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ue~nx yKper~eH~n Joseph oco60 sa;KHoe 3Ha~eH~e dynes Mets atteKT~sHun HpaBOUp~MeH~TeRbHblM HOp~OK ~ 06MeH OUbITOM. Co BpeMeHeM KOM~CCH~ 6yDeT CTpeM~TbCH yCTaHOBUTb ~OHO~H~Te~bHMe MepbI HO yKpeII~eHn~o Joseph. B IIacTHocT~, ee ueJI~ 6y~eT 3aK~HaTbCH B pa3pa6oTKe HpaBM~ HO pery~lilpOBaHlIK) 06MeHa MHtOpMaUMeH Meanly ~ByM~ CTpaHaMM B 06RaCTH 06pa~eHHR ~ nc~o~b30saHnn onacHb~x naToreHos. B ~ ~eanbHoM comae, o6~ne xapaKTepucT~K~ scex 3HaYnTe~bHb1X Hay~Hb1X MCC~e,lOBaHHM ~ CBR3aHHb1X o6,beKToB, 3aH~MaloluMxcH OHaCHbIMM HaTOreHaMM B o6eux cTpaHax' 6y~yT H3BecTHM Ka~oMy HpaB~TeRbcTBy. o DeRTe~bHocTH Hay~HO-HCC~e~OBaTe~bCKHX KO=eKTHBOB Dynes pery~npHo C006WaTbCH, paBHO KaK ~ O IlITaMMax MHteKLIHOHHbIX areHTOB, co,Qep~am~xcH B Hay~HO-MCCRe~OBaTe~bCKHX ~ COrlyTCTBylOlU~X ue~x. KaK B c~y~ae C Hpe~araeMoH COBMeCTHOM ,leRTeRbHOCTblO, ,lO~Hb! 6nTb pa3pa6oTaHM Mepb! Rio o6ecHeHeHHIo a~eKBaTHOH 3amUTbI MHTemeKTyanbHOH co6cTBeHHocTH ~ ,Qpyroli CeKpeTHOli MHtOpMaUHM TaK~M o6pa3oM' HT06bI ueJIn 6oJIee ~MpOKOH TpaHCHapeHTHOCTH HpH STOM He cTpaAa~. ~ B HacToHmee speM~ TaKoH BCeCTOpOHHHM 06MeH MHtOpMaUMeH CRO*HO, ec~ He Heso3Mo*Ho, ycTaHosuTb, o~HaKo, no Mepe pOCTa DOBepH~ Me~y DByMR CTpaHaMM, 60RbWaH OTKpbITOCTb ~OR*Ha CTaTb B03MO*HOH. Bo~ee TOrO, H3-3a 06eCHOKOeHHOCTH B OTHOWeHHM 6~06e30HaCHoCTH ~ TeppOpH3Ma HOBbI~aeTCH 3aNHTepeCOBaHHOCTb HpaB~Te~bCTB, HO KpaNHeH Mepe, B COe~MHeHHbIX ~TaTaX AMep~K~, B pa3pa60TKe TaKHX Tpe60BaHHM B OTHO~eHHM HpeDOCTaB~eHHR OTHeTOB HaUMOHaRbH~M opraHaM. TaK~M 06pa30M, MO*eT HMeTbCH Me~yHapODHaH ~ HaUMOHa~bHaH OCHOBa,Z~SI yKpeHReHMR ~OBepHR HOCpe~CTBOM paC~MpeHHb1X 06MeHOB MH+OpMaUMeM. TEXHlI~ECKlIE ACIIEKlbI IIPOrPAMME,I clIe'Qylo~He pa3,QeJIbI IIp~BO,~T OH~CaHMe KOHKpeTHbIX HO~XODOB B HeKOTOpbIX o6~acTRx COBMeCTHO C OUeHKOM 3aTpaT no MX peanH3aUHM ~ HpaB~TeRbCTBa C~A HOMMMO nMe~om~xcn nHsecTnu~. B xo,Qe 60Ree HOApO6Hb1X 06C~eHMM HpOrpaMMb! B HpaB~Te~bCTBe C~A ~ C pOCCH~CK~MM OtHUHa~bHbIMM RHUaMM HeKOTOpble H3 3T~X Hpe=O*eHMM CMeTHaH OUeHKa 3aTpaT 6y~yT HO~BeprHyTM