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5 FEDERALAGENCIES FORUM Representatives offederal agencies thatched mathematical sciences research and education projects discuss and answer questions on their programs. NATIONAE SCIENCE FOUNDATION Carroll Wilde, Directorate for Science and Engineering Education ARMY RESEARCH OFFICE Jagdish Chandra, Mathematical Sciences Division OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH Neil L. Gerr, Mathematical Sciences Division AIR FORCE OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH Charles J. Holland, Mathematical and Information Sciences NATIONAL SECURITY AGENCY Marvin C. Wunderlich, Mathematical Sciences Program DEFENSE ADVANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS AGENCY Louis Auslander, Applied and Computational Mathematics Program DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Donald Austin, Office of Energy Research NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Judith S. Sunley, Division of Mathematical Sciences 45

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FEDERAL AGENCIES FORUM NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Caroll Wilde* Directorate for Science and Engineering Education My task is to represent the Directorate for Science and Engineering Education of the National Science Foundation. This directorate is primarily concerned with education. Our focus is in mathematics education from kindergarten through undergraduate. The Directorate for Science and Engineering Education (SEE) is composed of the following units: Division of Teacher Preparation and Enhancement (TPE) Division of Materials Development, Research, and Informal Science Education (MDRI) Division of Undergraduate Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Education ~JSEME) Division of Research Career Development (RCD) Office of Studies and Program Assessment (OS PA) The approximate levels of funding are as follows: FY 1989 Plan FY 1990 Request TPE $63.5 M $68.5 M MDRI 44 49 USEME 28 30 RCD 31 38 OSPA 45 TOTAL $171.0 M $190.0 M The following is a list of mathematics contacts in SEE: MDRI Thomas Berger (202) 357-7066 USEME John S. Bradley (202) 357-7051 TPE Glenda Lappan (202) 357-7069 Charles Eilber (202) 357-7751 Joan Ferrini-Mundy (202) 357-7074 Carroll Wilde (202) 357-9527 SEE/DTPE, Robin 635-B, 1800 G Street, NW, Washington, DC 20550. Telephone: (202) 357-7074. 47

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CHAIRING TO MATHEMATICAL S(~IFNCES DEPARTMENT OF TO 1990S ARMY RESEARCH OFFICE Jagdish Chandra* Mathematical Sciences Division There are three sources of support in mathematical sciences from the Army Research Office. The first is our core program involving individual investigators. Second are the Centers of Excellence, now numbering three. These centers offer a wide spectrum of opportunities through a visitors program and an extensive program of support for predoctoral and postdoctoral fellowships. A third source of funding is through the Innovative Sciences and Technology Program sponsored by the Strategic Defense Initiative Of lice (SDIO). This is also for individual investigators. One issue that concerns us is the growing erosion of support for individual investigators. The ratio of individual investigators' support to center support has become very unhealthy. Although this is not limited to mathematical sciences, it is particularly acute in this field. We view He centers as national resources. The facilities and the opportunities at these centers should not be limited to the home institutions. I do not think at this point that these centers are being used in an optimal wav I remind vc,~ that a significant amount of sunnort at these centers goes to visitors, graduate students, and postdoctoral fellowships. These centers have different emphases and foci. For instance, the recently established center at the University of Minnesota is primarily concerned with issues in high-performance computing. As such, the emphasis at the other centers is on other aspects of mathematical sciences. For example, the Mathematical Sciences Institute at Cornell has placed major emphasis on analysis, probability and stochastic processes, and physical mathematics. There is also a growing interest in geometric analysis at this center. It will be competed for renewal during the fall of 1990. In summary, we seek stable funding, for individuals as well as for multi-investigator centers. There are many impediments to accomplishing these goals. There are always attempts to create new programs without any thought given to stability of the programs. Funding is tight all around. However, you will have no opportunity for support unless you get into the competition. We are willing to talk. P.O. Box 12211, Research Triangle, NC 27709. Telephone: (919) 549-0641. E-Mail: chandra@brl.arpa 48

