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OCR for page 93
Index A Absorption and metabolism ascorbic acid, 36-37 biotin, 70-71 choline, 77-78 folic acid, 65 niacin, 48 pantothenic acid, 68 riboflavin, 54-55 thiamin,44 vitamin A, 4-5 vitamin Be, 58-59 vitamin Bit, 74, 76 vitaminD,11-13 vitamin E, 24-25 vitamin K, 32-33 Adenosine triphosphate (ATR),43 Ascorbic acid (vitamin C), 1, 36-40 absorption and metabolism of, 36-37 in birds, 38 in dogs, 38 estimated requirements of domestic and laboratory animals for, 88, 90 in fish, 38 forms of, 36 in guinea pigs, 38-39 in horses, 39 hypervitaminosis, 37, 40 in mice, 39 in n~ink,39 nutritional role of, 36 presumed upper safe levels of, 38-39, 40 in rats, 39 research needs, 84 summery, 85 in swine, 39 in turkeys, 38 Biotin, 70-73 B absorption and metabolism of, 70-71 in birds, 72 in chickens, 72 estimated requirements of domestic and laboratory animals for,89,91 hypervitaminosis, 71-73 nutritional role of, 70 presumed upper safe levels of, 73 in rats, 72 summery, 86 in swine, 72 in turkeys, 72 Birds, see also Chickens, Ducks, Geese, Pheasants, Quail, Turkeys ascorbic acid in, 38 biotin in, 72 choline in, 79 estimated vitamin requirements of, 88-89 vitamin A in, 6-7, 8 vitamin D in, 17 C Carotenoids, 4-5 Carotenosis,9 Cats estimated vitamin requirements of, 88-89 vitamin A in, 6, 8 Cattle estimated vitamin requirements of, 88-89 vitamin A in, 6, 8 vitamin D in, 16, 17-18 Chickens biotin in, 72 choline in,1,79 estimated vitamin requirements of, 88-89 niacin in, 50 vitamin A in, 6-7, 8 vitamin By in, 75 93 vitamin D in, 17 vitamin E in, 26 vitamin K in, 34 Cholesterol, 49 Choline, 77-83 absorption and metabolism of, 77-78 in birds, 79 in chickens, 1, 79 in dogs, 79-80 estimated requirements of domestic and laboratory animals for, 89, 91 forms of, 77 in humane, 80 hypervitaminosis, 78-82 in mice, 80-81 nutritional role of, 77 presumed upper safe levels of, 82 in rats, 81 research needs, 84 summery, 85 in swine, 81 in turkeys, 79 Cobalamin, see Vitamin By D Dogs ascorbic acid in, 38 choline in, 79-80 estimated vitamin requirements of, 88-89 riboflavin in, 56 thiamin in, 45 vitamin A in, 7, 8 vitamin Be in, 60 vitamin D in, 18 vitamin K in, 34 Ducks estimated vitamin requirements of, 88-89 vitamin A in, 7,8

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94 Index Fish ascorbic acid in, 38 estimated vitamin requirements of, 88-89 vitamin A in, 8 vitamin D in, 18 Folacin, see Folic acid Folic acid, 64-66 absorption and metabolism of, 65 estimated requirements of domestic and laboratory animals for,89,91 forms of, 64-65 hypervitaminosis,65 nutritional role of, 64 presumed upper safe levels of, 65 summery, 86 Foxes estimated vitamin requirements of, 88-89 vitamin D in, 18 Geese estimated vitamin requirements of, 88-89 vitamin A in, 8 Goats estimated vitamin requirements of, 88-89 vitamin A in, 7, 8 ~ . QUlnea plgS ascorbic acid in, 38-39 estimated vitamin requirements of, 88-89 HHamsters, estimated vitamin requirements of, 88-89 Horses ascorbic acid in, 39 estimated vitamin requirements of, 88-89 vitamin A in, 8 vitamin D in, 18 