Hen36e*Ho~ KOppeKTHpOBKe. HayqHO-MCCJIe~OBaTeRbCKOe COTpy,~qeCTBO CHeUHaRMCTbI, HpeDCTaBRHIO~He Hay~HbIe MHTepeCbI o6e~x CTpaH, 6y~yT CO6HpaTbCH, V V _ HO Kpa~HeH Mepe, e~erO~HO =H pa3pa ~OTKH HpOrpaMM HO COBMeCTHbIM HayYHO ~cc~e~osaTenbcK~M ~poeKTaM =n noc~e~y~o~ero yTsep~eH~n ~syMn r~pas~Te~bcTsaMn. Ho Mepe no~Horo passuTnn Q>asbI 2, HayYHo-ncc~e~osaTe~bcKan uporpaMMa, seponTHo, 6y~eT HeMHoro Kpy~Hee' HeM HporpaMMa no h,Huquamuee ~ o6~acmu namoBeHoe' Mo>KeT 6bITb, Ha 30 IlpoueHTos. YseJI~YeHne ~o TaKoro yposH~ ocHoBaHo Ha p~e coo6pa:KeH~. Bo-nepsbIx, HeKOTOpble pOCCHUCKHe CHeUMa~HCTbl, BepORTHO, 6y~yT HpODO~*aTb MrpaTb Be~y~He pORM B 3aKOHHOM BOeHHOH HayYHO-HCCReDOBaTeRbCKOM ~eRTeRbHOCTH B xo~e ~Huquamueu ~ odnacmu namoBeHoe, TaK KaK OHM He ~eRa~T 6pOCaTb CBOH rapaHTHpOBaHHbIe MCTOYH~KH ~oxo~a pa~n yHaCTH~ B Me~yHapO~HOM HpOrpaMMe, KOTOpaH MO*eT HOCHTb BpeMeHHbIM XapaKTep. O~HaKo, noc~e H~TH ~eT HeUpepbIBHOrO COTpy~HHHeCTBa 3TH CHeUHaH~CTbI AO~HbI HOH~Tb Ba)KHOCTb ~ CTa6~BHOCTb HpOrpaMMM, ~ MO*HO 6y~eT O*~aTb, HTO HeKOTOpbIe H3 H~X 06paTHTCH C 3aRBKOM Ha yHaCTHe B paC~MpeHHOM HpOrpaMMe. BO-BTOpbIX, B COeD~HeHHb~ ~TaTaX AMep~KH ~O~Ha B03paCTH 3aNHTepeCOBaHHOCTb, OC06eHHO HpH yCHeWHOM Hp~B~eYeHMM K ~Huquamuee ~ odnacmu namoceHoe MOROD~X aMep~KaHCKHX CHeUH~HCToB' KTO Ha CO6CTBeHHOM OUbITe MCHbITbIBaeT pe3y~bTaTbI Me~yHapODHOrO Hay~HOrO COTPY~HHHeCTBa. XOTH KOM~TeT rIo~ep;K~saeT CKpOMHMM pOCT, OH CH~TaeT, UTO ,~S! oGecne~eH~n BbICOKOrO KaHeCTBa HO~ep*MBaeMb~ HpOeKTOB uporpaMMa ~O~Ha HMeTb HaDp~Mep, B COe~HHeHHbIX ~TaTaX AMepH~ MeXaHH3M 3a~HTbI SaHaTeHTOBaHHb1X X~M~KaTOB ~ Hpe~OCTaB~eH~ aJe~aTHOH MHOpMaUMM B ne~x HOpMaTHBHOrO pe~nMpOBaH~ pa3pa60TaH ~ MO*eT C~Tb HpeUe~eHTOM Hp~MeHeH~ B o6~acTH 6no~or~. 56

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ycTaHos~eHHun sepxHnn rIpe,qe~. KaK yKa3aHO B rRaBe 3, STOT MaKCHMaRbHMM ypOBeHb ~enTe~bHocTn peryn~pyeTc~ KaK sa~cHocTbIo orpaHn~eHnn Dacha 06'beKTOB, 3aH~TbIX B pa60Te HO OHaCHbIM HaTOreHaM, TaK ~ pe3epBaMM Tpy0OBbIX peCypCOB B BMDe MMe~MXCH B Onyx CTpaHaX CHeUHa~HCTOB, CHoCO6H~X