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FEDERAL AGENCIES FORUM OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH Neil L. Gerr* Mathematical Sciences Division There have been some changes at the Office of Naval Research (ONR). The biggest changes have been in personnel. We have two new people, John Lavery in applied analysis and Marc Lipman in discrete mathematics. Richard Lau, in numerical analysis, has been with ONR for approximately 15 years. Julia Abraham s is running the probability and statistics program and is also the acting scientific of ricer for operations research. We are now interviewing candidates for operations research. I am acting as scientific officer for signal analysis. That is another position for which we are interviewing candidates. The other big news concerns our new FY 1991 research initiatives, which we competed for last year and succeeded in having authorized by upper management. We are currently working on 1992. There is not much I can tell you about that today. The first FY 1991 initiative, random fields for oceanographic modeling, is joint with ocean atmospheric sciences and is being managed by Julia Abrahams. The goal is to develop random field models, which are based on physical models, particularly, physical models as might apply to oceanography. I will manage bioacoustic signal classification. It is a joint program with cognitive and neural sciences. The idea is to try to use knowledge of neurophysiology and psycho-acoustics and the way mammalian organisms process acoustic signals to develop new signal processing techniques for use by the Navy in sonar. Finally, Richard Lau, in numerical analysis, will sponsor some new work in computational microwave scattering. Mathematical Sciences Division personnel and telephone numbers are as follows: Applied Analysis John Lavery (202) 6964314 Discrete Mathematics Marc Lipman (202) 6964310 Numerical Analysis Richard Lau (202) 6964316 Operations Research Julia Abrahams (202) 6964320 Probability/Statistics Julia Abrahams (202) 6964320 Code 1 111, 800 N. Quincy Street, Arlington, VA 22217. Telephone: (202) 696-4321. 49

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CHADUNG TO MATHEMATICAL SCONCES DEPARTMENT OF THE 1990S AIR FORCE OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH Charles J. Holland: Mathematics and Information Sciences Directorate There are six directorates at the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR). Mathematics and computer science are combined and represent the Mathematics and Information Sciences Directorate. Unlike the other services, we manage all basic research activities, including the work at the laboratories. So we divide our funding as appropriate between universities, industries, and the Air Force laboratories. Within this directorate, program areas and their managers are as follows: Applied Mathematics Arje Nachman (202) 7674939 Control Theory Marc Jacobs (202) 767-5025 Optimization and Discrete Math Neal Classman (202) 767-5026 Computational Mathematics Arje Nachman (202) 7674939 Charles Holland (202) 767-5025 Probability, Statistics, and Signal Processing Jon Sjogren (202) 7674940 Artificial Intelligence Abe Waksman (202) 767-5027 Computer Science Charles Holland (202) 767-5025 Our preferred strategy for receiving proposals is that first you call the appropriate program manager. Then send a small white paper describing your interest and a few publications, reprints, or preprints that document the direction in which you are heading. Let us tell you whether it is worth your time to send us a formal proposal. You, as chairmen, need to enforce this rule because we continue to receive 20 to 25 copies of proposals, sent at considerable university cost, that are not appropriate for our agency. We spend our money early. Ideally, our goal is to have all of FY 1990 money committed already. We have about two-thirds of it already earmarked. Anotherissueis that near-term fundingis not "rowing within our organization. Still,the program is highly competitive. There is a substantial amount of turnover. Turnover occurs when new people come in and see new directions for a program and implement those directions. The only requirement is that they are valid scientifically and are likely to have substantial Air Force impact. AFOSRJNM, Bldg. 410, Room 203, Balling AFB, DC 20332-6448. Telephone: (202) 767-5025. E-Mail: chollan@answc-wo.arpa 50

