FIGURE 1 Estimated funding of research and development in 1992 by industry, by the federal government, by colleges and universities, and by other nonprofit institutions. The total for colleges and universities includes state and local government funds separately budgeted for research and development.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, National Patterns of R&D Resources: 1992, Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation, 1992

In the Department of Energy, the national laboratories pursue both R&D driven by specific government missions, such as weapons development and energy development, and research related to general science in such areas as elementary particle physics research. The intramural laboratories of the National Institutes of Health make major contributions of knowledge to the health care system. NASA’s laboratories focus on technologies needed for space exploration and for aeronautics, while those of the Department of Agriculture seek to extend and disseminate agricultural knowledge.

In terms of overall expenditures, colleges and universities do somewhat less R&D than do government laboratories. Colleges and universities receive more than half their research funding from the federal government (Figure 4). Over 90 percent of the federal funding for R&D in universities comes from six federal agencies: the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation,



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