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preaches 10 Robodcs ~ He Unload Sages Id Jam: Rood of ~ Balkers [xch~gc OBBcoofJapan radius O0BceofInu~nadon~ ^ DDlk~ Bo _ CouncU bUATI(HN'8L'dCAJ)EhErPltESS \~h~g~n,D.C. 1990
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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research CounciL whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. the National Academy of Engineering also spon- sors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. Ibe Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters per- taining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This material is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Agency under Grant NO. ~1-8908723. Any opinions, findings, and conclu- sions or recanmendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the sponsoring agencies. Available in limited supply from Office of Japan Affairs National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 Printed in the United States of America
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OFFICE OF JAPAN AFFAIRS Since 1985 the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering have engaged in a series of high-level discussions on advanced tech- nology and the international environment with a counterpart group of Japanese sci- entists, engineers, and industrialists. One outcome of these discussions was a deepened understanding of the importance of promoting a more balanced two-way flow of people and information between the research and development systems in the two countries. Another result was a broader recognition of the need to address the science and technology policy issues increasingly central to a changing U.~.- Japan relationship. In 1987 the National Research Council, the operating arm of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering, authorized first-year funding for a new Office of Japan Affairs (OJA). This newest program element of the Office of International Affairs was formally established in the spring of 1988. The primary objectives of OJA are to provide a resource to the Academy com- plex and the broader U.S. science and engineering communities for intonation on Japanese science and technology, to promote better working relationships between the technical communities in the two countries by developing a process of deep- ened dialogue on issues of mutual concern, and to address policy issues surround- ing a changing U.S.-Japan science and technology relationship. Staff Martha Caldwell Harris, Director Donna J. Audritsh, Research Associate Karen McDowell, Program Assistant · . . 111
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COMMITTEE ON JAPAN The Committee on Japan was established to advise the Office of Japan Affairs on its programs and to assist in defining He contribution Hat the Academies can make in enhancing U.S. interests through science and technology exchange with Japan. HAROLD BROWN, Chairman, Johns Hopkins Foreign Policy Instate DANIEL OKIMOTO, Vice Chairman, Stanford University JUSTIN BLOOM, Technology Intemational, Inc. LEWIS BRANSCOMB, Harvard University MAC DESTLER, University of Maryland ELLEN FROST, United Technologies Corporation LESTER KROGH, 3M Company JAMES MERZ, University of Califomia, Santa Barbara YOSHIO NISHI, Hewlett-Packard Company TERUTUMO OZAWA, Colorado State University SUSAN PHARR, U.S.-Japan Relations Program, Reischauer Institute JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER IV, U.S. Senate RICHARD SAMUELS, MIT-Japan Science and Technology Program ROLAND SCHMITT, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute HUBERT J. P. SCHOEMAK1~, Centecor, Inc. ORA SMITH, Conductus, Inc. SUSUMU TONEGAWA, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Ex Of Acid Members GERAID DlNIlEEN, Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering WELIAM GORDON, Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Sciences 1V