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FEDERAL AGENCIES FORUM We have a defense research sciences program, which is approximately $20 million. It is advertised in the Commerce Business Daily once a year. AFOSR has two University Research Initiatives (URI) programs: the standard large block program and a small geographically broadening initiative, which supports people who have not received a large amount of DoD funding in the past Both of these programs were run last year. Three-year awards were made so they are not likely to be recomputed for at least two years. It is not likely that we will have an equipment program this year. We support other programs. There is a summer faculty research program in which faculty join Air Force laboratories, find out what the laboratories are doing, and may get a small contract afterwards. Graduate students can also participate. Also, AFOSR supports a high school apprenticeship program and two graduate fellowship programs. There is an Air Force graduate fellowship program and a graduate fellowship in conjunction with URI. The Air Force, the Navy, and the Army all agreed on one common application form. Look for the brochures. Finally, we have a university resident research program and a postdoctoral program. So there are other opportunities in addition to those in the Mathematics and Information Sciences Directorate. Our Research Interests brochure describes all our programs. 51

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CHAFING TO MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF THE 1990S NATIONAL SECURITY AGENCY Marvin C. Wunderlich* Mathematical Sciences Program The name of our program is NSA Mathematical Science Grants Program (NSAMSGP). I am the program director. I will discuss things in three parts. Since we are new in this activity, I will give you a brief introduction to the program. Then I will discuss our funding statistics over the past year or two. Finally, I will share with you information concerning our grant application process. The program, then known as Outside Cryptologic-Related Research (OCREA), began in 1980. For approximately five years we funded only research in cryptology or cryptography. The grants were all reviewed internally by our agency. The budget was very small. In 1987, General Odom, who was our director at the time, decided to expand the program and fund general mathematics rather than just cryptology. Now general mathematics receives over 90 percent of our funds. Three chan'ges occurred due to the David report: we greatly expanded, the name of our program was changed; and the peer panel external review system was instituted. Proposals in pure mathematics are not reviewed internally. They are sent to the National Research Council. We have a review panel and a review panel representative, John Tucker. The panel consists of ten mathematicians. Each member of the panel gets a certain segment of the proposals and then chooses four outside reviewers for each proposal. These reviews are received by the Board on Mathematical Sciences at the National Research Council. Once or twice a year the panel meets in Washington, D.C., and puts all the proposals that have been received into one competition. It is my job, then, to reflect that order when I fund grants with the available money. The purpose of our program is to support American mathematical research and to increase the supply of U.S. citizen mathematicians, whom we employ in great numbers. Our current director, Vice Admiral William Studeman, strongly supports the program. We support six areas: algebra, discrete mathematics, number theory, statistics, probability, and cryptog- raphy. The cryptography support is less than 10 percent of the total. Unlike other agencies, we have no mission relationship and no requirement that we know your interests in advance. Any good mathematics in an appropriate area will do. I have no control over how much money goes to the various areas. The proposals are rated. I simply fund from the top down. Attention: RMA, Ft. George G. Meade, MD 20755-6000. Telephone: (301) 859-6438. E-Mail: mcw@mimsy.wnd.edu 52

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FEDERAL AGENCIES FORUM DEFENSE ADVANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS AGENCY Louis Auslander* Applied and Computational Mathematics Program The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is probably the newest of the funding agencies in mathematics. Maybe it is the strangest for everyone in the audience. The perfect DARPA proposal involves the transfer of known mathematics to technologies of benefit to the Department of Defense. The benefits may be to increase military capabilities or to reduce the cost of production. Because of this, contracts must have yearly milestones and deliverables. Accordingly, funding after the completion of a contract is not contemplated unless new and exciting possibilities are again proposed. Because of the nature of our mission, we have many joint academic/industrial contracts as well as industrial contracts. We bring together groups of people to work on projects and fund many interdisciplinary efforts involving mathematicians, physicists (theoretical and experimental), numerical analysts, and computer scientists. It is interesting that "old" mathematics can have a tremendous impact on our current technologies. QUESTION: What kind of schedule are you operating on at DARPA? DR. AUSLANDER: We take proposals at any time. 400 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22209. Telephone: (202) 694-1303. 53

