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Readiness for the Upcoming Solar Maximum A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members COMMITTEE ON SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS GEORGE L. SISCOE, chair, received his PhD in physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His research interests center on the large-scale organization and dynamics of plasmas and fields in space—the solar wind, planetary magnetospheres, and, in particular, Earth's magnetosphere. He is active in research in support of the National Space Weather Program. After receiving a postdoctoral fellowship at the California Institute of Technology (1964-1966), Dr. Siscoe was an assistant professor of physics at MIT (1966-1968). He spent much of his career at the University of California, Los Angeles, progressing from associate professor to professor of atmospheric physics (1968-1993), and he served for 7 years as chair of the Department of Atmospheric Sciences. Dr. Siscoe has been a senior research professor at Boston University 's Center for Space Physics since 1993. He was a Phillips Laboratory visiting research scholar from 1990 to 1991 and from 1993 to 1994. He was previously a member of the Space Studies Board and the Board 's Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration, and chair of NASA 's Space Physics Advisory Committee. He is currently a member of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Advisory Panel for the National Centers for Environmental Predictions and a fellow of the American Geophysical Union. JANET G. LUHMANN received her BS in physics from Carnegie Mellon University in 1968 and MS and PhD degrees in astronomy from the University of Maryland in 1971 and 1974, respectively. From 1974 to 1980 she was a member of the technical staff at the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory. After joining the the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics at UCLA in 1980, she transferred to the University of California, Berkeley, Space Sciences Laboratory, where she has been a senior fellow since 1994. She has served on numerous agency committees and panels, including the NASA Mars Science Working Group, NSF's panel to draft an implementation plan for the National Space Weather Program, and most recently the NASA Sun-Earth Connections Senior Review Panel. She has also recently completed a term as president of the Space Physics and Aeronomy section of the American Geophysical Union. She is currently a co-investigator on two NASA Polar spacecraft experiments (magnetometer and x-ray imager) and is a member of the ion-neutral mass spectrometer facility instrument team on the Cassini Orbiter mission to Saturn. She also serves as senior editor of the Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics. SPIRO K. ANTIOCHOS has been an astrophysicist at the E.O. Hulburt Center for Space Research at the Naval Research Laboratory since 1985. His fields of expertise include theoretical astrophysics and plasma physics. During his career he has worked on a number of problems related to plasma astrophysics, in particular, the magnetic origins of the Sun's activity. His work encompasses both analytic and numerical modeling. Dr. Antiochos is head of the Solar Theory Section at the Naval Research Laboratory. He is principal investigator and co-investigator of several NASA and Office of Naval Research research programs. Dr. Antiochos received his PhD from Stanford University in 1976 and has held research positions with the National Center for Atmospheric Research and with Stanford University. He is a member of the
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Readiness for the Upcoming Solar Maximum American Astronomical Society, the American Geophysical Union, and the American Physical Society. CHARLES W. CARLSON received his BA from the University of Minnesota and a PhD from the University of California, Berkeley. He has 30 years' experience in magnetospheric and space plasma physics research and more than 85 publications. He has also developed many of the plasma instruments currently used in this area of research, including numerous sounding rockets to study plasmas in the auroral zone and equatorial ionosphere as well as in the Giotto mission to comet Halley, AMPTE, and Mars Observer. He is currently the principal investigator for the FAST/SMEX mission and a co-investigator on the Wind, Polar, and Cluster missions. He holds the position of senior space fellow at the Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley. ROBERT L. CAROVILLANO received a PhD in theoretical physics from Indiana University (1959). He joined the Boston College faculty as an assistant professor in 1959, was promoted to professor in 1966, and chaired the Department of Physics from 1969 to 1982. In space physics research, Dr. Carovillano has publicized on a broad spectrum of topics in pure theory and data analysis. These include magnetospheric energy theorems, wave-particle interactions, magnetospheric-ionospheric coupling processes, ionospheric