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Science, ~chnolo~, and the Future of the U.S.-lapan ~lalionsbip auk ~~ Prepare by Me Emma on Japan Once of Japan Dim Once of Int~nabonal Cams National Search munch ~0~ ~ PINS sbington, D.C. 1-

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropnate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences of the United States is a private, nonprofit, self- perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering of the United States was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its membem, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievement of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 lay the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matted pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences lay its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Research Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Research Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Available from: Office of Japan Affaim National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 Printed in the United States of America

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NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING blot Constitution Avenur, Washington, D.C. ~o4~8 Dr. Harold Brown Chairman Committee on Japan National Research Council Dear Dr. Brown: Decerber 29, 1989 As you know, the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering have undertaken a number of initiatives to stimulate thinking about how U.S e-Japan relations, particularly in science and technology, can be developed in the years ahead to ensure that both countries benefit. Two high-level bilateral meetings were convened, the Office of Japan Affairs was established, and the Committee on Japan was organized to provide programmatic guidance and to address the policy issues surrounding a rapidly changing US~Japan relationship in science and technology. Recently, we have had the opportunity to review the issues paper prepared by your committee entitled "Science, Technology and the Future of US-Japan Relations." m e paper crystallizes the views of the members of the Committee on Japan, who are uniquely qualified to examine the linkages between science and technology and the broader context of trade, security and diplomacy. By outl ming a new context for US-Japan relations, and identifying the challenges that must be faced if both countries are to remain on the frontlines of science and technology, the Committee on Japan has laid a foundation for further debate and discussion by policymakers, business and academic leaders in both countries. In view of the importance we attach to the views expressed, we recommend that the Committee on Japan make the paper available to a wide audience. Flare Press :,7~6~ President National Academy of Sciences Rat mite President National Academy of Engineering

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COMMITTEE ON JAPAN The Committee on Japan has been established to advise the Office of Japan Affairs on its programs, and to assist in defining the contribution that the Academies can make in enhancing U.S. interests through science and technology exchange with Japan. Harold Brown, Chairman Johns Hopkins Foreign Policy Institute Daniel Okimoto, Vice-Chairman Stanford University Justin Bloom Technology International, Inc. Lewis Branscomb Harvard University Mac Destler University of Maryland Ellen Frost United Technologies Corporation Lester Krogh 3M Company James Merz University of California, Santa Barbara Yoshio Nishi Hewlett-Packard Company Terutumo Ozawa Colorado State University Ex Officio Members: Susan Pharr U.S.-Japan Relations Program, Reischauer Institute John D. Rockefeller IV U.S. Senate Richard Samuels MIT-Japan Science and Technology Program Roland Schmitt Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Hubert J. P. Schoemaker Centecor, Inc. Ora Smith Conductus, Inc. Susumu Tonegawa* Massachusetts Institute of Technology Gerald Dinneen, Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering William Gordon, Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Sciences *Unable to participate in the preparation of the paper due to circumstances beyond his control. 1V

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OFFICE OF JAPAN AFFAIRS Since 1985, the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering have engaged in a series of high-level discus- sions on advanced technology and the international environment with a counterpart group of Japanese scientists, engineers, and industrial- ists. One outcome of these discussions was a deepened understand- ing of the importance of promoting a more balanced two-way flow of people and information between the research and development sys- tems in the two countries. Another result was a broader recognition of the need to address the science and technology policy issues in- creasingly central to a changing U.S.-lapan relationship. In 1987, the National Research Council, the operating arm of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering, au- thorized first-year funding for a new Office of Japan Affairs (OlA). This newest program element of the Office of International Affairs was formally established in the spring of 19SS. The primary objectives of OIA are to provide a resource to the Academy complex and the broader U.S. science and engineering communities for information on Japanese science and technology; to promote better working relationships between the technical commu- nities in the two countries by developing a process of deepened dialog on issues of mutual concern; and to address policy issues surrounding a changing U.S.-Iapan science and technology relationship. Stab Martha Caldwell Harris, Director Donna I. Aubritsh, Research Associate Karen S. McDowell, Program Assistant The text of this issues paper is available in Japanese upon request to the Office of Japan Affairs. v