vitamin K in, 34 Humans choline in, 80 niacin in, 50 vitamin Be in, 60 vitamin D in, 12 Hypercalcemia,15 Hypervitaminos~s ascorbic acid, 37, 40 biotin, 71-73 choline, 78-82 folic acid, 65 niacin, 48-49,50-51 panothenic acid, 68 riboflavin, 55,56 thiamin, 44-45 vitamin A, 5-8 vitamin Be, 59-62 vitamin B12, 75-76 vitamin D, 13-16,84 vitamin E, 25-29 vitamin K, 33,34 L Lipoproteins, 25,49 M Menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB),32 Metabolism, see Absorption and metabolism Mice ascorbic acid in, 39 choline in, 80-81 estimated vitamin requirements of, 88-89 niacin in, 51 thiamin in, 45 vitamin Be in, 60 vitamin By in, 75 vitamin K in, 34 Mink ascorbic acid in, 39 estimated vitamin requirements of, 88-89 vitamin D in, 18 Monkeys estimated vitamin requirements of, 88-89 vitamin A in, 8 vitamin D in, 18-19 MSB (menadione sodium bisulfite),32 N Niacin, 47-52 absorption and metabolism of, 48 in chickens, 50 estimated requirements of domestic and laboratory animals for, 89,91 forms of, 47-48 in humans, 50 hypervitaminosis, 48-49,50-51 in mice, 51 nutritional role of, 47 presumed upper safe levels of, 49 in rabbits, 51 in rats,51 research needs, 84 summery, 85 Nonhuman primates, see Monkeys Nutritional role ascorbic acid, 36 biotin,70 chorine, 77 folic acid, 64 niacin, 47 pantothenic acid, 67 riboflavin, 53 thiamin,43 vitamin A, 3-4 vitamin Be, 58 vitamin B~2,74 vitamin D, 11 vitamin E, 23-24 vitamin K, 31-32 pi Pantothenic acid, 67-69 absorption and metabolism of, 68 estimated requirements of domestic and laboratory animals for,89,91 forms of, 67-68 hypervitaminosis, 68 nutritional role of, 67 presumed upper safe levels of, 68 summery, 85 Parathyroidhormone(PTH), 11-12 Pheasants, estimated vitamin requirements of, 88-89 Phylloquinone, see Vitamin K Presumed upper safe levels, 2 ascorbic acid, 38-39, 40 biotin,73 choline, 82 folic acid, 65 niacin, 49 pantothenic acid, 68 riboflavin, 55 thiamin,45 vitamin A, 8-9 vitamin B6,62 vitamin B~:,76 vitamin D,+ 16-20 vitamin E, 29 vitamin K, 33 PTH(parathyroidhormone),11-12 Pyridoxine, see Vitamin Be

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Index 95 Q Quail estimated vitamin requirements of, 88-89 vitamin A in, 8 vitamin D in, 17 R Rabbits estimated vitamin requirements of, 88-89 niacin in, 51 thiamin in, 45 vitamin A in,7,8 vitamin D in, 19 vitamin K in, 34 Rats ascorbic acid in, 39 biotin in, 72 choline in, 81 estimated vitamin requirements of, 88-89 niacin in, 51 riboflavin in, 56 vitamin Be in, 60-61 vitamin E in, 26-27 vitamin K in, 34 Research needs, 84 Riboflavin (vitamin B2), 53-57 absorption and metabolism of, 54-55 in dogs, 56 estimated requirements of domestic and laboratory animals for,89,91 forms of, 53-54 hypervitaminosis, 55, 56 nutritional role of, 53 presumed upper safe levels of, 55 in rats, 56 in sheep, 56 summery, 85 in swine, 56 Safe levels, presumed upper, see Presumed upper safe levels Selenium, 23 Sheep estimated vitamin requirements of, 90-91 vitamin A in, 8 vitamin D in, 19 Shrimps, estimated vitamin requirements of, 90-91 S. wine ascorbic acid in, 39 biotin in, 72 choline in, 81 estimated