pe~aTb Ba*HbIe BOUpOCbI 06~eCTBeHHOrO 3~paBOOXpaHeHMR B y3KOCHeUMaRM3MpOBaHH0H 06~aCTH. C~e~y~o~u~n no ~xo,q, KOTOpbIM MO*eT 6bITb OtHUHa~bHO yCTaHOB~eH KOMUCCHeM, Ka)KeTCH yMeCTHbIM B OTHO~eHHM paC~MpeHHOH HpOrpaMMbI B xo~e Oa3bI 2: Cpe,~n pOCCH~CKHX OpraHH3aUHM ~ MCC~eDOBaTeReH ~O~*HbI HpOBODUTbC~ rODOBbIe lI HOJIyrO~OBbIe KOHKypCbI Ha HO~yUeHMe tHHaHCOBOM HO~ep*KH ~ HpOeKTOB, B TOM ~nc~e paccMoTpeH~e 3ansoK Ha no~ep~cKy Hay~HbIx ncc~e~osaH~n rIo sbI6paHHbIM HaTOreHaM KaK B ~Huquamuffe ff odnacmu namocenoe. ~pyr~e onacHbIe naToreHbI ~ cMe*HbIe MCC~eDOBaTe~bCKHe HpOeKTbI, KOTOpbIe upe~aramTc~ =H HO~ep*KH OT~e~bHbIMM MCCRe,JOBaTe~HMM, BepO~THO, nORyMaT ropa3,~0 6o~bmee BH~MaHHe. B ne~x OT60pa HpOeKTOB ~H Hpe~OCTaBReHH~ HO=ep*KH ~O~HbI 6bITb yCTaHOB~eHbI COBMeCTHbIe pOCCH~CKO-aMep~KaHCKHe KOM~CCHM CHe~Ha~HCTOB. p;O~HbI 6bITh HORyqeHbI OKOH~aTe~bHbIe yTBep~eHHn HpaBuTeRbCTB, BbIIIORHeHbI ~OrOBOpeHHOCTH n0 +HHaHCOBOM no~ep*Ke, BK~IOHaH OrpaHHHeHHy~ HO~ep*Ky C~ pOCCH~CKOM ~eRTe~bHOCTH Hepe3 Me~yHapO~HbIM Hay~HO-TeXHMUeCKHM ueHTp (MHTu), KaK OITHCbIBaeTCH HM*e, HRH Hepe3 KaKoH-~60 B paBHOH CTeneHn 3~teKTHBHbIM MeXaHH3M B c~ae, ecRH 6bI Hpe~noRaraRocb H3MeHeHMe xapaKTepa MHTU B 6y'DyIueM. . 9m~eM~o~or~s B xo,Je q)a3bI 2 oco60e BHuMaHMe 6y'1eT y,QeJIeHO Hay~HuM MCCne,QOBaHH~M, HMeK)lUHM OTHOWeHMe K SHH~eMHO~OrMM 3a60ReBaHMM, CBR3aHHbIX C OHaCHbIMM HaTOreHaMM, XOTH HeKOTOpaR ~eRTeRbHOCTb MO*eT 6bITb BBe~eHa B OrpaHMUeHHOM MaC~Ta6e B xo~e q~a3bI }. COHeTaHMe B03MO*HOCTeH B STOH 06~aCTH ~OR*HO Hp~HeCTH Kpy~HbIe pe3y~bTaTbI B ctepe obluecTseHHoro 3~pasooxpaHeHn~ Ilo 6opb6e c pacllpocTpaHeHHeM 3a6oResaHHi~' KaK B HaUnOHaJIbHOM Mac~Ta6e, TaK ~ Ha Me~yHapO~HOM yposHe, Ilp~ ncIIoJIb30saH~ cJIe~y~om~x MeXaHI13MOB. Ba*Hoe sHa~eHne HMelOT 6bICTpbIe 06MeHbI Ba*HOM MHtOpMaUMeM n0 HaDpaBReHH9M ~ HeO6b~HbIM CRyHaHM 3a60ReBaHHM, CBR3aHHbIX C OHaCHbIMM HaTOreHaMM, B COeD~HeHHbIX ~TaTaX AMep~KH ~ poccHM. HeKOTOpbIM pOCCHuCK~M OpraHM3aUM~M Tpe6yeTcH 'RorIonH~TenbHoe 3neKTpoHHoe o6opy'~oBaHMe ,QnH IIO,006HOll CBR3H, ~ 3Ta noTpe6HocTb'~o~xcHa 