM ~ 06~eKTaMM, 3a~e~CTBOBaHH~MM B UpOrpaMMaX H0 6~0~0rHHeCKOMy BOOpy~eHHIO, ~O~HO BK~HaTb BCe STH aCHeKTM TpaHCHapeHTHOCTH. Bo~ee Toro, B oTHomeH~n ~Io60ro cosMecTHoro HpoeKTa, no,~ep~aHne KoToporo n~aHupyeTcH, ero HOTeHUMa~bHblM BK~a~ B ~e~o o6mecTBeHHoro 3ApaBooxpaHeHn~ ~ HauMoHanEHoM 6e30HaCHoCTH C~A ~O~eH HepeBe~HBaTb OCTaTO~HMM p~CK 3~0yMbl~eHHOrO MCHO~b30BaHMH. 9ToT ypOBeHb TpaHCTIapeHTHOCTI1 6y~eT 3HaY~TeRbHO HpeBbI~aTb UpaKT~Ky B HacTonlu~n MoMeHT. HaIIp~Mep, rIpas~a ~ocTyrIa Ha o6~eKTbI, rIpe~ycMoTpeHHme MHTU (20 ~He~i IIocne Ha~=e~aluero H3se~eHHH), He nB=IOTCH ~OCTaTO~HbIMM Hp~MeH~TeRBHO K BH4aM TeXHO~OrHM DBOMHOrO Hp~MeHeHH~, KOTOpbIe HpeDCTaB=~T 6~0~0rHHeCKHe BH4bI Opy*~. 3TH HpaBH~a oOcy~a~uc~ B KOHTeKCTe Me~yHapOAHOrO COTpy~HHHeCTBa H0 H~epHbIM sorIpocaM (a MMeHHO, ~OCTyD B 3aKpbITbIe pOCCH~CKHe ropo~a aToMHo~ upoMbIm~eHHocT~) ~, r~aBH~M 06pa30M, 6b~H COCpe~OTOHeHb! Ha 06~3aHHoCTRX MHTU no t~HaHcoso~ H=30py (CM. Bpe3Ky 1-5~. TeM He MeHee, KOM~TeT CH~TaeT, HTO STH HpaBMRa Hpe3BblHa~HO HORe3Hb! ~ HpeDCTaB=~T HaHRyM~He BOSMO*HMe pe3y~bTaT~, KOTOpble MOryT 6bITb ~OCTHrHyTM B yc~osn~x MHTU B HaCTOR~ee Bpe~. BpeSKa 1-5 Tpe60Ba~ B0 A0~ K MH~ ~ oT~e^~ ~poeKTos YKaSaHMe B SaBBKe Ha MCC~eDOBaHMe BCeX yHaCTH~KOB Hpe~RaraeMOrO UpOeKTa, KOTOpble Hp~H~ManH yHaCTHe B MepO~pH~TH~X HO 6~onorn~ecKon o60poHe, a TaK*e yKa3aHne ~pyrux yHaCTH~KOB - OTqeTbI O BblHORHeHMM HpOeKTa, B TOM q~cne e~eKBapTa~bHble TeXHMUeCKHe OTHeTbI O r~porpecce, e~cero,qHb~e TexHuYecKne OTqeTbI ~ 3aKn~Oq~Te~bHb~n o6~n OTqeT COBMeCTHO c COIIyTCTBylOIIllIMlI tHHaHCOBbIMM OTHeTaMM [lpH yCROBHM Hpe,QBap~TeRbHOrO yBe~OM~eHHR 3a 20 AHeH Hpe~ycMaTpuBaeTcH ,QOCTyr! tHHaHCHpy~eM CTOpOHM ~ ee HpeucTaB~TeneH KO BCeM MepOUpH~TH~M B paMKaX HpOeKTa ~ K HO~HOH MH~opMauHM o6 o6beKTax' o6opy~oBaHHIo' ~oKyMeHTauMM' MHtopMauMH' MHtopMauMoHHuM CMCTeMaM, MaTepHa~aM, BCHOMOraTeBbHbIM MaTepH~aM, HepCOHa~y ~ CRy*6aM, 3a~eNCTBOBaHHbIM B HpOeKTe ~paBO pOCCH~CKOrO ~pe~eHMS Ha 