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Index A Acetate, 2, 51, 58, 77 Ad libitum feeding, 16,25, 42 Aflatoxins, 21 Age factors, 59 Alanine,20 Amine nitrogen, 53 Amines, 53, 63 Amino acids deficiency effects, 35, 82 as feed control mechanisms, 3,20, 51 see also specific amino acids Aminostatic theory, 43 Ammonia concentration, 18, 82 Ammoniacal nitrogen, 53 Ammonium ions, 5 Androgens, 19 Anorexia, 19, 21 Antibiotics in feeds, 35 Aphagia, 5, 43 Arginine, 20 B Beef cattle feed intake, 57-74 application of equations and adjustments, 65-72 dietary factors, 61-64 environmental factors, 60-61 forage quantity and quality, 61 lactating cows, 58 nursing calves, 58 physiological factors, 56-60 prediction systems, evaluation of, 64-65 Betaine,20 Bloat, 51 Blood composition changes, 2 Body fat regulation, 10, 43, 57 Body fluids osmolarity changes, 2 Body size, see Physiological factors Body temperature ions affecting, 43 see also Environmental effects Bovine growth hormone, 19 Brain control mechanisms, 4-5, 42, 43 Butyrate,2 Butyric acid, 63 C Calcium ions, 9, 43 Cattle feed intake metabolites effecting, 2, 51 neurotransmitter effects, 9 rumen capacity, 1 urea effects, 5 see also Beef cattle feed intake; Dairy cattle feed intake Central nervous system (CNS), 1, 11, 42 Chickens, see Poultry feed intake Cholecystokinin (CCK), 1, 6-8, 10-11, 19 Cottonseed, 21 D D-Lactic acidosis, 51 Dairy cattle feed intake, 48-55 breed type effects, 59-60 control systems, 48-50, 53-54 diet dilution, 9-10 83 dry matter intake estimates, 50-51, 54 feed size, 53 lactation response, 48-49 meal pasterns, 51, 53 metabolite and hormone effects, 51 temperature effects, 51 D-Alanine dynorphins, 8 Dehydration, 2 Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), 6 Demand feeding, 16,25, 42 2-deoxy-D-glucose, 42 Diarrhea, 51 Diet dilution, 9-10, 51 Dietary factors beef cattle, 61-64 fish, 19-21 sheep, 75-77 swine, 34-36 Diethylstilbestrol (DES), 6 Digestible energy (DE), 25 Digestive tract, 1-2, 42 Disease effects, 51 E Endorphins, 8 Energy concentration, 44 Enkephalin analogs, 8 Environmental effects, 5 beef cattle, 60-61 dairy cattle, 51 fish, 17-18 poultry, 44, 45 sheep, 82 swine, 31-34 Equines, 2 Estradiol, 6, 51 Estrogens, 5-6, 19, 51