6bITb paCCMOTpeHa B KOHTeKCTe KOHKpeTHbIX COBMeCTHbIX HpOeKTOB, KaK OH~CbIBaeTCH B rnaBe 3. KpoMe Toro' HpoBeDeHMe coBMecTHbIx ceM~HapoB 6y~eT no~e3Ho ~n~ BbIpa6oTKH o6mero MHeHHn no HaCTOTe ~ MeXaHH3MaM o6MeHoB ,QaHHbIMM ~ no pa3Hoo6pa3HIo ~ tOpMaTy '~aHHbIx' no,Qne~a~nx o6MeHy. 9Ta ,lenTenbHOCTb 'Ron*Ha COOTBeTCTBOBaTb MHTepeCaM BCeMNpHOH opraHn3aUnn 3ApaBOOXpaHeHMR ~ ~on*Ha r~o~ep*~saTb ee e;KeDHeBHble SHH~eMMoRorHMecKHe OTHeTbI ~ YNKRH 9~DeMHORO=H PenopTc") . MH~OpMaUMM O HanpasneHn~x 3abonesaHn~ . C Me~yHapODHbIM 06MeHOM DaHHbIX CBR3aHa HOTpe6HOCTb B yKpeDneHHM BHyTpeHHUX Bo3Mo:KHocTen PoccHn rIo rIposeDeHHIo 6bICTpOH OUeHKH ~ o6pa6oTKH ~ MX BCIlbIIIIKaX. ,0;On~CHbI 6bITb paCCMOTpeHbI HpOeKTbI, KOTOpbIe H03BOHHIOT BbI6paHHbIM MHCTHTyTaM, B HaCTHOCTH OCHOBHbIM HneHaM " 5HonpenapaTa , OKa3bIBaTb CO,QenCTBMe HaUMOHanbHOH ,QenTenbHOCTH M~H~cTepcTBa 3DpaBOOXpaHeHHR. ~ByXCTOpOHHMe CeM~HapM ~ COBMeCTHbIe nccnenosaTenbcK~e HpOeKTbI ,lOn*HbI 6bITb HaIIpaBneHbI Ha yCTaHOBJIeHMe ~ pa3pa6oTKy coBepIlIeHcTBoBaHHbIx TexHonorMIi n0 DHarHOCT~Ke paCCMaTp~BaeMbIX areHTOB ~ 3a60nesaHun. ~- v . ~ xo,Qe BCHbI~eK B O,lHOM CTpaHe Onpe,JeneHHbIX 3a6onesaHHn ~ CBB3aHHbIX C OIIaCHbIMlI IlaTOreHaMlI, CIleUllaJIMCTbI B ,Qpyroli CTpaHe ,QOn*HbI 6bITb MOTHB~pOBaHbI HaIIpaBuTb cooTBeTcTByIo~yIo MHtopMaLIHIo ~ OIlpe,Qen~Tb rIyTH, IIpH KOTOpbIX OHn MOI)T 57

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OKa3aTbCH HaH60nee HOne3HbIMM ~H OUeHKH ~ pearMpOBaHHR Ha TaKHe BCUbl~KH. B yMecTHb~x cnyllanx, CHeUMaJIMCTb! Ha Myron cTpaHu 6y~yT up~rnaIIIeHu and uposepKu MHtOpMaUHM ~ POMONA B BbIHOnHeHHM OUeHOK, echo OHM 06RaDaI0T OCO6bIMM CHeUMaRbHbIMM 3HaHH~MM, KOTOpble MOryT 6bITb HORe3HbIMM. POCClIlICKlIe CHeUHaRMCTbI' KOTOpbIe yYaCTBy~T B HpOBOD~MbIX Ha MeCTaX MCCneDOBaHH~X, ~On*HbI 6bITb MOTHB~pOBaHb! 