3a~HTy TeX HaCTeH 06'beKTOB, KOTOpbIe He yHaCTBylOT B IlpOeKTe 3anucn ~ AOKyMeHTaUHS, KOTOpbIe Be~yTCH B ue~ B03MO*HOM HpOBepKH B TeMeHMe DByX ReT oc~e 3asepIIIeHn~ IIpoe~cra, ~ ,QOCTyIIHOCTb IIepcoHa~a,~ ero nHTepsb~onposaHnn oTHocuTe~bHo ~poe~cra B xo~e 3Toro IIepno~a IIcToqH~K: YcTaB MHTU, CTaTb~ XVI, 17 MapTa 1994 ro~a ~ upe~ncaH~ MHTLl no COCTOSHH~ Ha HIO~b 1997 ro~a. B c~y~ae r~pneMa Nnuquamueu ~ o6~zacmu namocenoe oHa upe~ocTas~T DOHORH~Te~BHbIe ypOBHM 3a~HThI HpOTHB B03MO*HOrO 3~0yMbIW~eHHOrO MCH0~630BaHMS HpOeKTOB HIOCpe,QCTBOM co3'aaHHn 60~ee KpenKHX, HeDiOCpe'QCTBeHHbIX ~ yCTOHH~BbIX CBR3eH Me~y ~a60paTOpH~MM ~ Hay~HbIMM COTpy~H~KaMH. ~yTeM Bb~e~eHH~ tOHDOB Ha HOe34KH Hay~HbIX COTpy~H~KOB C~ ~ MX Hpe6bIBaHMe B ~a60paTOpH~X MX pOCCH~C~X KO=er H0 MccRe,JoBaHnio' ~Huquamuea ~ o6~acmu rlamoBeHoe o6ecrIeHUT 60Ree ~HpOKHM ~ 60nee HacTun 23

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~OCTyO (H C~e~OBaTe~bHO ~OBepHe) HO CpaBHeHH~ C TeM, HTO MO*eT 6bITb ~OCTHrHyTO Ha ocHose TeKym~x Mep MHTU. 1. MHOrOKpaTHble BH3HTbI Ha ODHM ~ Te me 06~eKTbI B CBR3H C paSHO06paSHeM UpOeKTOB paC~Hp~T SHaHH~ ~ HOH~MaHHe Sa HpeDe~bI, KOTOpble MOM 6bITb 06eCHeHeHbI 6~aroDapH y3K~M Tpe60BaHM~M MHTU B OTHO~eHHM OT~eRbHb1X BH3HTOB. 2. Ho Mepe paSBopaHuBaHHn ~Huquamueb! ~ odnacmu namocenoe MO)KHO O*~aTh rIpe~ocTas~eHn~ ~OCTyHa Ha HOBbIe 06~eKTbI ~ ~a60paTopu~. 3. YCTOMYMBble ~Hble B3aMMO,Qe~CTBHn Me~y aMep~KaHCK~MM ~ pOCCH~CK~MM yYeHbIMM, yHaCTBylO~HMM B COBMeCTHb1X MCC~e,QOBaHH~X, o6ecHeHaT nOH~MaHHe, KOTOpOe 6y~eT r~pesocxo~nTb noH~MaHne, TpeGy~omeec~ MHTU. 4. ~o~ee rIo,Jpo6Hoe nOH~MaHHe Hpo6~eM' BOSH~KalO~nX HpH rIpose'~eHHM COBMeCTHOrO MCC~eDOBaHMB, Ta~e 06eCHeHUT HOBOe HOHUMaHHe pOCCH~CKHX BOSMO*HOCTeH HpOrpaMM. Pe3y~bTaT HpOBO,~MMb1X B HacToH~ee BpeMs neperosopos rIo ycHReHnio KOHBeHUnH O 6HoRorHHecKHx BM,QaX opy*~H HpOTOKOROM rIo lOpH,~HeCKH o6~SaTe~bHoH KOHTpOnbHOH IIpOBepKe MO*eT TaK*e OKa3aTb BnilHHMe Ha HOTeHUHa~bHy~ 3tteKTHBHOCTb ~ByXCTOpOHH~X Mep B OTHO~eHMM TpaHCHapeHTHOCTH. HaCTOR~He MepbI HO yKpeUReHH~ ~OBepHR B paMKaX KOHBeHUHM O 6~onor~ecKnx BH~aX opy*~ HpeDCTaBnH~T ~06pOBORbHble 0693aTe~bCTBa, pery;JIRpHO BbIDOnHReMMe TOnbKO HeKOTOpbIMM CTpaHaMM (CM. Bpe3Ky 1-1~.26 EcnH BbIrIonHeHHe ~Huquamueu ~ o6~acmu namocenoe 6y~eT HpOUCXO,~HTb B yCROBH~X HOBOrO IIpOTOKORa, TO IIpOl13011~eT ~anbHeHWee CHH*eHHe p~CKa, TaK KaK 3TO COBMeCTHOe ycHnHe 6yDeT HO=ep~aHO ~ ~OHORHeHO HOBbIMM MepaMM B OTHOWeHHM KOHTpOnbHOH HpOBepKH. cHTyaUnn 6e3 UpoToKona oKa~eTcH 60nee Tpy'~HoH. KoM~TeT CH~TaeT, HTO B 3TOM cnyHae MCHOnb30BaHMe ~HUgUamUffb! ff o6~acmu namozeHoe B KaHeCTBe OCHOBHOrO 3neMeHTa KOOp,~HH~pOBaHHOrO ycHnHR HpaB~TenbCTBa C~A ,JnH 3anonHeHHR rlyCTOTbI 6y`leT MMeTE ,Qa~e 60Ree Ba;KHoe 3HaHeHHe. Pe3y~bTaTb! Pe3ynbTaTbI pOCCH~CKO-aMep~KaHCKOrO COTpy~H~YeCTBa B HaTOreHOB paCHpeDeBR~TCH H0 qeTbIpeM W~pOK~M KaTerOpH~M. ]. PeSynbTaTbI B 06naCTH HaUMOHaRbHOM 6e30HaCHoCTH oGnacT~ OIIaCHbIX ObecHeHeHMe 6oRb~ero B3aMMHOrO DoBepH~ B OTHO~eHHM co6~DeHHR KOHBeHUHM O BM~aX 6~0nOrHHeCKOrO Opy*~H, H0 CpaBHeHH~ C TeM, KOTOpOe 6bM0 6bI B03MO~HO B HpOTHBHOM cRyHae. KaK yKa3aHO BbI~e, Ha~Re~a~HM 06pa30M pa3pa60TaHHble OpOeKTbI COBMeCTHOrO ~ccne,qosaHnn MOryT o6ecne~nTb Ba*HOe Cpe~CTBO yc~neH~n TpaCIIapeHTHOCTlI: COBMeCTHOe HayqHOe nccne~osaHne, nII'IHbIe KOHTaKTbI, peryn~pHbIe 06MeHbI COTpy~H~KaMM ~ Hp~MOH ~OCTyD Ha 06~eKTbI - BCe STO CO~eUCTByeT TpaHCHapeHTHOCTH. MHOrHe y~eHbIe B 06RaCTH 060pOHbI, pa60Ta~He Ha 3aKpbITbIX 06~eKTaX, He HMeRH 60nbW~X KOHTaKTOB CO CBOMMM KOn~eraMM H3 rpa~aHCKOrO CeKTOpa, pa60TalO~HMM Ha~ CBR3aHHbIMM Hpo6neMaMH. 27 ~CHOnb30BaHMe ST~X ~eHb~ B MCCReDOBaHM~X H0 HpO6neMaM o6~ecTBeHHoro 3ApaBOOXpaHeHMR MO*eT HaBeCTH MOCTb! Me~y BOeHHbIMM ~ rpa~aHC~MM ~pe~eHH~MM ~ MX COTpy0H~KaMH. 06~e~HHeHHe MX B Me~yHapODHble, a TaK*e ~ HaLlHOHanbHbIe, CeTH HayqHbIX COTpy,QH~KOB, IIpe,QaHHbIX Deny Hpe,JOTBpa~eHHn ~ KOHTpOnn OnaCHb1X 3a6onesaHnH, DOn*HO yKperInTb