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A Committee and Staff Biographies COMMITTEE MEMBERS Joshua Lederberg (NAS, {OM), chair, is Professor Emeritus and Raymond and Beverly Sackler Foundation Scholar at the Rockefeller University. In 1958 he received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work in bacterial genetics. He has been active in many national and international science policy deliberations, especially at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and World Health Organization (WHO). He served as a consultant to the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency during negotiation of the 1972 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC), and he currently serves on the Defense Science Board. John D. Steinbruner, vice-chair, is a Senior Fellow and former Director of the Foreign Policy Studies Program at the Brookings institution. He has held faculty positions at Yale University, Harvard University, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. A political scientist, he has written extensively on arms control and security issues, including problems of command and control and crisis decision making. He is a member of the Defense Policy Board. Barry Bloom (NAS, lOM) is Investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. He has received numerous awards for his work in immunology and infectious diseases, including the Bristol-Myers Squibb Award. He has been active in the programs of WHO. Gail Cassell (IOM) is Chair of the Department of Microbiology and Charles H. McCauley Professor of Microbiology at the University of Alabama-Birmingham. She has received a number of awards for her research in infectious diseases and is a recent past President of the American Society for Microbiology. She has been active in national and international policy deliberations, including those of NTH and the U.S.-lapan Cooperative Medical Science Program. She is also a member of the International Science and Technology Center Science Advisor Committee and a member of the steering committee for the U.S.- Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program. She is a recent chair of the Board of Scientific Counselors of the National Center for Infectious Diseases of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Robert Chanock (NAS) is Chief of the Laboratory of Infectious Diseases of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of NTH. He has received numerous awards for his work in virology and infectious disease research, including the Bristol-Myers Squibb Award for Distinguished Achievement in Infectious Disease Research, the Robert Koch Medal of the Robert Koch Foundation, the ICN International Prize in Virology, and the Albert Sabin Gold Medal of the Albert Sabin Vaccine Foundation. He has been active in WHO and in national policy discussions. R. John Collier (GAS) is Professor of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics at Harvard Medical School. His career has been largely devoted to research on the structures and actions of bacterial toxins. He has received a number of awards during his career including the Eli Lilly Award in Microbiology and Immunology and the Paul Ehrlich Prize.

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Maurice R. Hilleman (NAS) is Director (formerly Senior Vice President) of the Merck Institute at Merck Research Laboratories in West Point, Pennsylvania. His career has been in basic and applied research on viruses, vaccines, immunology, and cancer. He is a long-time adviser to many health agencies including the Department of Health and Human Services, WHO, Overseas Medical Research Laboratory Committee of the Department of Defense (DOD), and special committees of the NAS and IOM. Peter B. Jahrling is Scientific Adviser and Senior Research Scientist at the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRITD). He is head of the WHO collaborating center on arbovirus and hemorrhagic fever virus research at USAMRIlD and a member of the Committee on Return of Biological Samples of the National Research Council's (NRC's) Space Studies Board. He serves as a guest editor for a number of journals including the third and fourth editions of the Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomeclical Laboratories. His research interests include development of vaccines, antiviral drugs, and effective treatment strategies for Ebola, Marburg, Lassa, and orthopox viruses. James Leduc is Associate Director for Global Health in the National Center for Infectious Diseases at CDC. He is a fellow of the American College of Epidemiology and has received numerous awards for outstanding work in epidemiology. He has served as a Medical Officer of WHO and as an Officer at the United States Army Medical Research and Development Command. His research interests include epidemiology of virus diseases, especially viral hemorrhagic fevers and new, emerging and reemerging diseases. Matthew Meselson (NAS, TOM) is Thomas Dudley Cabot Professor of Natural Sciences at Harvard University and codirector of the Harvard-Sussex program on chemical and biological warfare armament and arms limitation. He has conducted research mainly in the field of molecular genetics and is recipient of the NAS Award in Molecular Biology, the Eli Lilly Award in Microbiology, and the Thomas Hunt Morgan Medal of the Genetics Society of America. He is a member of the Royal Society and the Academie des Sciences and has served as a consultant on chemical and biological weapons matters to U.S. government agencies. Thomas Monath is Vice President of Research and Development at OraVax and Adjunct Professor at the Harvard School of Public Health. He has been engaged in programs of WHO and the National Vaccines Advisory Committee. He was formerly director of the Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, CDC, and Chief of Virology, USAMRIlD. His research has included work on arboviruses, viral hemorrhagic fevers, bubonic plague, and other zoonotic diseases. He has served on various committees dealing with biological weapons (BOO) issues. Frederick A. Murphy is Professor at the School of Veterinary Medicine at the University of California- Davis. Formerly, he was dean of the schan1 anr1 earlier he we the ~lire~.tor of tier, N~ti~n~1 Canter for Infectious Diseases at CDC. He is recipient of the Presidential Rank Award and is a member of the German Academy of Natural Sciences. He has been a leader in viral pathogenesis, viral characterization, and taxonomy; his interests include public health policy, vaccine development, and new, emerging and ~ . reemerging cllseases. ~,, ~~ ~. ~ ~ i. ~. ~ ~_, . in, Major General Philip K. Russell (retired U.S. Army) is Professor of International Health at the School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University. He received the Distinguished Service Medal before retiring from military service. He has served on numerous scientific committees including advisory committees to the CDC and WHO. He was also involved in the establishment of medical research facilities at military bases around the world.

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Alexis Shelokov is Director of Meclical Affairs with the Biologicals Development Center of the Salk Institute. He served as a member of the Expert Working Group on Biological anc! Toxin Weapons Verification of the Federation of American Scientists. He has been involved in the activities of WHO, NIH, and the U.S.-lapan Cooperative Meclical Program. In adclition, he served as the chairman of U.S. delegations on hemorrhagic fevers to the Soviet Union in 1965 ant! 1969. STAFF MEMBERS Christopher P. Howson is Director of the Boarc} on International Health of the TOM. In his ~ ~ years at NAS, he has clirectec! 15 projects ant} in 1993 server} as acting director of the TOM Medical Follow-up Agency. Before coming to NAS, he was senior epiclemiologist at the American Health Foundation in New York Citv. He hoIcis a Ph.D. in eDidemiolo~v from the Universitv of California at Los Angeles. ~ - -a Jo L. Husbands is Director of the NAS Committee on International Security and Arms Control. Before assuming that position, she was director of the NRC's Project on Democratization and senior research associate for its Committee on International Conflict and Cooperation. She holds a Ph.D. in political science from the University of Minnesota. Glenn E. Schweitzer is Director of the Office for Central Europe ant! Eurasia of the National Research Council. From 1963 to ~ 966, he server! as the first science officer at the American Embassy in Moscow, and from 1992 to 1994 he was the first executive director of the International Science anc! Technology Center in Moscow. He has also served as director of the Office of Toxic Substances anc! director of the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. ChaarIes G. FogeIgren is Research Assistant for the NAS Committee on International Security anc! Arms Control. He hoicis a B.A. in anthropology from The George Washington University. His interests inclucle chemical ant} biological weapons disarmament, evolution, ethics, parasitology, ancl emerging and reemerglng c .lseases.