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Predicting Feel Intake of Food-Producing Animals Subcommittee on Feed Intake Committee on Animal Nutrition Board on Agriculture National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1987

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National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW ~ T ~ IT ~ ~ Washington, DC 20418 N() l lo: l he project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. This study was supported by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and by the Center for Veterinary Medicine, Food and Drug Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Additional support was provided by the American Feed Industry Association, Inc. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Predicting feed intake of food-producing animals. Includes index. 1. Feeds. 2. Animal nutrition. 3. Livestock. 4. Fishes-Feeding and feeds. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Subcommittee on Feed Intake. SF95.P72 1986 636.08'5 86-21851 ISBN 0-309-03695-X Copyright A) 1986 by the National Academy of Sciences No part of this book may be reproduced by a mechanical, photographic, or electronic process, or in the form of a phonographic recording, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted, or otherwise copied for public or private use, without written permission from the publisher, except for the purposes of official use by the U.S. government. Printed in the United States of America

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Preface In animal production enterprises, profits greatly de- pend on the ability to successfully maximize feed in- take. It is essential, therefore, to understand the large number of physiological, environmental, and manage- ment factors that influence feed intake. Although there is still much to learn, scientists and producers have iden- tified many of these factors through research and expe- rience. Data are also available to quantify them. The twofold purpose of this report is to discuss control mechanisms of feed intake and to quantify intake for each of the animals commonly used for food and fiber in the United States. For each species, a separate chapter provides equations and adjustment factors that can be used to predict dry matter intake, tests these equations and factors using independent data, and identifies areas that need further research. The widespread use of microcomputers makes diet evaluation and performance projections feasible. Our goal was to assemble the best information available in a usable form to allow accurate predictions of intake un- der widely varying conditions. The subcommittee chose to present specific applications rather than more com- plete models because of the rapid evolution of ap- proaches to computerization. However, factors may be easily adjusted to suit the user's particular needs. We hope that a better understanding of factors involved in feed intake will lead to more efficient formulation of animal diets. - 111 The Subcommittee on Feed Intake was appointed in 1982 under the auspices of the Board on Agriculture's Committee on Animal Nutrition (CAN) to develop rec- ommendations for predicting intake of animals.The re- port includes chapters on all major food-producing animals. The following individuals were responsible for respective sections of the report: Clifton A. Baile, Intro- duction: Feed Intake Control Mechanisms; Gary L. Rumsey, Fish; Richard Ewan, Swine; Park W. Waldroup, Poultry; H. Russell Conrad, Dairy Cattle; and Danny G. Fox, Beef Cattle and Sheep. Ling-Tung Koong reviewed prediction equations in the species chapters and provided advice on validation procedures. This report was reviewed by the Committee on Ani- mal Nutrition; the Board on Agriculture; and 13 outside reviewers David H. Baker, Lane O. Ely, Richard D. Goodrich, Wayne J. Kuenzel, Leo S. Jensen, Santosh P. Lall, David R. Mertens, Donald Polin, Hugh A. Poston, Rodney L. Preston, Nathan E. Smith, Richard G. Shields, and T. S. Stably. The subcommittee is grateful for the efforts of these individuals and thanks Deena H. Krestel-Rickert for her assistance in preparing the in- troductory chapter. We especially acknowledge the con- tributions of Selma P. Baron, who served as staff officer during the early preparation of this report. DANNY G. FOX Chairman

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SUBCOMMITTEE ON FEED INTAKE DANNY G. FOX, Chairman, Cornell University CLIFTON A. BAILE, Monsanto Company and Washington University H. RUSSELL CONRAD, Ohio State University RICHARD EWAN, Iowa State University LING-JUNG KOONG, University of Nevada, Reno GARY L. RUMSEY, Tunison Laboratory of Fish Nutrition, U.S. Department of the Interior PARK W. WALDROUP, University of Arkansas COMMITTEE ON ANIMAL NUTRITION JAMES G. MORRIS, Chairman, University of California-Davis FRANK AHERNE, University of Alberta RICHARD E. AUSTIC, Cornell University JIMMY H. CLARK, University of Illinois DONALD E. JOHNSON, Colorado State University ROY J. MARTIN, JR., University of Georgia FREDRIC N. OWENS, Oklahoma State University GARY L. RUMSEY, Tunison Laboratory of Fish Nutrition, U.S. Department of the Interior DALE R. WALDO, Animal Science Institute, U.S. Department of Agriculture Staff CARLA CARLSON, Reports Officer and SeniorEditor GRACE JONES ROBBINS, AssistantEditor 1V

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BOARD ON AGRICULTURE WILLIAM L. BROWN, Chairman, Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. JOHN A. PING, Vice Chairman, Inter-American Development Bank PERRY L. ADKISSON, Texas A&M University C. EUGENE ALLEN, University of Minnesota JOSEPH P. FONTENOT, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University ROBERT M. GOODMAN, Calgene, Inc. RALPH W. F. HARDY, Cornell University and BioTechnica International, Inc. ROGER L. MITCHELL, University of Missouri CHARLES C. MUSCOPLAT, Molecular Genetics, Inc. ELDOR A. PAUL, Michigan State University VERNON W. RUTTAN, University of Minnesota THOMAS D. TRAUTMAN, General Mills, Inc. [AMES G. TEER, Welder Wildlife Foundation IAN VAN SCHILFGAARDE, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture VIRGINIA WALBOT, Stanford University C()NR An T WEISER, Oregon State University CHARLES M. BENBROOK, Executive Director v

