scientific literacy among their graduates? How can they improve the training of students who will become science and mathematics teachers in elementary and secondary schools?

Finally, at the precollege level, how can the schools best take advantage of information-based technologies to optimize teaching and learning? How can teachers best prepare students for further education and for careers where science, technology, and mathematics will play an increasing role?

The development of human resources is essential to meeting the fundamental challenge in the science and technology enterprise: that of maintaining and improving the linkages between research and the development and adoption of technology. If our scientific enterprise is to be more effective in a competitive world, these activities must be more effectively coupled. The principal link is through people—the scientists, engineers, and others who are trained in schools, colleges, and universities and then go on to work in industry, academia, and government.

The development of human resources is also related to another issue that warrants further examination: the increasingly international character of science and technology. A nation’s work force is virtually the only factor of production in modern economies that does not move easily across international borders. Scientific knowledge, technical know-how, natural resources, and capital have increasingly become international commodities that flow quickly to those best able to use them. This report has focused predominantly on the national dimensions of science and technology, but the changing international context will have increasingly important consequences for national approaches to research and development.


Despite the increasing internationalization of science and technology, the linkages between a nation’s internal scientific and technological capabilities and its well-being will continue to be strong. The countries that best integrate the generation of new

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