vitamin requirements of, 90-91 riboflavin in, 56 vitamin A in, 7, 8 vitamin Be in, 61 vitamin D in, 19 Thiamin, 43-45 absorption and metabolism of, 44 in dogs, 45 estimated requirements of domestic and laboratory animals for, 89, 91 forms of, 44 hypervitaminosis, 44-45 in mice, 45 nutritional role of, 43 presumed upper safe levels of, 45 in rabbits, 45 summary, 85-86 Thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP), 43, 44 Tocopherol, see Vitamin E TPP (thiamin pyrophosphate), 43, 44 Tryptophan,1 Turkeys ascorbic acid in, 38 biotin in, 72 choline in, 79 estimated vitamin requirements of, 88-89 vitamin A in, 7, 8 vitamin D in, 17 V Vitamin A, 3-9 absorption and metabolism of, 4-5 in birds, 6-7, 8 in eats, 6, 8 in castle, 6, 8 in chickens, 6-7, 8 in dogs, 7, 8 in clucks, 7, 8 estimated requirements of domestic and laboratory animals for, 88, 90 in fish, 8 forms of, 4 in geese, 8 in "oats, 8 in horses, 8 hypervitaminosis, 5-8 in monkeys, ~ nutritional role of, 3-4 presumed upper safe levels of, 8-9 in quail, 8 in rabbits, 7,8 research needs, 84 in sheep, 8 summary,85- in swine, 7, 8 in turkeys, 7, 8 Vitamin B2, see Riboflavin Vitamin Be (pyridoxine), 58-62 absorption and metabolism of, 58-59 in dogs, 60 estimated requirements of domestic and laboratory animals for, 89, 91 forms of, 58 in humane, 60 hypervitaminosis, 59-62 in mice, 60 nutritional role of, 58 presumed upper safe levels of, 62 in rats, 60-61 summery, 86 in swine, 61 Vitamin Bit, 74-76 absorption and metabolism of, 74-75 estimated requirements of domestic and laboratory animals for,89,91 forms of, 74, 76 hypervitaminosis, 75-76 in mice, 75 nutritional role of, 74 presumed upper safe levels of, 76 summery, 76 Vitamin C, see Ascorbic acid VitaminD,11-20 absorption and metabolism of, 11-13 in birds, 17 in cattle, 16, 17-18 in chickens, 17 in dogs, 18 estimated requirements of domestic and laboratory animals for, 88, 90 in fish, 18 forms of,11 in foxes, 18 in horses, 18 in humane, 12 hypervitaminosis, 13-16 in mink, 18 in monkeys, 18 nutritional role of,11 presumed upper safe levels of, 16-20 in quail, 17 in rabbits, 19

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96 Index research needs, 84 in sheep, 19 summery, 85 in swine, 19 in turkeys, 17 Vitamin E, 23-29 absorption and metabolism of, 24-25 in chickens, 26 estimated requirements of domestic and laboratory animals for, 88, 90 forms of, 24 hypervitaminosis, 25-29 nutritional role of, 23-24 presumed upper safe levels of, 29 in rats, 26-27 research needs, 84 summery, 85 Vitamin K, 31-35 absorption and metabolism of, 32-33 in chickens, 34 in dogs, 34 estimated requirements of domestic and laboratory animals for, 88, 90 forms of, 32 in horses, 34 hypervitaminosis, 33, 34 in mice, 34 nutritional role of, 31-32 presumed upper safe levels of, 33 in rabbits, 34 in rats, 34 summery, 85 Vitamins absorption and metabolism of, see Absorption and metabolism hypervitaminosis, see Hypervitaminosis intake levels of, 1-2 nutritional role of, see Nutritional role presumed upper safe levels of, see Presumed upper safe levels defined, 1 See also specific vitamins