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MANUFACTURING STUDIES BOARD LAURENCE C. SEIFERT, Chairman, Vice President, Communications and Computer Products, Sourcing and Manufacturing, AT&T MATTHEW O. DIGGS, Jr., Vice Chainnan, Copcland Corporation GEORGE C. EADS, Vice President and Chief Economist, General Motors Corporation HEINZ K FRIDRICH, vice President, Manufactunng, IBM Corporation MARGARET B. W. GRAHAM, Associate Dean, School of Management, Boston University LEONARD A. HARVEY, E'cecut~vc Vice President (retired), Borg-Wamer Chemical Company ROBERT S. KAPLAN, A~urLowes Dickinson Pro£essorolAcoDunting, Graduate Sch - 1 of Business Administration, Harvard University JAMES F. LARDNER, vice President, Component Group, Deere do Company EDWARD E. LAWLER m, Director, Center for Effective Organ~on, University of Southem California JOEL MOSES, Head, Demons of Esprit and Cower , . . . :Ylg~g, Mass~usem l~gtitute of Thy Stay KERST1N B. POLLACK, Deputy Door ROGER N. NAGEL, Harvey Wagner Professor of Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Computer Science and Electrical Engineering Department, Lehigh University DAN L. SHUNK, Director, C1M Systems Research Center, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Arizona State University WICKHAM SIDNNER, James E. Robison Professor of Business Administration (emeritus), Harvard University JEROME A. SMITH, Director, Anii-Armor Weapon Systems, Martin Marietta Corporation JOHN M. STEWART, Director, McKinsey and Company, Inc. WILLIAM J. USERY, JR., President, Bill Usery Associates, Inc. HERBERT B. VOELCKER, Charles Lake Professor of Engineenng, Sibley School of Mechanical Engineering, Cornell University STEVEN C. WHEELWRIGHT, Professor of Business Administration, Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard University
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BILATERAL EXCHANGE ON APPROACHES TO ROBOTICS IN THE UNITED STATES AND JAPAN Tokyo, Japan September 27-29, 1989 U.S. Participants JOHN McTAGUE, (Co-chairman) Ford Motor Company BRIAN CARLISLE, Adept Technology, Inc. JOSEPH ENGELBERGER, Transitions Research Corporation MARGARET B.W. GRAHAM, Boston University RAMCHANDRAN JAIKUMAR, Harvard Business School ROGER HA GEL, Lehigh University DAVID N17ZAN, SRI International RAN REDDY, Carnegie-Mellon University HARLEY SHAIKEN, University of California San Diego RUSSEI1 TAYLOR, IBM Watson Research Center DONALD VINCENT, Robotics Industry Association WILl]AM WHI7TAKER, Carnegie-Mellon University V1 Japanese Participants RYOICHI NAKAGAWA, (Co-chairman) Nissan Motor Company JUNICHI BABA, Mitsubishi Electric Company YUKIO HASEGAWA, Waseda University OSAMU HAYAMA, Nomura Research Institute HAJIMU INABA, GM Fanuc-Robotics Corporation ICHIRO NATO, Waseda University SHUN KINOSHITA, Agency of Industrial Science and Technology TSUNEO NAKAHARA, Sumitomo Electric Industries EIn OGAWA, Nagoya University SUSUMU TACHI, Agency of Industrial Science and Technology SEIICHI TAK~ANAGI, Toshiba Corporation KENJI USHITANI, Toyota Motor Coporation TSUNEJI YADA, Mechanical Engineering Laboratory KANJI YONEMOTO, Japan Industrial Robot Association
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Preface The Bilateral Exchange on Approaches to Robotics in the United States and Japan was a direct outgrowth of earlier high-level discussions between the National Academies of Science and Engineering in the United States and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. Those discussions, on "Advanced Technology and the International Environment," led to a recognition of differ- ences, or asymmetries, in the organization of R&D systems in the United States and Japan structural differences that must be overcome if both countries are to benefit from scientific and technological exchange. Robotics was selected as a topic for more focused discussion by experts from the two countries. The Office of Japan Affairs and the Manufacturing Studies Board of the National Research Council cooperated in this effort. A committee of U.S. experts from business and academe, chaired by John McTague of Ford Motor Company, was selected. Months of preparation by and consultation between the two coun- tries laid the foundation for the meeting held in Tokyo, September 27-29, 1989. Two days of formal discussion between U.S. and Japanese experts culminated in an open forum in which the results of the meeting were summarized and views exchanged with members of the newly established Engineering Academy of Japan. On the third day of the meeting the Japanese committee hosted the U.S. committee on site visits to corporate R&D facilities engaged in robotics work. This report highlights major themes from the discussion. It is not a conference proceedings or a consensus document. Its purpose is to convey a sense of the dis- cussion around a major topic of the U.S.-Japan meeting-cooperation, where and when it makes sense, between the United States and Japan in robotics R&D. . . V11
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