the Department of Defense, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Department of Energy, and the Department of Agriculture.

The broad structure of the U.S. R&D system outlined above has been fairly stable in recent years. However, the period has seen some significant long-term trends. The percentage of federal R&D funds going for defense purposes has dropped, from 69 percent in 1986 to less than 60 percent in 1992. This percentage can be expected to drop further in the future.

Since 1985, academic R&D has expanded substantially, whereas R&D in industry and in government laboratories has grown less rapidly. The share of federal funds in academic R&D has declined over that period, from two-thirds of the total in the early 1980s to an estimated 57 percent today. This drop has been accompanied by an increase in funding from industry and from internal funds of universities and colleges.

FIGURE 2 Estimates of federally funded research and development done in 1992 in industry, in government laboratories (including laboratories administered by industry, by colleges and universities, and by other nonprofit institutions), in colleges and universities, and in other nonprofit institutions.

SOURCES: National Science Foundation, National Patterns of R&D Resources: 1992, Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation, 1992. Personal communication,John Jankowski, National Science Foundation, 1993.

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