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BMAED AND MSB REPORTS MFG-141 EVALUATION OF THE SECOND NATIONAL MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE The 2nd National Manufacturing Technology Conference was hosted by the Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in April 1995. The overall goal of this conference was to begin developing a national agenda for manufacturing technology. This report summarizes and assesses the key results of the conference, identifies unifying themes, and recommends a framework for planning future National Manufacturing Technology Conferences. (1995, 88 pp., available from BMAED) MEG- 140 UNIT MANUFACTURING PROCESSES: ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES IN RESEARCH Manufacturing, reduced to its simplest form, involves the controlled application of energy to convert raw materials into finished products with defined shape, structure, and properties. Usually manufacturing entails the sequencing of a product through a number of different processes. Each individual step is known as a "unit manufacturing process." This report presents a taxonomy of unit manufacturing processes based on the physical process by which the configuration or structure of a material is changed. Five distinct families are identified: mass change, phase change, structure change, deformation, and consolidation. The report suggests criteria for evaluating the applicability of innovations to unit processes. The report also identifies six areas of applied scientific and technological knowledge that are intrinsic to nearly every unit process and are, therefore, "enabling." General conclusions and recommendations regarding process technologies are presented. (1995, 228 pp., available from NAP, ISBN 0-309-05192-4) MEG- 139 LEARNING FROM JAPAN: IMPROVING KNOWLEDGE OF JAPANESE TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT PRACTICE This report assesses the U.S.-Japan Industry and Technology Management Training Program, which was established by Congress and 5

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6 BALLED and MSB Reports is managed by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR). This program provided an opportunity for American researchers to observe Japanese industrial success firsthand and to convey their understanding to practitioners in U.S. industry. (1994, 66 pp., available from AFOSR) MFG-138 LEARNING TO CHANGE: OPPORTUNITIES TO IMPROVE THE PERFORMANCE OF SMALLER MANUFACTURERS Manufacturing firms large and small face immense changes and adjustments as they adapt to a volatile world in which production runs are short; product characteristics are continuously changing; and producing defect-free, on-time products at low prices is a condition for survival. The necessary changes in the production organization affect all aspects of the enterprise. This report discusses the situation faced by small and mid-size manufacturers who provide approximately 40 percent of the manufacturing jobs in the United States. The report identifies five fundamental barriers to improving manufacturing performance in smaller firms. It suggests mechanisms to help smaller manufacturers make the necessary changes. The report also addresses the role of government- sponsored manufacturing technology centers. (1993, 152 pp., available from NAP, ISBN 0-309-04982-2) MFG-137 BREAKING THE MOLD: FORGING A COMMON DEFENSE MANUFACTURING VISION As defense budgets decline throughout the 1 990s, there is general agreement on what the Department of Defense (DOD) must change in its acquisition process to become more efficient. But there is little guidance on how to change. This report describes a process for change in defense acquisition that is based on rapid changes in nondefense industries. The report develops a four-phase model for change. Desired results include higher quality, cost-effective weapon systems and a stronger industrial base for defense with diminishing procurement budgets. (1993, 94 pp., available from NAP, ISBN-0-309-04789-7)

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BELIED and MSB Reports MFG-136 DISPELLING THE MANUFACTURING 1\IYTH: AMERICAN FACTORIES CAN COMPETE IN THE GLOBAL MARKETPLACE 7 According to conventional wisdom, high wages, high capital costs, and worker inflexibility have reduced the ability of U.S. companies to compete in the world manufacturing marketplace. This report provides evidence that U.S.-based manufacturing can compete globally in terms of quality, product features, and timely delivery-the most important measures of competitiveness in the 1 990s. The report identifies attributes that attract manufacturers to given locations and assesses the attractiveness of the United States as a location for different kinds of manufacturing. Using case studies from three major industries- consumer electronics, semiconductors, and automobiles the report explores site location decisions, highlighting advantages the United States can offer as a manufacturing site. (1992, 124 pp., available from NAP, ISBN 0-309-04676-9) MFG-135 1992 PROPOSAL EVALUATION FOR THE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY CENTERS PROGRAM The Manufacturing Technology Centers (MTC) Program was created under the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to enhance the productivity and technological performance of U.S. manufacturing. A key goal of the MTCs is to tailor advanced manufacturing technologies to the needs of small and medium-sized manufacturers. NIST selects MTCs on a competitive basis; each center can receive federal funding for up to six years. This report describes the technical evaluations for a third round of proposals. (1992, 80 pp., available from BMAED) MFG-134 THE CO1\IPETITIVE EDGE: RESEARCH PRIORITIES FOR U.S. 1\IANUFACTURING To maintain competitiveness in the emerging global economy, U.S. manufacturing must rise to new standards of product quality, responsiveness to customers, and process flexibility. This report presents a concise analysis of new directions in research to achieve these goals. Five critical areas are analyzed in depth: advanced engineered materials;

