REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH PROGRAM OF THE PARTNERSHIP FOR A NEW GENERATION OF VEHICLES

Standing Committee to Review the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles

Board on Energy and Environmental Systems

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

Transportation Research Board

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
WASHINGTON, D.C.
1994



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REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH PROGRAM OF THE PARTNERSHIP FOR A NEW GENERATION OF VEHICLES REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH PROGRAM OF THE PARTNERSHIP FOR A NEW GENERATION OF VEHICLES Standing Committee to Review the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles Board on Energy and Environmental Systems Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems Transportation Research Board National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. 1994

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REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH PROGRAM OF THE PARTNERSHIP FOR A NEW GENERATION OF VEHICLES National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N. W. Washington, D. C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This report and the study on which it is based were supported by Contract No. DTNH22-94-G-07414 from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. Limited copies of this report are available from the Board on Energy and Environmental Systems, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418. Copyright 1994 by theNational Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH PROGRAM OF THE PARTNERSHIP FOR A NEW GENERATION OF VEHICLES Standing Committee to Review the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles* TREVOR O. JONES (Chair), NAE, Chairman of the Board (Retired), Libbey-Owens-Ford Company, Cleveland, Ohio HARRY E. COOK, NAE, Grayce Wicall Gaunthier Professor of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana KENNERLY H. DIGGES, Research Professor of Mechanical Engineering, George Washington University, Ashburn, Virginia DEBORAH GORDON, Transportation Program Director, Union of Concerned Scientists, Berkeley, California ROBERT L. HIRSCH, Senior Vice President, General Atomics, Washington, D.C. CRAIG MARKS, NAE, President, Creative Management Solutions,and Visiting Professor in both the College of Engineering and the School of Business Administration, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor SEYMOUR MEISEL, NAE, Vice President for Research (Retired), Mobil Oil Corporation, Princeton, New Jersey C. MICHAEL WALTON, NAE, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering and Chairman, Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin Project Staff MAHADEVAN MANI, Director, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems (BEES) NANCY HUMPHREY, Senior Program Officer, Transportation Research Board HELEN JOHNSON, Administrative Associate, BEES LYNN KASPER, Staff Editor, Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems (CETS) WENDY ORR, Project Assistant, BEES ARCH WOOD, Executive Director, CETS * For biographical sketches of members and staff, see Appendix C.    NAE= Member, National Academy of Engineering.

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REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH PROGRAM OF THE PARTNERSHIP FOR A NEW GENERATION OF VEHICLES Board on Energy and Environmental Systems H. M. (HUB) HUBBARD (Chair), President and Chief Executive Officer, Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR), Honolulu, Hawaii RICHARD MESERVE (Vice-Chair), Partner, Covington & Burling, Washington, D.C. STEPHEN D. BAN, President, Gas Research Institute, Chicago, Illinois ROBERT D. BANKS, Program Director of Technology and Environment, World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C. ALLEN J. BARD, NAS, Professor, Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at Austin BARBARA R. BARKOVICH, Partner, Barkovich and Yap, Consultants, San Rafael, California JAN BEYEA, Chief Scientist, National Audubon Society, New York, New York DAVID E. DANIEL, L.B. (Preach) Meaders Professor of Civil Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin LINDA C. DOLAN, Staff Environmental Engineer, Martin Marietta Electronics and Missiles, Orlando, Florida ROBERT L. HIRSCH, Senior Vice President, General Atomics, Washington, D.C. FRANCOIS E. HEUZE, Head, Geotechnical Group, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California CHARLES D. KOLSTAD, Professor, Department of Economics, University of California, Santa Barbara JANE C. S. LONG, Staff Scientist, Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California SEYMOUR MEISEL, NAE, Vice President, Research (Retired), Mobil R&D Corporation, Princeton, New Jersey SHLOMO P. NEUMAN, NAE, Regents’ Professor, Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson THOMAS O’ROURKE, NAE, Professor, Civil & Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York LAWRENCE T. PAPAY, NAE, Vice President & Manager of Research & Development, Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, California RUTH A. RECK, Director, Global Climate Change Program, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois MARC H. ROSS, Professor, Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor   NAS= Member, National Academy of Sciences   NAE= Member, National Academy of Engineering

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REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH PROGRAM OF THE PARTNERSHIP FOR A NEW GENERATION OF VEHICLES HAROLD H. SCHOBERT, Chairman, Fuel Sciences Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park JOEL SPIRA, NAE, Chairman and Director of Research, Lutron Electronics Co., Inc., Coopersburg, Pennsylvania JON M. VEIGEL, President, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, Tennessee Liaison Members to the Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems RICHARD A. CONWAY, NAE, Senior Corporate Fellow, Union Carbide Corporation, South Charleston, West Virginia TREVOR O. JONES, NAE, Chairman of the Board (Retired), Libbey-Owens-Ford Company, Cleveland, Ohio Staff MAHADEVAN MANI, Director SUSANNA CLARENDON, Administrative Assistant THERON FEIST, Project Assistant HELEN JOHNSON, Administrative Associate WENDY ORR, Project Assistant JILL WILSON, Program Officer TRACY WILSON, Senior Program Officer JAMES ZUCCHETTO, Senior Program Officer   NAE= Member, National Academy of Engineering

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