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8 Conclusion The above discussion points to the relative difficulty foreign researchers may face in working in Japanese university laboratories. None of these obstacles is in itself overwhelming, and a number relate more to the preparation and motivation of the foreign researcher than to barriers con- sciously erected in Japan. Nevertheless, the comparatively small numbers of Americans who have worked for extended periods in Japanese university laboratories suggests an urgent need for individuals and organizations in both countries to create significant new opportunities, opportunities that will ultimately benefit both countries. Absent such efforts, perceptions of a "one-way flow" are likely to persist and color the policy debate. 35

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