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8 BMAED and MSB Reports equipment reliability and maintenance practices; rapid product realization techniques; intelligent manufacturing control; and building a work force with multidisciplinary skills. The report discusses how advancements in these areas can transform U.S. manufacturing enterprises and reinvigorate its educational system. (1991, 182 pp. with index, hard cover available from NAP, ISBN 0-309-04385-9) MEG- 133 IlVIPROVING ENGINEERING DESIGN: DESIGNING FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE Engineering design is a crucial component of the industrial product realization process. In fact, 70 percent of the life cycle cost of a product is determined during design. This report explores the status of engineering design practice, education, and research in the United States. It recommends improvements in design practice, engineering education, and engineering design research. (1991, 118 pp. with index, available from NAP, ISBN 0-309-04478-2) MEG- 1 32 1990 JAPAN-U.S. MANUFACTURING RESEARCH EXCHANGE: A SHARED VISION OF MANUFACTURING RESEARCH As the pace of technological change accelerates, collaborative research becomes increasingly attractive to companies that must spread the costs and risks of R&D investments. Adding an international component to this collaboration may increase access to sources of innovation. This report presents the results of a workshop held in Japan in conjunction with the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. The workshop brought together 40 experts in advanced manufacturing research from industries and universities in Japan and the U.S. The conference outlined the state of the art in product realization and intelligent manufacturing control. The report recommends a bilateral research program. (1991, 60 pp., available from BMAED)

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BAILED and MSB Reports MFG-13 1 RESEARCH ON THE MANAGEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY: UNLEASHING THE HIDDEN COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE 9 In 1989, U.S. industry spent $64 billion on R&D, but less than $1 million in learning how to manage R&D more effectively. The fast pace of technological change has made effective management of technology crucial to achieving strategic corporate goals. This report, which builds on a 1987 report (MFG-103), outlines a research agenda for industry, universities, and government that addresses the need to increase the knowledge of base of this area. It also discusses mechanisms for enhancing university-industry collaboration. (1991, 48 pp., available from BMAED) MFG-130 RAPID PROTOTYPING FACILITIES IN THE U.S. MANUFACTURING RESEARCH COMMUNITY This report concludes that the manufacturer of precision mechanical parts and electronic packaging/interconnects would benefit from a rapid, cost-effective prototyping capability, which would substantially contribute to the research, education, and technological development environments. (1990, 30 pp., available from BMAED) MFG-129 GRADUATED MOBILIZATION RESPONSE: FORGING A STRONG PARTNERSHIP WITH INDUSTRY The United States cannot afford to be fully prepared militarily for every conceivable contingency. For a conventional war, U.S. national security is becoming increasingly dependent on the ability to mobilize and/or increase industrial production in response to crisis. The report discusses the role of the Federal Emergency Management Agency in coordinating graduated mobilization response. (1991, 26 pp., available form BMAED)

