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S. avlng Cape Hafferas Lighthouse from the Sea Options arc! Policy Implications Committee on Options for Preserving Cape Hatteras Lighthouse Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1988

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to Adrian the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engmeera. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine aria established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council eras organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Preas and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Support for this project eras provided by contract no. CX-S000-7-0040 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Park Service, an agency of the U.S. Department of the Interior. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number ISBN Available from: Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology National Research Council 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America Cover Photograph by David Policanaky

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COMMITTEE ON OPTIONS FOR PRESERVING CAPE HATTERAS LIGHTHOUSE Rutherford H. Platt, Chairman, University of Massachusetts, Amherst Milner Ball, University of Georgia, Athens Ben Gerwick, Jr., Ben C. Gerwick, Inc., San Francisco, California Eugene Harlow, SOROS Associates, New York City Francis Ross Holland, National Park Service (retired) Valerie I. Nelson, The Lighthouse Preservation Society, Rockport, Massachusetts Dag Nummedal, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge Charles Henry Peterson, University of North Carolina, Morehead City Alan Yorkdale, Brick Institute of America, Reston, Virginia (deceased November 1987) Paul Zia, North Carolina State University, Raleigh Sta ff David Policansky, Project Director Sylvia Tognetti, Research Assistant Lee Paulson, Editor Leah S. Gales, Project Secretary -

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BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY Donald H-ornig, Chairman, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts Alvin L. Alm, Thermal Analytical, Inc., Waltham, Massachusetts Richard N. L. Andrews, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill David Bates, University of British Columbia Health Science Center Hospital, Vancouver Richard A. Conway, Union Carbide Corporation, South Charleston, West Virginia William E. Cooper, Michigan State University, East Lansing Benjamin G. Ferris, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts Sheldon K. Friedlander, University of California, Los Angeles Bernard Goldstein, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey Donald Mattison, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock Philip A. Palmer, E. I. Dupont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, Delaware Duncan T. Patten, Arizona State University, Tempe Emil Pfitzer, Hoffman-La Roche Inc., Nutley, New Jersey Paul Portney, Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C. Paul Risser, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque William H. Rodgers, University of Washington, Seattle F. Sherwood Rowland, University of California, Irvine Liane B. Russell, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee Ellen Silbergeld, Environmental Defense Fund, Washington, D.C. I. Glenn Sipes, University of Arizona College of Pharmacy, Tucson Sta ff Devra L. Davis, Director James J. Reisa, Associate Director Jacqueline Prince, Staff Associate 1V

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COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND RESOURCES Norman Hackerman, Chairman, Robert A. Welch Foundation, Houston, Texas George F. Carrier, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts Dean E. Eastman, IBM T. I. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York Marye Anne Fox, University of Texas, Austin Gerhart Friedlander, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, Long Island, New York Lawrence W. Funkhouser, Chevron Corporation (retired) Phillip A. Griffiths, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina J. Ross Macdonald, The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill Charles J. Mankin, The University of Oklahoma, Norman Perry L. McCarty, Stanford University, Stanford, California Jack E. Oliver, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York Jeremiah P. Ostriker, Princeton University Observatory, Princeton, New Jersey William D. Phillips, MallinckroUt, Inc., St. Louis, Missouri Denis J. Prager, MacArthur Foundation, Chicago, Illinois David M. Raup, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois Richard J. Reed, University of Washington, Seattle Robert E. Sievers, University of Colorado, Boulder Larry L. Smarr, National Center for Supercomputing Applications, Champaign, Illinois Edward C. Stone Jr., California Institute of Technology, Pasadena Karl K. Turekian, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut George W. Wetherill, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D.C. Irving Wladawsky-Berger, IBM Corporation, White Plains, New York Sta f f Raphael G. Kasper, Executive Director Lawrence E. McCray, Associate Executive Director v

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Preface The Committee on Options for Preserving Cape Hatteras Lighthouse was formed in July 1987, under the auspices of the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology (BEST) of the National Research Council's Commission on Physical Sci- ences, Mathematics, and Resources. The committee was established at the request of the National Park Service (NPS), which since 1980 has tried to protect the lighthouse-- a national historic landmark--from destruction by shoreline retreat. The committee's task was unusual for the NRC in its specificity and urgency. The- NPS requested definitive, achievable advice on how to save the lighthouse. Further- more, it required the committee's preliminary evaluations within 90 days from the contract inception and the final report 6 months later, a short time frame that placed con- siderable pressure on the committee and its NRC staff. The NRC usually does not undertake narrowly defined, site-specific projects; however, the committee also was asked to review the implications of the Cape Hatteras options for other sites and historic structures affected by shoreline ero- sion, especially those within national park facilities. It was asked to evaluate specific measures to preserve the light- house and simultaneously address the broader issues of coastal erosion, historic preservation, public recreation, and environmental protection The committee was an outstanding and diverse group that included a coastal geomorphologist, a coastal ecologist, a law professor, a geographer' a lighthouse historian, an economist . . V11

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- V111 Saving Cape Hatteras Lighthouse specializing in lighthouse preservation, and four civil engi- neers. In its research and four meetings, the group gener- ously contributed its expertise and time. David Policansky, the NRC project director, was crucial to the committee's work. As a trained ecologist and avid salt- water angler, he brought an extraordinary level of interest and dedication to the committee's deliberations and report preparations. He was persistent in identifying and resolving factual and analytical inconsistencies and tirelessly assisted with the report preparation. As chairman, I relied heavily on his guidance. The committee also thanks the other NRC staff members who contributed to the project. They include James Reisa, associate director of BEST; Charles Bookman, director, and Donald Perkins, associate director of the Marine Board; John Eberhard, director of the Building Research Board; Lee Paulson, editor; Sylvia Tognetti, research assistant; and Leah Gales, project secretary. We also thank Devra Davis, director of BEST, for her encouragement and support. The committee gratefully acknowledges several outside experts who gave generously of their time and expertise. They include Ellis Cowling of North Carolina State Univer- sity, who was instrumental in originating this study; David Stick, historian; Limberios Vallianos, of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station at Vicksburg; William Dennis, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; David Fischetti and Barrett Wilson, Move the Lighthouse Committee; Spencer Rogers, Sea Grant Marine Advisory Service; and Rudi Van Leeuwen, Spencer, White, & Prentis, Inc. In addition, the committee thanks the staff of the Nation- al Park Service's Southeast Region, including Robert Baker, director; Dominic Dottavio, chief scientist; Patricia Patterson, resource management specialist; and Tom Hartman, superin- tendent of the Cape Hatteras National Seashore.

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Preface 1X Committee member Alan Yorkdale, vice president of engineering and research, Brick Institute of America, died on November 15, 1987. His personal and professional contribu- tions to the committee and the report are appreciated and highly valued. The committee dedicates this volume to his memory. Rutherford H. Platt, Chairman Committee on Options for Preserving Cape Hatteras Lighthouse

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