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F Australia Group Chaired by Australia, the "Australia Group" (AG) is an informal forum of states whose goal is to discourage and impede chemical weapons (COO) proliferation by harmonizing national export controls on CW precursor chemicals, sharing information on target countries, and seeking other ways to curb the use of CW. The Group was formed in 1984 as a result of CW use in the Iran-Iraq war. Members meet annually in Paris, where the 1925 Geneva Protocol is deposited. The Group's actions are viewed as complementary measures in support of the 1925 Geneva Protocol, the 1972 Biological and Toxins Weapons Convention and the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention. There are presently 30 members of the Group, including: EC-12, Australia, Argentina, Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Iceland, New Zealand, Japan, Canada, Norway, Finland, Sweden, Switzerland, Poland, Romania, the Slovak Republic, South Korea, and the United States. Requests by other states to join the Group are considered on a case-by-case basis. The Group has no charter or constitution. It operates by consensus. On December 10, 1992, the AG issued its first joint background paper on the Group's activities. The Group has established common export controls for chemical and biological weapons nonproliferation purposes. For CW, members of the AG control a list of 54 chemical precursors and a list of CW-related production equipment as well. For BW, members have established export controls on certain microorganisms, toxins, and equipment that could be used in a BW program. In tandem with export controls, the AG has periodically used warning mechanisms to sensitize its public to CBW proliferation. The Group has issued an informal "warning list" of dual-use CW precursors and bulk chemicals, and on CW-related equipment. Members develop and share the warning lists with their chemical industries and ask industry to report on any suspicious transactions. The AG has also used an approach to warn industry, the scientific community, and other relevant groups of the risk of inadvertently aiding BW proliferation. The Group's meetings focus on sharing information about national export controls, considering proposals for "harmonization" the adoption of common controls by all members on chemical precursors, equipment, biological weapons related materials, and considering other measures to address CBW proliferation and use. LIST OF DUAL-USE BIOLOGICAL EQUIPMENT FOR EXPORT CONTROL Complete containment facilities at P3, P4 containment level Complete containment facilities that meet the criteria for P3 or P4 (BL3, BL4, L3, L4) containment as specified in the WHO Laboratory Biosafety manual (Geneva, 1983) are subject to export control.

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2. Fermenters* Fermenters capable of cultivation of pathogenic micro-organisms, or viruses or of toxin production, without the propagation of aerosols, and having all the following characteristics: (a) Capacity equal to or greater than ~ 00 litres. *Sub-groups of fermenters include bioreactors, chemostats and continuous-flow systems. 3. Centrifugal Separators* Centrifugal separators capable of the continuous separation of pathogenic microorganisms, without the propagation of aerosols, and having all the following characteristics: (a) Flow rate greater than 100 litres per hour; (b) Components of polished stainless steed or titanium; (c) Double or multiple sealing joints within the steam containment area; and (d) Capable of in-situ steam sterilization in a closed state. *Centrifugal separators include decanters. 4. Cross-flow filtration equipment Cross-flow filtration equipment capable of continuous separation of pathogenic microorganisms viruses, toxins, and cell cultures without the propagation of aerosols, having all the following characteristics: (a) Equal to or greater than 5 square metros; (b) Capable of in situ sterilization. a. Freeze-drying equipment Steam sterilizable freeze-drying equipment with a condenser capacity greater than 50 kg of ice in 24 hours and less than ~ 000 kg of ice in 24 hours. 6. Equipment that incorporates or is contained in P3 or P4 (BL3, BL4, L3, L4) containment housing, as follows: (a) Independently ventilated protective full or half suits; and (b) Class Ill biological safety cabinets or isolators with similar performance standards. 7. Aerosol inhalation chambers Chambers designed for aerosol challenge testing with microorganisms, viruses, or toxins and having a capacity of ~ cubic metre or greater. The experts propose that the following items be included in awareness-raising guidelines to industry:

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1. Equipment for the microencapsulation of live microorganisms and toxins in the range of ~ -! 0 ,um particle size, specifically: (a) Tnterfacial polycondensors; and (b) Phase separators. 2. Fermenters of less than 100 litre capacity with special emphasis on aggregate orders or designs for use in combined systems. 3. Conventional or turbulent air-flow clean-air rooms and self-contained fan-HEPA filter units that may be used for P3 or P4 (BL3, BL4, L3, L4) containment facilities. LIST OF BIOLOGICAL AGENTS FOR EXPORT CONTROL CORE LIST Viruses V! . Chikungunya virus V2. Congo-Crimean haemorrhagic fever virus V3. Dengue fever virus V4. Eastern equine encephalitis virus V5. Ebola virus V6. Hantaan virus V7. Junin virus V8. Lassa fever virus V9. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus VI0. Machupo virus V! ~ . Marburg virus VI2. Monkeypox virus VI3. Rift Valley fever virus Vl4. Tick-borne encephalitis virus (Russian spring-summer encephalitis virus) V! 5. Variola virus VI6. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus VI7. Western equine encephalitis virus Vl 8. White pox V!9. Yellow fever virus V20. Japanese encephalitis virus Rickettsiae RI. Coxiella burnetii R2. Bartonelia quintana (Rochalimea quintana, Rickettsia quintana) R3. Rickettsia prowasecki R4. Rickettsia rickettsii Bacteria Bl. Bacillus anthracis B2. Brucella abortus