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CHASING TO MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF TO 1990S _ ... . . DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Donald Austin* Offiice of Energy Research The mathematics program of the Department of Energy (DoE) is within the Of lice of Energy Research. The budget of this office is more than $2 billion. The mathematical sciences, which includes computer science, has a nominal FY 1990 budget of $25 million. It covers all areas of mathematics, computer science, and statistics. Roughly half of the money goes to universities and half goes to the national research laboratories maintained by the Department of Energy. It takes six months to process a proposal. We normally give three-year grants. They now range from $37,000 to $2.8 million. All of the programs are tightly coupled with mathematics and computer science at one or more of the national laboratories. A few years ago, we started a geometry/topology program that looks very similar to the one the NSF is starting. These grants are in the $300,000 to $500,000 a year range. So, we occasionally begin new directions, but we do not do this with fancy brochures. We talk to people who have good ideas that seem to be feasible and related to the mission of the department. QUESTION: I am at one of the places that has a laboratory. I was told by a program manager in the laboratory that since we have a laboratory, DoE would not be interested in proposals submitted by other units in the university. What is your feeling on that? DR. AUSTIN: Are you a part of the university or just part of the laboratory? QUESTION: Part of the university, but not part of the laboratory. DR. AUSTIN: Then you are perfectly welcome to submit proposals to the DoE. PARTICIPANT: There is considerable interest in the DoE with respect to education. Do you have any information on that? DR. AUSTIN: Yes, I do. Last year we initiated seven or eight postdoctorate at the national laboratories. The purpose of these is to have more interplay between the laboratories and the universities. We also have an Of lice of University Programs led by Antoinette Joseph. She has a budget of $10 million to $15 million to support science education. Washington, DC 20S45. Telephone: (301) 353-5800. E-Mail: ausiin@lbl-csam.a~pa 54

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FEDERAL AGENCES FORUM NATIONAL SCONCE FOUNDATION Judith S. Sunley* Division of Mathematical Sciences You may have noticed that essentially all of us have avoided talking in any great detail about money. That is because we do not have a signed appropriation bill forFY 1990, which started on October 1. We are currently operating on a continuing resolution that expires next week. I can tell you that the potential increase for the Division of Mathematical Sciences (DMS) in FY 1990 over FY 1989 is between 0 and 15 percent. Realistically, our maximal increase is probably on the order of 7 or 8 percent. In FY 1989, having received an increase of approximately three percent, most of our individual research programs were effectively constant with the previous year in dollar terms. There were two programs that received the bunk of the increases. One was our Computational Mathematics Program, which was then in its third and basically its final year of building up to a sustainable level. The other was the Special Projects Program, where most of the increases went into the range of undergraduate activities that are found in the research directorates at the National Science Foundation (NSF9. The $30 million Dr. Wilde showed in the Undergraduate Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Division is matched by at least a comparable amount in the various research directorates. We are dealing with a variety of proposals, which are managed on a joint basis with the Science and Engineering Education Directorate. Last year we produced and sent to every mathematics department in the country a brochure entitled Opportunities in the Mathematical Sciences. It dealt with both research and education. We did this because the Guide to Programs is very difficult to wade through if one doesn't have some focus. We have an updated version of the brochure, which is in the printing process. If you wish to have one, let us know and we will send a copy to you. This brochure discusses a broad range of activities within the NSF in which mathematical scientists can participate. It is very important for you to look at it because frequently one focuses too closely on the Division of Mathematical Sciences. One can examine the schedule of programming for this meeting and see the kinds of things that are emphasized. One is the education and human resources component. This is something to which the director of the Foundation is committed. Important Notice 107, mentioned by Dr. Moore yesterday, is printed in full in this month'sNotices of the American Mathematical Society. We have decided that because there were too many proposals already in process at the time information on theImportantNotice was circulated, we would delay fully implementing its requirements until January 1. If you wish to add a supplementary education and human resources statement to an existing proposal, we will take it into consideration as we are making decisions. The emphasis on education and human resources is having a big impact on the way we do business. It is difficult for the community to come to grips with the fact that the NSF has changed a great deal since 1980. The changes began with the initiation of the institutes, the development of the postdoctoral program, and the development of the equipment program in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Room 304, 1800 G Street, NW, Washington, DC 20550. Telephone: (202) 357-9669. E-Mail: jsunley@note.nsf.gov 55