06paTHTbCH C 3aRBKOH Ha y~aCTHe B porpaMMax o6y~eHu~ UeHTpOB no KOHTpOnIO ~ HpOtHRaKT~Ke 3a60nesaHn~. OCO6blM MHTepeC HMe~T MCCne~OBaTenbCKHe HpOeKTbI B 06RaCTH 3~DeMHOROrMM, KOTOpble HpuBneKaloT' KaK 6bIBWHe coBeTcKHe OpraHH3aUHM B 06naCTH 6~0nOrM~eCKOrO Opy*ll~, TaK ~ rpa~aHcKne opraHn3aUnn (HanpuMep, MHCTHTyTM KoMuneKca "~onpenapaT" COBMeCTHO pa6oTaloT c MHCTHTyTaMM M~H~cTepcTBa 3,QpaBOOXpaHeHHn HnH AKa,JeMMeM Me~HUHHCKHX HayK). Be3ycnosHo, yKpenneH~e BHyTpeHH~X OpraHM3aUMOHHbIX CBH3eH Ha Tepp~TopHn poccHM HMeeT Ba;KHoe 3HaHeHMe' ecnH ee yUeHMe B o6nacTH 060pOHb! ~On*HM 6y'JyT MrpaTb Ba;KHylO pOnb B pa6oTe HauMOHanbHOrO o6luecTBeHHoro 3~lpasooxpaHeHHH. B~o6e3onacHocTb uenb yCHnHM B o6euX cTpaHax B 06naCTH 6~06e30HaCHoCTH 6y~eT 3aKn~HaTbCH B CODeNCTBHM HOCRe~OBaTenbHOCTH B Kp~TepH~X 6~06e30HaCHoCTH ~ ee HpaKT~KH B Mccne'~osaTenbcKHx na6opaTopH~x Hnn Ha ,Jpyrux o6~eKTax, pa6oTalolU~x C orIacHbIMM DIaToreHaMH. TaKHe ycHnHR oKa:KyTcH rIone3HbIMM ,JnH HperdocTaBReHHn rapaHTHM, (~) HTO 06pa~eHHe C MHteKUMOHHbIMM areHTaMM HpOMCXODUT B COOTBeTCTBHM C ~a60pamOpHbW c~paeo~ubm pyKocodcmeoM no 6uo6esonacuocmu BceMupnouV opeanusaquu s~paeooxpanenu~2 ~ (2) HTO MH+eKUMOHHbIe areHTbI He HePeRaIOTCH CTOPOHaM, KOTOPbIM He PaSPeWeHO 06Pa~eHHe C H~MH. KPOMe TOrO, 06eCHeHeHHe COr~aCOBaHHOCTH rIPaB~ HO BaKUHHaUHM ~ HOP=KY 6~06e301IaCHOCTH y~pocTHT B3aHMHbIe HOCe~eHMR Ha Ra60PaTOPHM BbICOKOrO P~CKa. KOM~CCHR ,LOR*Ha COCPeROTOU~Tb CBOe BH~MaHMe Ha HPOBePKe PaSPa60TK~, BbITIORHeHMM ~ 06eCHeHeHHM BbIHORHeHMR HaUMOHaRbH~X CMCTeM B COeQHHeHH~X ~TaTaX AMep~KH ~ Pocc~ no KoHTpoRMpoBaHHIo o6pa~eHun ~ MCHORbSOBaHHR OHaCHbIX HaTOreHOB. ,3;O~HO BCHHeCKH nO,~ep;K~BaTbCH, HT06b! Ka~oe HpaB~TeRbCTBO pa3pa6aTbIsano ~ McHoRb3oBano nO,lXO,lbI, KOTOpble 6bmM 6bI ~ 3~teKTHBHbIMM, ~ TpaHCrIapeHTHbIMM, H' TeM CaMbIM, CO~e~CTBy~ B3aHMHOMy ~OBepH~ B OTHO~eHHM C06~eHMB Me~yHapODHbIX 06~3aTeRbCTB. ~pH paCCMOTpeHHM pery=THBHO-HOpMaTHBHOM 6a3bI KOM~CCHR MO*eT HpOBep~Tb, K HpUMepy' pa60llMM rIepeHeHb MHteKuMoHHbIx areHToB, KoTopMe y;Ke H3~0*eHbI B HpaBH~aX ~ pyKOBO,05IIU~X DOKyMeHTaX, HOp~OK perMCTpaUMM ~pe~eHHM B HaUMOHaRbHb1X OpraHaX s~acT~, HaunoHanbHbIe TpeGosaHnn r~o r~epe~a~e areHTos B HaUMOHa~bHOM MaC~Ta6e ~ Ha Me~yHapODHOM ypOBHe, KpUTepHM 6~06e30HaCHocTH ~H y~pe~eHnu, Tpe60BaHM ~n0 y,qaneHn~o areHTos ~ HO~rOTOBKy y~eHbIX ~ o6cy*nsammero nepcoHana. Cpe~ MeXaHI13MOB COTpy~HHHeCTBa B 06RaCTH c~e~y~omne IIO~XO~bI: .