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B3. Brucelia meliter~sis B4. Brz~celia suds B5. Chlamydia psittaci B6. Clostridium botulinum B7. Frar~cisella tularensis B8. Burkholderia mallet (Pseudomonas malleiJ B9. Burkholderia pseudomallei (Pse?~domonas pseudomallei) B10. Salmonella typhi B 1 1. Shigella dysenteriae Bl2. Vibrio cholerae B13. Yersiniapestis GeneticallY modified microorganisms GI. Genetically modif~ed microorganisms or genetic elements that contain nucleic acid sequences associated with pathogenicity and are derived from organisms in the core list. G2. Genetically modif~ed microorganisms or genetic elements that contain nucleic acid sequences coding for any of the toxins in the core list or their subunits. l oxins as follows and subunits thereof:2 TI. Botulinum toxins T2. Clostridium perfringens toxins T3. Conotoxin T4. Ricin T5. Saxitoxin T6. Shiga toxin T7. Staphylococcus aureus toxins T8. Tetrodotoxin T9. Verotoxin TI0. Microcystin (Cyanginosin) T! T. Aflatoxins . 1. Except where the agent is in the form of a vaccine. 2. Excluding immunotoxins. WA~ING LIST~ Viruses WVI. Kyasanur Forest virus WV2. Louping ill virus WV3. Murray Valley encephalitis virus WV4. Omsk haemorrhagic fever virus WV5. Oropouche virus WV6. Powassan virus WV7. Rocio virus

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WV8. St. Louis encephalitis virus Bacteria WE 1. Clostridium perfringens* WB2. Clostridium tetani* WB3. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia colt, serotype 0157, and other verotoxin-producing serotypes WB4. Legionella pneumophila WB5. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Genetically modified microorganisms WGI. Genetically modified microorganisms or genetic elements that contain nucleic acid sequences associated with pathogenicity and are derived from organisms in the warning list. WG2. Genetically modified microorganisms or genetic elements that contain nucleic acid sequences coding for any of the toxins in the warning list or their subunits. Toxins as follows and subunits thereof:2 WTI. Abrin WT2. Cholera toxin WT3. Tetanus toxin WT4. Trichothecene mycotoxins WT5. Modeccin WT6. Volkensin WT7. Viscum album lectin ~ (Viscumin) *The Australia Group recognizes that these organisms are ubiquitous, but, as they have been acquired in the past as part of biological weapons programs, they are worthy of special caution. ~ . Except where the agent is in the form of a vaccine. 2. Excluding immunotoxins. Viruses LIST OF ANIMAL PATHOGENS FOR EXPORT CONTROL1 AV! . African swine fever virus AV2. Avian influenza virus2 AV3. Bluetongue virus AV4. Foot and mouth disease virus AV5. Goatpox virus AV6. Herpesvirus (Aujeszky's disease) AV7. Hog cholera virus (synonym: swine fever virus) AV8. Lyssa virus AV9. Newcastle disease virus

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AV10. Peste des petite ruminants virus AV11. Porcine enterovirus type 9 (synonym: swine vesicular disease virus) AV12. Rinderpest virus AV13. Sheeppox virus AVIS. Teschen disease virus AV! 5. Vesicular stomatitis virus ~ . Except where the agent is in the form of a vaccine. 2. This includes only those avian influenza viruses of high pathogenicity as defined in EC Directive 92/401EC: "Type A viruses with an {VPT (intravenous pathogenicity index) in 6 week old chickens of greater than I.2, or Type A viruses HS or H7 subtype for which nucleotide sequencing has demonstrated multiple basic amino acids at the cleavage site of haemagglutinin." Bacteria AB3. Mycoplasma mycoicles Genetically-modified microorganisms AGI. Genetically modified microorganisms or genetic elements that contain nucleic acid sequences associated with pathogenicity and are derived from organisms in the list. CONTROL LIST OF PLANT PATHOGENS FOR EXPORT CONTROL CORE LIST Bacteria PB ~ . Xanthomonas albilineans PB2. Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri F. ung1 PF] . Colletotrichum coffeanum var. virulans (Colletotrichum kanawaeJ PF2. Cochliobolus miyabeanus (Helminthosporium oryzoeJ PF3. Microcyclus ulei (synonym Dothidella uleiJ PF4. Puccinia graminis (synonym Puccinia graminis f. sp. triticiJ PF5. Puccinia striiformis (synonym PucciniaglumarumJ PF6. Pyricularia grisea/Pyricularia oryzue Genetically modif1ed Microorganisms PGI. Genetically modifed microorganisms or genetic elements that contain nucleic acid sequences associated with pathogenicity derived from the plant pathogens identifed on the export control list.

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ITEMS FOR INCLUSION IN AWARENESS-RAISING GUIDELINES Bacteria PWB 1. Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae PWB2. Xylella fastidiosa Fungi PWF1. Deuterophoma tracheiphila (synonym Phoma tracheiphila) PWF2. Monilia rorei (synonym Moniliophthora rorei) Viruses PWVI. Banana bunchy top virus Genetically modified microorganisms PWGI. Genetically modified microorganisms or genetic elements that contain nucleic acid sequences associated with pathogenicity derived from the plant pathogens identified on the awareness-raising list. Source: U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency