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OCR for page R11
Contents PREFACE EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Background Rate of Shoreline Retreat . Relevant Public Policies The Preservation Options and Evaluations 5 Incremental Relocation of the Lighthouse Intact Seawall/Revetment Rehabilitation of Groinfield with Revetment Other Options . . Broader Issues . . . INTRODUCTION Historical Background . Recent Proposals . . . The Present Study . . PART I. BACKGROUND CONSIDERATIONS . 1. The Physical Setting. Structural Geology of the Hatteras Shore. Origin of the Outer Banks ....... Island Morphodynamics ........ Storms Changes in Sea Level Historical Trends 6 7 7 8 13 13 15 17 17 17 19 X1

OCR for page R11
~ X11 Estimated Future Trends Shoreline Retreat ............. Trend Analysis .............. Summary of Shoreline Retreat Estimates . . . a. Relevant Public Policies . . . Protection of Navigation . . . National Park Service Mandate . . Protection of Historic Structures Coastal Barrier Recession ...... Flood-Hazard Mitigation....... Enhancement of Recreation and Tourism Public Education .......... Federal Consistency with State Law . . . Wetlands Protection . . . Economic Effectiveness ..... Environmental Protection .... Use and Protection of the Coast 3. Concepts of Historic Preservation . . . PART II. THE CRITERIA, OPTIONS, AND EVALUATION . 4. Preservation Options and Evaluation Criteria . The Options . Criteria to Evaluate Preservation Options 5. Evaluation of the Options .......... Incremental Relocation: The Preferred Option . Overview . Cost of First Move...... Cost of Future Moves .... Evaluation Site Selection . . . Ecological Consequences of Moving the Lighthouse Recent Legislation .... Summary Protection of the Lighthouse In Situ Saving Cape Hatteras Lighthouse 25 27 29 29 33 34 34 34 35 36 36 37 37 37 38 38 39 41 45 S54 54 55 59 60 63 67 70 71

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Contents Groinfield Rehabilitation Without Revetment Groinfield Rehabilitation With Revetment. . Seawall/Revetment . Artificial Reefs ........ Offshore Breakwaters and Groins Artificial Seagrass . Beach Nourishment No Action .... New Lighthouse . . 6. Practical Considerations Contracting Considerations. Insurance Interim Measures Rehabilitation of the Lighthouse Site Design.... APPENDIX A: Major Shoreline Protection Measures General Measures Taken in Cape Hatteras Vicinity The NPS Decision Process and the Value of Open Planning . Actions to Protect Cape Hatteras Lighthouse Since 1980. . APPENDIX B: Additional Analyses of Shoreline Retreat. Trend Analysis for Shoreline with No Protection . . . The Bruun Rule ......... APPENDIX C: Partial List of National Park Structures Moved by the National Park Service APPENDIX D: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members .... References ~ x~ 72 74 79 86 88 89 90 91 92 95 95 97 97 98 99 .101 .101 .102 .103 . 111 .111 .112 . 117 . 119

OCR for page R11