% _ . ~ 61106e30IIaCHOCTlI MMe~TCH YeryJIRpHbIe OOMeHbI MHtOpMaUMeH H0 COCTORHH~ pa3B~TH~ HaUMOHaRbHOM ClICTeMbI HOpMaTHBHOrO peryJI~posaH~; CHeUHa~bHbIe 06MeHbI ~aHHbIMM n0 KOHKpeTHOM DeRTe~bHOCTH, Hpe~CTaB~HIO~eM OC06bIM MHTepeC ~H Ka~OH CTpaHbI, HaH0~06He, lICC~e~OBaHM~, HpOBO~HMOrO Ha CHeUMaRM3MPOBaHHbIX HpeDUpH~TH~X B o6JIacTu 6noJIornYecKon ~oKaJIn3aU~ pacrIpocTpaHeHnn mn Ha ~pyrux cIIeu~an~3nposaHHbIx upe~rIpn~T~nx; a Tamce B3alIMHbIe Hoce~eHHR Bbl6paHHb~ 06~eKTOB cHeUHa~HcTaMM B o6RacTH 6noGe3or~acHocTu, cosepIIlaeMue I10 Ilp~r~aIIleHn~o. 2 BceM~pHa~s opraH~3aL~ ~pasooxpaHeH~. 1993 ro~. ~Ia6opamopHoe cnpaffoRHoe pylcoBo~cmeo no 6uode3onacuocmu, 2-a~ pe~aKum. ~CeHesa: B03. 58

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O~AEME'IE 3ATPAThI O*ll~aeTCH, HTO Ha MOMeHT pa3pa60TKH ~a3M 2, poccn~cKne y~acTsymmne OpraHH3aUMM 6y~yT B COCTORHHM BM~a~HBaTB SHaY~TeRbHO 60~b~y~ pacts MX SaTpaT B paMKaX 3TlIX COBMeCTHbIX MepOIlpH~THH. KpOMe TOrO, peKOMeH,QyeTCH Ha,~e)KaIUMI! rIepexo~d Measly ~MHaHCHpOBaHMeM ~HU~UamUffb! ~ o6~acmu namocenoe ~ t~HaHcosou no~ep*Kou HpOeKTOB B Oase 2. B YaCTHOCTH, KaK yKaSaHO B Ta6~nue E-2, ~HaHc~posaH~e Tpex~eTH~x HpOeKTOB B TeHeHMe DIOC~e,JHUX '~ByX ~eT 0NUqUamUeb! ~ o6~acmu namozenoe ,lO=CHO oGecne~Tb sa*Hy~o ocHosy ~esTe~bHocTn ~ r~epsbIx ~syx ~eT 4>asbI 2. BpeMn, Tpe6yI0~eeCH ~ HO~HOM paSpa6oT~ ~aSM 2 SaB~CHT B 60~bm0H cTeneHM OT pOCCH~CKOH 3KOHOMlIKII 11 IIpilOplITeTOB, yCTaHOB;IeHHbIX p;]ISI DeRTe~bHOCTH B HaUpaBReHMM OHaCHbIX IIaTOreHOB. TaK KaK pOCCHuCKaH 3KoHoM~Ka, HaBepHOe, 6y,leT ocTaBaTbcH cHa601i B TeHeHHe ,leCHT=eTH~ H~H 60Ree, B OTHO~eHMM HeKOTOpOM pOCCH~CKOH ~eRTeRbHOCTH 6y~eT Heo6xo~nMa no~ep*Ka CWA. B YaCTHOCTH, aMep~KaHCKHM BK~a~ B pOCCH~CKy~ HaCTb paCXO,QOB MO*eT 6bITb COCpe,QOTOHeH Ha (~) SaKynKaX ClIeUManH3MpOBaHHOrO 060py,loBaHMR ~ BCHOMOraTeRBHb~ MaTepHaROB, Hpe~Ha3HaHeHHbIX ~H 3KCHep~MeHTOB B PoccHM, KOTOpbIe HeHOCpe~CTBeHHO CBR3aHM C 3KCHep~MeHTaMM B COe~HHeHHbIX ~TaTaX