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Contents I INTRODUCTION: FEED INTAKE CONTROL MECHANISMS 2 FISHES 3 SWINE 4 POUI`TRY 5 DAIRY CATTLE 6 BEEF CATTLE 7 SHEEP ..... INDEX .16 .42 e V11 .56 .75 .83

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List of Tables and Figures FIGURES 1-1 Factors controlling feeding behavior, 9 3-1 Digestible energy intake of creep feed, 26 3-2 Digestible energy intake of pigs between 5 and 20 kg body weight, 27 3-3 Digestible energy intake as an asymptotic function of body weight, 28 3-4 Digestible energy intake by lactating sows, 31 3-5 Effect of temperature on digestible energy intake, 33 3-6 Effect of energy density on daily DE intake, 35 5-1 Feed intake of Holstein cows during and after lactation, 49 6-1 Relationship between dietary energy concentration and dry matter intake in growing cattle, 57 6-2 Relationship of stage of growth and weight of a steer when placed on a high-energy diet to dry matter intake, 58 6-3 Environmental effects on dry matter intake, 60 6-4 Effect of forage standing crop on the relative forage dry matter intake (relative DMI) of lambs, calves, and dairy cows grazing pasture under continuous grazing manage- ment, 61 6-5 Effect of daily forage allowance on the relative forage dry matter intake (relative DMI) of lambs, calves, and dairy cows grazing pasture under rotational grazing management, 62 6-6 Effect of grazing pressure under rotational grazing on relative production, 62 6-7 Influence of diet type and protein level on dry matter intake, 63 Predicted intake of yearling steers, 69 Intake versus initial weight, 69 Predicted gain without discounting diet NE, 70 6-8 6-9 6-10 6-11 6-12 7-1 7-2 7-3 Pelleted diet intake of growing lambs, 80 7-4 Silage intake of growing lambs, 81 7-5 Dry matter intake of chopped grass by wethers, 81 Dry matter intake of dry beef cows, 72 Dry matter intake of grazing beef cows nursing calves, 72 Relationship of stage of growth to intake in sheep, 76 Dry matter intake of sheep as related to diet energy density, 78 - vail

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List of Tables ant! Figures ix TABLES 1-1 Summary of Factors Influencing Food Intake, 11 2-1 Food Particle Size Recommendations for Trout, 20 2-2 Fish Feeding Guide, 21 2-3 Comparison of Recommended Feeding Levels (Percent of BW to Feed/Day) for Rainbow Trout at 15C, 22 2-4 Comparison of Recommended Feeding Levels (Percent of B-W to Feed/Day) for Rainbow Trout at Three Water Temperatures and Five Different Fish Sizes, 22 3-1 Solids Intake by Nursing Pigs, 26 3-2 Creep Feed Intake by Nursing Pigs, 26 3-3 Lactation Digestible Energy Intake, 30 3-4 Effect of Breed on Daily Digestible Energy Intake, 31 3-5 Effect of Sex on Daily Digestible Energy Intake, 32 3-6 Effect of Space Allocation on Daily Feed Intake, 34 4-1 Estimated Dry Matter Intake of Laying Hens at Different Stages of Egg Production, 46 Estimated Dry Matter Intake of Broilers at Different Ages, 46 5-1 Comparison of Intake Predictions (percent BW/day) for a Cow Weighing 600 kg with Zero BW Changes, 50 5-2 Validation of Various Equations for Predicting Dry Matter (DMI) and Digestible Energy (DEI) Intake of Lactating Cows Using Independent Data, 52 5-3 Predicted Dry Matter Intake (DMI) in Dairy Cows, 54 6-1 Adjustments for Sex, Age, Breed, Feed Additive, Growth Stimulants, and Seasons, 64 6-2 Adjustment of Actual Weight to Average Frame Equivalent Weight, 66 6-3 Adjustment for Body Fat, 66 6-4 Adjustment for Finely Processed Diets, 66 6-5 Adjustment for Environmental Conditions, 66 6-6 Adjustment for Milk Production of Beef Cows, 67 6-7 Forage Intake of Nursing Calves, 67 6-8 Expected Percentage of Water in Total Daily Intake of Cattle, 67 6-9 Evaluation of Methods for Predicting Intake of Yearling Steers, 68 Evaluation of Dry Matter Intake Prediction for Calves, 71 6-10 7-1 Determination of Stage of Growth, 78 7-2 Intake Adjustment for Stage of Growth, 79 7-3 Adjustment for Lactation, 79 7-4 Adjustment Factors for Temperature, 79 7-5 Evaluation of Equations to Predict Intake of Sheep, 80

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