HOpMbI 3T~KH Cpe~n ST~X CTpaH CWA, Pocc~ ~ Ben~Ko6p~TaHm. B HaCTOR~eM OTHeTe TepM~H yqeHble B 06naCTH 060pOHb! paCOpOCTp~eTCH Ha yMeH~X ~ MH*eHepOB, KOTOpble ~aCTBOBanH B pa60Te, CBR3aHHOH C 6~0nOrM~eCK~M BOOpy~eHHeM, ~0 unu nocne pacna~a CoseTcKoro Co~osa B 199l ro~y. Ll;OIIyCKaeTCR, HTO HeKOTOpbIe y~eHble B 06RaCTH 060poHM yHaCTBOBaRH B pa60Te, 3aDpe~eHHOH KOHBeHUMeH O 6~0~0rHHeCKHX B=aX Opy~ OT 1972 ro~a, a ~pyrne HeT. EcnH He yKasaHo nHaMe, ocHosHoe sH~MaHne upH 3TOM coTpy'~HHMecTBe y'Ren~eTcH HpuBneHeHHIo Tex y~eHb~x B o6nacTH 060pOHbI, KoTopbIe 6bmM CaMbIM HpSMbIM 06pa30M ~CTBOBaHb! B MCC~eROBaHHn ~ pa3pa6oTKe OnaCHb1X naTOreHOB, o6na~alolU~x rIOTeHUManbHOH B03MO;KHOCTblO 6bITb MCHOnb30BaHHbIMM B 6~0ROrMMeCKOM Opy~. 24

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COUHa~bHOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, KOTOpMe HpOTHBOCTORT C06~aSHy HpOBe~eHHR HeSaKOHHOH DeRTe~bHOCTH. npe~OCTaB~eHMe HM BOSMO*HOCTeH ~ 06Cy~eHM~ C KO~eraMM BOUpOCOB, Kaca~o~u~xcn fix pasts, a B peBy~BTaTe ~ BO3MO*HOCTeM ~ BMHO~HeHHR pasts, ~ BOSMO*HOCTeM 6MTb OUeHeHH~M Ho DOCTOMHCTBy Sa STy pa60Ty RB=eTCH CH~bH~MM CTHMy~aMM Up; C06~DeHHR Me~yHapO~Hb1X HOpM. - . YMeHBmeH~e coos, noompn~o~u~x pacr~pocTpaHeH~e: Ha potted HeCKO~bKHX Jet pOCCHUCKHe yUeHble, KOTOpMe 06~a~a~T 06~HpHbIM ORATOR pa60TM C HaTOreHaMM C HoTeHuHaRBHoM BOSMO*HOCTBlO MCHO~b3OBaHHR B 6HonorH~ecKoM Opy)KUH, yIIIJIlI lI3 CBOnX MHCTHTyTOB pa,~H HOBOM pa6oTbI, o6e~alo~eli HM JIyHmee tHHaHCOBOe ~ HayyHoe 6y,lyluee, B EBporIe' COe,0HHeHHbIX [IITaTaX AMep~KH ~ [13paeJIe.2- HeKOTOpbIe H3 OCTaBm~XCH y~eHb1X MOryT 6bITb co6~a3HuTe~bHoH MHmeHblO ,~ rocy'~apcTB ~ Teppop~cTHllecKnx rpyrIIl ~ H~y~Mx HaeMHb1X pa6oTH~KoB HnH MHtOpMaLIHIO O 6~onor~ecKoM Op~. COBMeCTHble HpOrpaMMbI, upe~ycMaTp~sammue rapaHTHpOBaHHy~ 3aplI~aTy 11 [1HTepeCHyX) lICC~e~OBaTeRbCKy~ ~eRTe~bHOCTb, MO~T CHH3HTb =H pOCCH~CKHX CHeUHa~HCTOB SKOHOMHHeCKHe CTHMynbI H0~06Hon HaeMHOH pa60Tbl. o6ecDIeHeHHe