Appendix E

PNGV Positions Regarding Electric Vehicles and Gasoline Internal Combustion Engines



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REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH PROGRAM OF THE PARTNERSHIP FOR A NEW GENERATION OF VEHICLES: SECOND REPORT Appendix E PNGV Positions Regarding Electric Vehicles and Gasoline Internal Combustion Engines

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REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH PROGRAM OF THE PARTNERSHIP FOR A NEW GENERATION OF VEHICLES: SECOND REPORT Allan D. Murray Technical Planning Manager New Generation of Vehicles Program Office Ford Motor Company The American Rd, Rm. 354 P.O. Box 1898 Dearborn, Michigan 48121-1899 Telephone: 313-322-5066 Rapifax: 313-594-7303 December 6, 1995 Mr. Trevor O. Jones National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue Washington, DC 20418 Subject: Electric Vehicle Position Reference: Your November 21, 1995, Memo (Attached) You requested PNGV to provide a position on straight electric vehicles (vs hybrid electrics). As you know, USCAR sponsors active development of electric vehicle energy storage devices, and each OEM has aggressive electric vehicle development programs. There are many common needs between straight electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. Both require maximum weight reduction, high efficiency electric motors, inverters, low energy accessories, low rolling resistance tires, etc. Primarily as a result of limitations in existing and projected energy storage devices, straight electrics in the PNGV timeframe are unlikely to meet PNGV's objectives of affordability and functional equivalence. Functional limitations include range, speed of “re-fueling”, and package space and there are infrastructure concerns. Affordability issues include the initial cost and replacement cost of high-energy storage devices.. The cost of electric drivetrains and associated power electronics must also come down, as they must for hybrid electrics. Electric vehicles have a relatively low probability of meeting the PNGV “Goal 3” requirements within the next decade. In the long-term we anticipate that possible significant improvements in the cost and efficiency of storage devices, electric drives and high power electronics could be achieved. Thus, the possibility of significant “breakthrough” improvements which would make straight electric vehicles viable, cannot be totally ruled out. cc: Rob Chapman denny Freitag Bob Mull Peter Rosenfeld Ron York Attachment

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REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH PROGRAM OF THE PARTNERSHIP FOR A NEW GENERATION OF VEHICLES: SECOND REPORT T. W. ASMUS PHONE: 576-8004 FAX: 576-2182 November 15, 1995 TO: Allan Murray Ford - (313) 594-7303 SUBJECT: Peer Review Question on gasoline SIE Thermal Efficiency It is highly unlikely that gasoline SIE (homogeneous charge) thermal efficiencies will ever meet the PNGV goal 3 target of 40% (cycle averaged). Current and past efforts aimed at direct injection (stratified charge) SIE have demonstrated significant increases in thermel efficiency over homogeneous charge counterparts, however, will likely fall short of this target. Severe emissions and durability challenges have hampered implementation of this approach. The open-chamber Diesel remains as the most likely candidate to meet the aforementioned target (current status has peak efficiencies in the 40% range with cycle averaged efficiencies somewhat lower). Well-known emissions, cost and power density challenges persist. TWA/sf