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10 BATED and MSB Reports MFG-126 THE INTERNATIONALIZATION OF U.S. MANUFACTURING: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES Internationalization is an increasingly pervasive force in U.S. manufacturing. Interdependent relationships are now commonly being established across national borders as manufacturing managers seek to maximize competitive advantages. This report provides an assessment of what it takes to be successful as manufacturers and as a nation in the competitive international environment. (1990, 76 pp., available from NAP, ISBN 0-309-04331X) MFG-125 INDUSTRIAL PREPAREDNESS: NATIONAL RESOURCE AND DETERRENT TO WAR Military use of advanced manufacturing technologies and expectations about military conflicts have made U.S. national security more dependent on the ability of industry to respond to a national emergency. This report focuses on how the military can take advantage of civilian- sector manufacturing trends to maintain an effective industrial base. The report reviews the role of advanced manufacturing technology in mobilization planning and recommends ways to improve industrial preparedness. (1990, 76 pp., available from BMAED) MFG-124 1990 PROPOSAL EVALUATION FOR THE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY CENTERS PROGRAM The Manufacturing Technology Centers (MTC) Program was created under the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to enhance the productivity and technological performance of U.S. manufacturers. A key goal of the MTCs is to tailor advanced manufacturing technologies to the needs of small and medium-sized manufacturers. NIST selects MTCs on a competitive basis; each center can receive federal Finding for up to six years. This report describes the technical evaluations for the second round of proposals. (1990, 58 pp., available from BMAED)

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BMAED and MSB Reports MFG-123 MANUFACTURING RESEARCH EXCHANGE FOUNDATION OF A JAPAN-U.S. COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM 1 I1 This report summarizes the results of a conference in which 40 experts from industry and academe met to exchange ideas regarding future research in manufacturing in the U.S. and Japan. Two areas of potential collaborative research were identified: definition of a computer-based system that would describe a product throughout its life cycle; and advancement of intelligent manufacturing control, including sensing, control, and model-based interpretation. (1989, 30 pp., available from BMAED) MFG-121 THE FUTURE OF ELECTRONICS ASSEMBLY The report identifies new assembly manufacturing technologies that could be important for U.S. defense logistics. The panel first developed a list of 30 candidate technologies. Experts in automated manufacturing technologies in the electronics industry were then asked to rank the technologies. Six technologies emerged as being most critical: automated statistical process control, automation equipment technologies, factory system integration, modeling and simulation, design automation tools, and electronic packaging and interconnect technology. (1988, 90 pp., available from BMAED) MFG-1 19 PROPOSAL EVALUATION FOR THE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY CENTERS PROGRAM The Manufacturing Technology Centers (MTC) Program was created under the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to enhance the productivity and technological performance of U.S. manufacturers. A key goal of the MTCs is to tailor advanced manufacturing technologies, such as the technologies developed by NIST's Automated Manufacturing Research Facility (AMRF), to the needs of small and medium-sized manufacturers. NIST selects MTCs on a competitive basis; each center can receive federal funding for up to six years. This report describes the technical evaluations for the first round of proposals. (1988, 1 12 pp., available from BMAED)

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12 BAL4ED and MSB Reports MEG- 1 18 MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY: CORNERSTONE OF A RENEWED DEFENSE INDUSTRIAL BASE The Department of Defense Manufacturing Technology (Mantech) Program provides seed money for developing process and equipment technology to improve the productivity and responsiveness of the U.S. defense industrial base. The report discusses the enormous potential leverage of ManTech on defense manufacturing. It contains conclusions and recommendations for improving the effectiveness of the program in meeting Department of Defense strategic goals. (1987, 48 pp., available BMAED) MEG- 1 16 MANAGEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY: THE HIDDEN COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE This report discusses the need to increase awareness of the importance of a formalized approach to the management of technology and defines a problem-driven research agenda. (1987, 50 pp., available from NAP) MFG-1 15 THE ROLE OF THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE IN SUPPORTING MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT This report discusses why advances in manufacturing technology are critical to maintaining a strong industrial base. Because the Department of Defense depends on technologically superior weapons for the nation's defense, the report concludes that the Department of Defense should directly fund the development of innovative manufacturing technology. (1986, 66 pp., available from NAP) MFG-114 HUMAN RESOURCE PRACTICES FOR IMPLEMENTING ADVANCED MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY This report discusses the changes that companies could make in organization and management to derive the most benefits from advanced manufacturing technology. The report is based on information from 16