lIpoMe~cyTo~Horo 3TalIa' Be,Qy~ero K BO3MO*HOMy,QeMOHTa~y: COTpy~HHHeCTBO B 06~aCTH ODaCHbIX HaTOreHOB MO*eT HOMO~b OUpe~eRMTb B03MO*HOCTH =9 COBMeCTHbIX HpOeKTOB HpOBeDeHMB DeMOHTa~a, e~e OAHOH OCHOBHOM ueRH HpOrpaMMbI cosMecTHoro cH~*eH~n yrposu. OH~THMe HayYHbIe COTpy~H~KH MO~T 06eCHeHUTb pyKOBODCTBO n0 Han6o~ee StteKTHBHOMy MCHO~BSOBaHH~ 06~eKTOB ~ n0 y~aneH~o H~H MODHt~KaUMM MCC~eDOBaTeRbCKOrO 060pyD0BaHHR, KOTOpOe 60nbme He TpeGyeTcn ~ BOeHHb1X HeReM. Hay~HO-HCCReDOBaTeRbCKHe MHCTHTyTb! TaK*e MOryT HpOBO~HTB OSHaKOM~eHHe C ~pyrUMM HaCTHMM 6bIsmero KOMU~eKCa 6no~ornHecKoro BOOpy~eHM9, Hano'~o6He HpoeKTHbIx ~ TeXHO~OrHHeCKHX o6~eKToB' r,le H36bITOK OpHeHTHpOBaHHOrO Ha BOeHHble H~b! 060py~0BaHMR MO*eT 6bITb HepeBeDeH Ha HOBOe MCHORbSOBaHHe B M~pHbIX ueJI~x. . - nepeCTpO~Ka 6bIB~eM COBeTCKOH ~eRTeRbHOCTH B 06RaCTH 6~0~0rHHeCKOrO BOOpy~eHMR: 3HaH~Te~bHoe ypeSaHHe tHHaHCHpOBaHnH BOeHHb1X rIporpaMM y~e Hp~BenO K 3Haq~TeRbHOM HepeOpHeHTaUHM Ha rpa~aHCKy~ DeBTe~bHOCTb MCC~e~OBaHMM paspa60ToK, paHee oCc~y*usa~om~x COBeTCKylO r~porpaMMy 6~onor~ecKoro BOOpy)KeHMH. O,QHaKO, B POCCHM OCTalOTCH Kpy~Hble ~ pa36pOCaHHbIe MO~HOCTH H0 Hay~HbIM MCC~e,JOBaHnsM ~ pa3pa6oTKaM ~ pe3epBHOMy HpOH3BO,QCTBy, o6~a~alo~He nOTeHUMa~OM rIo 6~o~orn~ecKoMy BOOpy)KeHHIO. HpH OTCyTCTBMM ~bTepHaTHBHbIX BapHaHTOB 3aH9TOCTH yUeHMe B 06RaCTH 060poHM HpeDCTaB~T BRM~Te~bHOe ~o66H B 3aW~Ty coxpaHeHHR o6~eKToB' KOTOpMe BbIXO,~aT 3a Hpe,Qe~bI rIoTpe6HocTeM HaUMOHanbHOM 6e3onacHocTH poccHn B HpoBeDeHnn Mcc~eDoBaHHM B o6~acTH 6HonorHHecKoro opy*~H o6opoHHoro xapaKTepa. Kpy~HaR HporpaMMa coBMecTHbIx Mcc~eDoBaHHM Hpe~ocTaB~T HoBbIe B03MO*HOCTH 3aH~TocTH ,~SI MHorilx BeDy~MX y~eHbIX, CHH*aH TeM CaMbIM ,QaB~eHHe Ha pOCCH~CKOe HpaBuTe~bCTBO B OTHOmeHHM KarINTaROBRO~CeHHM B ue~nx COXpaHeHHR HeHy:KHbIX o6~eKToB. KpOMe TOrO, ec~H TaKaH COBMeCTHaH HporpaMMa 6y'~eT pa3pa6oTaHa B HeRax COCpe,QOTOHeHH~ tHHaHCOBOM HOMO~H Ha OrpaHHHeHHOM KORM~eCTBe ~yYW~X pOCCH~CKHX