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84 Index F Feed intake control mechanisms, 1-12 biochemical mechanisms, 8-10 brain, 4-5, 42, 43 cholecystokinin, 6-8 control factors summarized, 1, 10-12 digestive tract, 1-2 environmental conditions, 5 glucagon, 3-4 hormones, 3-4, 10, 18-19, 51 hypothalamus, 4-5 insulin, 4 metabolites, 2-3 opioid peptides, 8 sensory cues, 5 sex hormones, 5-6 urea, 5 see also specific animals Feed particle size beef cattle, 63-64 dairy cattle, 53 fish, 19-20 sheep, 81 swine, 35 Feeding frequency, 1 cultured fish, 17-18 Feedstuffs digestibility, 1-2 forage availability, 61 quality, 20-21 silage fermentation, 53, 63, 76-77 waste products as, 5 Fermentation effects, 53, 63, 76-77 Fermentation heat, 51 Fish feed intake, 16-24 demand feeding, 16 dietary factors, 19-21 environmental factors, 17-18 fish classification system, 16 physiological factors, 18-19 quantitative predictions, 21-23 wild fish, food consumption estimates, 16-17 Free fatty acids, 3, 19, 51 G Gastrointestinal capacity, 1 beef cattle, 56, 58, 59 dairy cattle, 53 fish, 19 sheep, 49, 75 Gastrointestinal hormones, 6-8, 10 Geese, 5 Genetic factors beef cattle, 59 fish, 18 sheep, 82 swine, 29-30 Gestation periods, 29 Glucagon, 3-4, 10 Glucose, 2-3, 51 Glucostatic theory, 42 Glutamine,20 Glycine, 3,20 Goats, 2, 4, 5, 51 Gold thioglucose, 42 Gossypol,21 Grasses digestion, 61 Growth hormone, 4, 18, 51 Gustatory stimuli, 5,20, 35, 53 HHistidine, 20, 43 Hormone controls, 3-4, 10 dairy cattle feed intake, 51 fish feed intake, 18-19 see also specific hormones Humidity effects, 51 Hyperinsulinemia, 4 Hyperphagia, 4-6, 43 Hypoinsulinemia, 4 Hypophagia, 43 Hypotauryl-2-carboxyglycine, 20 Hypothalamus, 4-5, 18, 24, 43 Hypothermia, 43 I Inosine,20 Inosine 5-monophosphate,20 Insulin, 3, 4, 10, 19, 53 Ionostatic theory, 43 Isobutyrate, 2 Isoleucine,3 K Ketosis, 51 Lactate, 2, 3 Lactation beef cows, 58, 71-72 environmental factors affecting, 5 sheep, 77 swine, 29 see also Dairy cattle feed intake Lactic acid, 3, 76-77, 81 Legume digestion, 61 Lipostatic theory, 10, 43 Liver mechanisms, 2 Lysine, 3,20 M Magnesium ions, 9 Mastitis, 51 Meal patterns, 51, 53, 61 Meal size, 1 Metabolites as feed control mechanism, 2-3, 51, 58, 77 see also specific metabolizes Metabolizable energy (ME), 25, 44 C-methylimino-diacetic acid, 20 Metritis, 51 Milk fever, 51 Monogastric animals, 2-3, 51 N Naloxone, 8 Neurotransmitters, 8, 9 Neutral detergent fiber (NDF), 49, 57, 75 Nitrogen requirements, 63, 77 Norepinephrine, 9 Nutrient deficiencies, see Dietary factors o Obesity, 4-6, 43 Oil toxins, 21 Olfactory cues, 5,20, 53, 82 Opioid peptides, 1, 8, 10-11 Organic acids, 53 Oxygen concentration, 18 p Pancreatic hormones, 3-4, 10 Pellets, see Feed particle size Peptides, 1, 6-8, 10-11 pH charges, 2, 58, 77, 81 Phenylalanines, 7, 20 Photoperiod length, 17, 18, 60-61 Physiological factors beef cattle, 56-60 fish, 18-19 sheep, 75-77 swine, 29-31 Pigs, see Swine feed intake Pituitary hormones, 6 Poultry feed intake, 42-47

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Index 85 cholecystokinin effects, 6-7 dry matter intake calculations, 45-46 feeding environment, 42 hypothalamus functions, 4-5 quantitative predictions, 44-45 regulation theories, 42-44 sex hormones effect, 6 Progesterone, 5, 51 Prolactin, 19 Propionate, 2, 51, 58, 77 Prostaglandins, 9 Protease inhibitors, 21 Protein levels, 35, 51, 63, 82 Q Quality of feeds, 20-21, 61 R Rumen capacity, see Gastrointestinal capacity S Sensory cues, 5, 20, 36, 53, 82 Serine,20 Sex differences beef cattle, 58-59 swine, 30-32 Sex hormones, 5-6 Sheep feed intake, 75-82 body fluid charges, 2 cholecystokinin effects, 6, 7 dry matter intake predictions, 77-79 forage availability, 61 insulin/growth hormone ratios, 4 management practices, 81-82 metabolites effecting, 2, 3, 51 neurotransmitter effects, 9 opiate receptors, 8 photoperiod effects, 61 physiological and dietary factors, 75-77 prediction equations, evaluation of, 79-81 rumen capacity, 1, 49 Silage fermentation, 53, 63, 76-77 Size factors, see Physiological factors Sodium ions, 43 Sodium propionate,2 Somatomedin, 10, 11 Soybean meal, 21 Space allowances, swine, 33-34 Steroid hormones, 6, 19 Stimulants, fish feed, 20 Stomach fullness, see Gastrointestinal capacity Streptococc?'sbovis 81 Swine feed intake, 25-41 cholecystokinin effects, 6, 7 during gestation, 29 during Lactation, 29 environmental factors, 31-34 feed digestibility, 2 feeding method and measurement, 25-26 glucose concentration effects, 3 growing pigs, 27-29 insulin effects, 4 nutritional factors, 34-36 physiological factors, 29-31 suckling pigs, 25-26 quantitative predictions, 36-37 weanling pigs, 26-27 T T-2 toxins, 21 Tactile stimuli, 53 Taste cues, 5, 20, 36, 53 Taurine,20 Temperature effects, see Environmental effects Tension receptors, 51, 77 Testosterone propionate, 6 Thermostatic theory, 42-43 Thiamine deficiency, 19 Threonine, 3 Thyroid function, 51 Thyroid hormones, 19 Tidal cycles, 18 Toxins in feeds, 20-21 Trypsin, 7 Tyrosine,20 U Urea, 5, 53 V Valine,20 Ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, 4-6, 43 Volatile fatty acids (VFAs),2, 51, 76 Voluntary feed intake, 25 W Waste products, 5 Water chemistry, 17 Water consumption, 2, 61-63 Water temperature, 17 Water velocity, 17 Weather effects, see Environmental effects z Zinc deficiency, 19

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