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CHAFING THE MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF TO 1990S The changes are continuing. It is important that the mathematics community become aware that the education and human resources component is becoming increasingly important. We consider it in the review and evaluation of proposals. It is not the overriding consideration. Research is still our business in the DMS. But these added components can help a proposal in an area where a hard decision must be made. Another thing the NSF is emphasizing is instrumentation. Mathematics tends always to fall by the wayside when one talks of instrumentation. But I am convinced that this need not be the case. There is a great need in the mathematics community for adequate computer support of research efforts and education efforts. This is something chairmen should consider. That is, what are the needs for instrumentation in your departments, and in what way, if any, might we need to change the way in which we interact with you on instrumentation so that we can facilitate the development of strong instrumentation capabilities. Another thing that has been changing in general is the portfolio of modes of support the NSF is presenting to you. I have already spoken of a few things in the DMS that one can see: the development of the institutes at Berkeley and Minnesota, the development of a postdoctoral research fellowship program, and the development of an equipment program. We have begun other projects as well. Earlier speakers have referred to the Regional Geometry Institutes. This is the first DMS experiment at a real integration of education and research through similar projects or in the same project. We have talked a great deal with the Science end engineering Education Directorate. I urge you to call and tale to a program officer because we find that mathematicians and mathematical science departments do not compete as well as they might in the education arena. There is a way to write education proposals that are more likely to make it through panels. The NSF has developed the Science and Technology Centers. The first round was funded less than a year ago. There is one center with "mathematics" in its title: The Center for Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science at Rutgers. There are two others with significant mathematics components to them, one in parallel computation that is a joint center between Rice and Cal Tech. The other is a center on mesoscale storm systems at the University of Oklahoma. The Center on Microbial Ecology at Michigan State also involves mathematics very effectively. The DMS has an activity designed to develop group research where appropriate. Too often a mathematics proposal to the NSF is viewed as a request for two months of summer support for one person. Indeed, at the NSF we have the lowest average grant size of any division. We are looking for projects that require group efforts and also the possibility of group efforts at training graduate students and postdoctorates. We are also very concerned about underrepresented groups. A modest reserve is being held for people who have innovative approaches to encouraging the participation of minorities and women. The division has done some split funding of certain kinds of activities with Science and Engineering Education in the Faculty Enhancement Program, the Young Scholars Program, and other areas. The aim is to foster the involvement of research mathematicians in education-oriented projects. For those who are not in the statistics community, in an issue last spring of Statistical Sciences, a former program of ficer at the NSF had a lengthy article on the writing of an NSF proposal for young faculty. I commend this to your attention. It is an interesting and thorough explanation of what young people need to do in writing proposals. QUESTION: The NSF has announced a program for small groups: Small Grants for Wild Ideas. Could you discuss that? DR. SUNLEY: This program is called Small Grants for Exploratory Research. It is one of the responses to a study done in FY 1985 in which many people felt that innovative ideas were not getting through the peer review 56

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FEDERAL AGENCIES FORUM system. The program was begun by the Engineering Directorate. It has recently been expanded to the entire NSF. I urge you to get the brochure. DR. SUNLEY: You recall that in FY 1989 there was a cap of $95,000 for NSF supported salaries on grants. That cap has been reinstated in our FY 1990 appropriation bill. 57

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