AMep~KH; a TaK*e (2) Me~yHapO~HbIX HOe3~KaX H36paHHbIX pOCCH~CKHX ~aCTH~KOB, KOTOpbIe B HpOTHBHOM c~y~ae, BepO~THO, He CMOr~H 6bI HpHeXaTb B COeD~HeHHbIe ~TaTM AMep~KH. O~HaKO, aMep~KaHCKHe DeHe*HbIe CpeDCTBa DOR*HbI MCHO~b30BaTbCH, B OCHOBHOM, ~H HOKpbITHR 3aTpaT aMep~KaHCKHX ~aCTH~KOB. ~e3 yUeTa MHtRRUHM 3aTpaTbI COeD~HeHHbIX ~TaTOB AMep~KH HO BbIHO~HeHMIO DeBTeRBHOCTH B xoDe ~a3b! 2 OUeH~BaeTCH HpH6~3HTeRbHO B pa3Mepe 10 M~H. aMep~KaHCKHX DO~apOB B ro~. OKono 5 M~H. aMep~KaHCKHX DO=apOB (50%) 6yneT sb~e~eHo Ha no~ep*Ky paCXO~OB aMep~KaHCKHX COTpy~H~KOB, HpH 3TOM Ka~bIM H3 paCHeTHbIX 60 coTpy~H~Kos (no 20 HOBbIX COTpy~H~KOB Ha BbIHORHeHMe Tpe~eTH~X HpOeKTOB Ka~bIM ro~) HO~HT B CpeDHeM 80000 aMep~KaHCKHX DO=apOB B ro~ 3a ~x pa6OTy. Dono~H~Te~bHo 2 M~H. aMep~KaHcKmx ~onnapos (20%) 6y~eT sb~e~eHo Ha a,qM~HucTpaTusHbIe pacxo~b~, csn3aHHbIe c aMep~KaHCK~M yHaCTHeM B KOMUCCHM ~ ee rpynnax cneu~an~cTos, KoTopoe 6y~eT Hac~nTbIsaTb 5 ~TaTHbIX ~eHOB, pa60TalO~MX Ha HORHylO CTaBKy. OKORO ~ M~H. aMep~KaHcKnx,qomapos (10%) 6y~eT sb~e~eHo Ha Ilpose~eHne ceM~Hapos, ~enTe~bHocTb IIO pa3pa60TKe HpOeKTOB ~ 3aCe,QaHHn HO H~aH~pOBaHH~ ~ OUeHKe Me~y pOCCH~CK~MM ~ aMep~KaHcK~Mn crIeL~uanucTaMu. OcTasmneca 2 M~H. aMep~KaHCKHX DO=apOB (20~) 6y~yT BbIZI;eReHbI Ha HO=ep*Ky HOTpe6HOCTeH pOCCH~CKHX CHeQ~aRMCTOB, KOTOpbIe Bb~O~T 3a rpaHHUbI MMe~MXCH y H~X CpeDCTB: He60RbW0e 060py~0BaHHe ~H HpOBe~eHMR SKCHep~MeHTOB, HpeDCTaBRH~MX OC06bIM MHTepeC =H COe~HHeHHb~ ~TaTOB AMep~K~, ~ CBH3aHHbIe C HpOeKTOM Me~yHapO~HbIe HOe3~KH HeKOTOpbIX yHaCTH~KOB (paCHeTHbIe 3aTpaTbI Ha CyMMy 35000 aMep~KaHCKHX ~O=apOB B ro~ Ha upoeKT). CTa6~JIbHOe aMepilKaHCKOe tHHaHCHpOBaHHe 4)a3bI ~ HeCOMHeHHO nOTpebyeT COr~a~eHHR Me~y MCHORH~TeRbHOM BeTBb~ ~ KOHrpeCCOM B OTHOWeHHM HO~CTpO~HOrO HyHKTa B 6IO~eTe BbI6paHHOrO Be~OMCTBa. ~pe~CTaB~eTCH Hpe~eBpeMeHHbIM rOBOp~Tb O TOM, KaKOe BeDOMCTBO DO~*HO HMeTb tHHaHCOBOe 06~3aTeRbCTBO. O~Ip;AEMBIE PE3YJIETAThI [lpOrpaMMa (I)a3bI 2 6yDeT Hpe~OCTaBR~Tb =H ~ByX CTpaH tHHaHCOBbIe, Hay~HbIe CTlIMy~bI ~ CTHMy~bI B OTHOWeHMM COBMeCTHOrO MCHORb30BaHHR