Hpe~npH~THM' y 60~ee cna6bIx HpeDUpH~THM (Ha ypOBHe, HpH KOTOpOM OHM e~e OCTa~TCH *~3HeCHOC06HbIMM) HORB9TCH CTHMy~bI ,~s oTbIcKaHMR pa6oTb! BHe ctepbI onacHbIx HaToreHoB, a HMeHHO B HaCTHOM CeKTOpe. pacIlIMpeHMe Bo3Mo*HocTeM 60pb6bI C 6HoTeppopH3MoM: KaK y COe,QHHeHHb1X ~TaTOB AMep~K~, TaK ~ y PoccHn, o3a6oHeHHocTb BbI3MBaeT pacTy~aH yrpo3a 6HoTeppopH3Ma.29 PaCIIIMpeHHOe COTpy'D;H~llecTBo B 06~aCTH OCHOBHbIX MCCJIe,lOBaHn~, ann,reMno~orn~, ~HarHOCTH~ ~ HpOtH~aKT~KH 3a6o~esaH~n, CBR3aHHbIX C OHaCHbIMM IlaTOreHaMM, MO)KeT yCHJI~Tb B03MOXCHOCTH o6eux cTpaH Ilo sbLas~eH~o ~ pear~posaH~o Ha IIORB~y~CH yrpo3y TeppOpH3Ma. PUMM~HrrOH, Bbl6. U~T., CTp. 96. Bor~poc o6 yrpo3e 6~0TeppopH3Ma HO~H~Ma~CH B p~e cn~aes POCCH~CK~MM ~aCTH~KaMM Ha CeM~HaPe KOM~TeTa B ~eTpOBO-~a~bHeM. 25

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IIPOEE~ COTPY,~;H~ECTBA HaCTOR~aH Mama HpeDCTaB=eT yCROBH~ ~ MOTHBaUH~ B OTHO~eHMM pOCCHUCKO aMep~KaHCKOrO COTpy~HHHeCTBa C yHaCTHeM CHeUMa~HCTOB ~ 06~eKTOB 6usmero COBeTCKOrO KoMr~eKca 6no~or~ecKoro soopy~eHn~. B resale 2 Up~BOD~TCH OU~CaHHe HepBOHaHa~bHOrO onuTa HAH B outacts pupa sKcnep~MeHTanbH~ poeKTos, upeaHasHa~eHHux ~ r~posepKu OCyluEcTB~MocTH H0006Hb[X COBMeCTH~X Mep ~ ODHOBpeMeHHOrO COCTaB~eHMR H~aHOB DO~rOCpOMHOrO COTpy~HHHeCTBa. 3ToT OUST Upe~OCTaBH~ OCHOBy ~ H~T~eTHeH ~Huu~uamueb! ff o6~acmu namocenoe, usRo>KeHHoM B r~aBe 3. B relate 4 Hp~BO~HTCH OH~CaHMe Modern noc~e,JylolueM Tat rIporpaMMM coTpy'~HHHecTBa' o6~e,~HHsiolueH De9Te~bHOCTb B paMKax tree mNpoKoro DHana3oHa pa6oTM B 06~aCTH OHaCHE~ HaTOreHOB. 06a CXeMa ~ByXCTOpOHHeM ~eBTe~BHOCTH, peKOMeH~yeM~ B HaCTOH~eM OTHeTe, CO BpeMeHeM MO*eT CTaTb OCHOBOH ~ paCW~peHHOrO COTpy~HHHeCTBa cpe~H papa Befit cTpaH. B KoHe~HoM nTore, ycn~eHHan Me~yHapo~Han 6esorIacHocTB ~ sceMnpHoe 3DpaBOOXpaHeHMe MOryT 6BITb DOCTHrHyThI TOLEDO HOCpeDCTBOM C03~aHM~ ~HpOKHX MHOrOHaUMOHa~BHb[X CeTeH, BOX MHOrHe 3~eMeHThI, HODHepKHyTbIe B ~Huquamuee ff o6~acmu namocenoe. 28