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BATHED and MSB Reports 13 site visits and the experience of committee members. (1986, 82 pp., available from BMAED) MFG-113 TOWARD A NEW ERA IN U.S. MANUFACTURING: THE NEED FOR A NATIONAL VISION This report provides an overview of advanced manufacturing technology and the competitive advantages that technology can provide. The report addresses the organizational and management practices that must be changed to make the most of these advantages. Appendices include: technology of future manufacturing, management accounting, and review of policy recommendations related to manufacturing for 1979- 1985. The report has sold more than 10,000 copies, making it one of the leading sellers of the National Academy Press. (1986, 192 pp. with index, available from NAP, ISBN 0-309-0369-7) MEG- 1 12 THE ROLE OF MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY IN TRADE ADJUSTMENT STRATEGIES A crucial problem facing most U.S. manufacturing companies is how to compete effectively with imported products. Small firms that operate at a low level of technological sophistication are particularly vulnerable. This report presents guidelines for a federal program to assist industries and firms to become more competitive. The report discusses how to determine when manufacturing technology upgrades are needed and how to choose and implement the right manufacturing technology. (1986, 62 pp., available from BMAED) MFG-109 COMPUTER INTEGRATION OF ENGINEERING DESIGN AND PRODUCTION: A NATIONAL OPPORTUNITY This report discusses data management requirements for computer- integrated manufacturing (CIM). The committee conducted site visits to five companies that had made significant progress toward integrating design and manufacturing. Because information is used from the conception of a product to its delivery and use in the field, the issue of data management is much broader than the computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) interface.

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14 BAILED and MSB Reports Appendices describe the interview questionnaire, CIM state of the art, and the extent of integration in manufacturing systems abroad. (1984, 72 pp., available from BMAED) MFG-108 APPLICATION OF ROBOTICS AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TO REDUCE RISK AND IMPROVE EFFECTIVENESS-A STUDY FOR THE U.S. ARMY This report contains criteria for selecting robotic and artificial intelligence (AI) applications. It recommends robotic and AI applications and priorities to address various U.S. Army needs. The report reviews the state of the art of robotic and AI technology and presents a 5 year and 10 year forecast. (1983, 100 pp., available from BMAED) MFG-107 U.S. MACHINE TOOL INDUSTRY AND THE DEFENSE INDUSTRIAL BASE This report presents findings and recommendations regarding defense readiness and international competitiveness of the U.S. machine tool industry. (1983, 130 pp., available from BMAED) MFG-104 IMPROVING MANAGERIAL EVALUATIONS OF COMPUTER-AIDED MANUFACTURING This report presents an approach to making managerial evaluations of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems. The report addresses evaluations of acquisitions of major equipment using a new analytical framework, a suggested capital budgeting approach, and an evaluation of system performance. (1981, 50 pp., available from BMAED) MEG- 103 COMPUTER-AIDED MANUFACTURING: AN INTERNATIONAL COMPARISON This report identifies promising worldwide developments in computer- aided manufacturing. The report summarizes the state of the art and

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BMAED and MSB Reports 15 developments in Japan and Europe and forecasts future developments and important key issues. (1981, 84 pp., available from NAP) MFG-102 INNOVATION AND TRANSFER OF U.S. AIR FORCE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY This report examines the issues related to the transfer of manufacturing technologies that were completed under the Air Force Manufacturing Technology Program. The report describes a model for decision-making processes that could be used by potential adapters of innovations. Case studies reviewed in detail include the hot isostatic consolidation of castings, automated assembly fixture drilling, and an advanced composite tape laying head. (1981, 48 pp., available from BMAED) MFG-101 TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE ICAM PROGRAM- JUNE 2~27, 1980 This report summarizes a review of the Air Force's Integrated Computer- Aided Manufacturing Program in each of 10 major areas. (1981, 72 pp., available from BMAED) MFG-100 PORTABILITY AND INTEGRATION OF CAD/CAM MODULES: DEFINITIONS AND MEASUREMENT This report discusses the meaning and importance of portability and integration in computer-aided manufacturing systems. The report presents methods for measuring portability and integration and suggests areas for future development. (1980, 15 pp., available from BMAED).

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