MHtOpMaUMeM B ue~nx pacmnpeH~n ~ cTa6~3aunn csn3en Me~y uX cr~eunan~cTaMn. B~nHne KOHKpeTHOn cosMecTHon lenTe~bHocTn Ha rIpo6neMbI o6~ecTseHHoro a~pasooxpaHeHnH ~ upoUne HpO6~eMbI Tpy~HO CHpOrH03MpOBaTb, O~HaKO, pOCCHUCKHe ~ aMep~KaHCKHe CHeUMaRMCTbI HeHOKORe6MMbI B CBOeM peW~MOCTH BHeCTH Cy~eCTBeHHMM BK~a~ B STy 06~aCTb, HpeDCTaB=~ylO HeOC~a6eBa~H MHTepeC BO BCeM MNpe. 59

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Han60Ree BepORTHOe De~CTBMe CTa6~bHOH HpOrpaMMb! IT Bbip~aTbCH B KOppeKTlIpOBKe CTpyKTypbI pOCCH~CKOrO Hay~HO-MCCRe0OBaTe~bCKOrO HpeDUpH~T~, SaH~Ma~erOC~ HpO6ReMaMM OHaCHb1X HaTOreHOB. ~CCReDOBaTeRbCKHe HpOeKTb! IT B SHaH~TeRbHOM CTeHeHM CKOHUeHTpUpOBaHb! B He60~bW0M HUcRe HaH~yHm~x B CTpaHe OpraHH3aUHM, KOTOpble CTaHyT HeHTpaMM OTT. HeKOTOpble 60Ree curable opraHHaauHn Me,D;~eHHO yTpaTHT CBO~ CHOCO6HOCTb HpOBO~HTb Hay~Hble MCCReDOBaHMR B 06~aCTH OHaCHb1X IIaTOreHOB, ~ CTOJIKHyTbCH C ewe 60Rb~eH Tpy~HOCTb~ B OTHOWeHHM paCHOp~eHHR tHHaHCOBOM HO=ep*KOM TaKOH pa60TbI, HeM B HECTORS KpH3HCHbIM HepHoD. Heo6xo~nMo 6y,qeT Hpe~Hp~HSTb ocobb~e ycu~n ~ oGecne~eHnn HODrOTOB~eHHOCTH 60~ee CHRbHb1X OpraHMSaUMM Op~H~Tb HeKOTOpb1X yUeHb1X HS 60~ee c~a6b~x MHCTHTyToB' HT06b! OHM He C06Ra3HMRMCb Ha nepe~a~y Mx Hoy-xay rocyDapcTBaM' Bbl3bIBammMM OHaCeHH~ B OTHOWeHMM paCHpOCTpaHeHMH. XOTH KOHCORM~aUMR B pOCCHUCKOM MCC~e~OBaTeRbCKOM KOMH~eKCe 6y~eT KaSaTbCH Hensbe*Ho~, n0~06HoH KOHCORM~aUMeH HeO6XO~HM0 6y~eT BH~MaTeRbHO pyKOBO~HTb. EC~H COeQHHeHHMe ~TaTb] AMep~KH ~ POCCH~ 6Y~YT B COCTORHHM HpOBO~HTb KOHCTpyKTHBHy~ COBMeCTHy~ pa6oTy Ha HpOT~eHHM ~HTe~bHOrO BpeMeHM, Me~yHapO~HbIM DHHROMaTHHeCKHM TOH B STOH 06RaCTH MO*eT 6bITb 3HaHUTe~bHO y~yH~eH, HTO Hp~BeDeT K HOBOMy ~ B~HOMy OCRa6ReHH~ yRpO3bI paCHpOCTpaHeHHR ~ TeppOpH3Ma, a TaK*e K y~yH~eHM~ pOCCHUCKO-aMep~KaHCKHX OTHOWeHMM B 06RaCTH, KOTOpaR CRH~KOM HaCTO HpepbIBaRaCb KORKOCTHMM ~ H3BUTeRbHOCTb~. KpOMe TOrO, ~ORrOCpO~HaH COBMeCTHaR DeRTe~bHOCTb BHeCeT 60RbW0H BKRaD B CHH*eHMe BCeM~pHOH OHaCHOCTH, KOTOp HpeDCTaB=~T HOBble ~ BHOBb HO~B~HeCH MHteKUMOHHble 3a60ReBaHMH. 60