electric fields and currents, substorm modeling, analysis of satellite measurements and images of auroral activity, hydromagnetic waves and plasma resonances, solar wind propagation and structure, ring current and radiation belt energetics and dynamics, and related topics. Dr. Carovillano has served on national advisory committees of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Center for Atmospheric Research, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the National Science Foundation (NSF) and has chaired several such advisory committees. He has been an officer and trustee of the Universities Space Research Association, where he has also twice served as chairman of the Council of Institutions, and an officer of the American Geophysical Union. Dr. Carovillano has been principal investigator on many research grants and contracts funded by the NSF, NASA, the Office of Naval Research, and the Air Force. Since July 1994, Dr. Carovillano has been a visiting senior scientist at NASA Headquarters in the Office of Space Science. At NASA he has been responsible for the supervision of several programs and research initiatives in space physics but has been most deeply engaged in optimizing mission scientific accomplishments and opportunities. TAMAS I. GOMBOSI, a native of Hungary, was educated in theoretical physics. In the mid 1970s he was the first foreign national to do postdoctoral research at the Space Research Institute in Moscow, where he participated in the data interpretation of the Venera-9 and Venera-10 Venus orbiters. A few years later he came to the United States to participate in theoretical work related to NASA's Venus exploration. In the early 1980s he played a leading role in the planning and implementation of the international VEGA mission to Venus and Halley's comet. As project scientist for Hungary he actively participated in the design of several instruments (such as the imaging system, the energetic particle detector, and the plasma spectrometer), and he also played a leading role in modeling of the cometary nucleus and its environment. His scientific contributions span topics ranging from the propagation of cosmic rays and energetic solar particles to the the exploration of Venus and comets, to the development of the first time-dependent models of the terrestrial polar wind.
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Readiness for the Upcoming Solar Maximum RAYMOND A. GREENWALD received his BA in physics from Knox College in 1964 and his PhD in physics from Dartmouth College in 1970. After completing a postdoctoral fellowship in laboratory plasma physics at the Aeronomy Laboratory of the Environmental Research Laboratories of NOAA in Boulder, Colorado, he became active in radar remote sensing of the ionosphere, with primary emphasis on understanding ionospheric plasma instabilities. In 1975, he moved to Germany and was responsible for the design and development of the STARE radar system in northern Scandinavia. STARE consisted of two VHF phased-array radars having a common viewing area over northern Scandinavia. The radars were used to study the circulation of the high latitude ionosphere. In 1979, Dr. Greenwald returned to the United States and began developing concepts for HF radar investigations of the high-latitude ionosphere. He has subsequently been associated with the development of an extensive high-latitude network of HF radars located in Canada, Iceland, Scandinavia, and Antarctica. This network is known by the acronym SuperDARN and is currently used by an international group of space scientists. Dr. Greenwald is currently chairman of the international SuperDARN Executive Committee. He is also the supervisor of the Ionospheric and Atmospheric Remote Sensing Group in the Space Sciences Branch of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. JUDITH T. KARPEN has been a research astrophysicist in the Solar-Terrestrial Relationships Branch of the Space Science Division of the Naval Research Laboratory since October 1984. Her primary research interests include analytical and numerical modeling of dynamic solar and heliospheric phenomena, and applications of plasma physics and magnetohydrodynamics to solar and astrophysical activity. She has been involved in analysis and interpretation of solar data obtained with the hard x-ray burst spectrometer on OSO-5, and the NRL x-ray spectrometer (SOLPLEX) and white-light coronograph (SOLWlND) on board the P78-1 satellite. Since 1984, Dr. Karpen has been a co-investigator in research sponsored by the NASA Space Physics Theory Program (formerly the Solar-Terrestrial Theory Program) and the High Performance Computing and Communications Program, a principal investigator on one AFGL grant and two grants from the NASA SMM Guest Investigator Program, principal investigator on several 3-year grants from the Solar Physics SR&T program, and a principal investigator or co-investigator on several grants for computer time under the DOD High Performance Computing Modernization program, which primarily supports long-duration numerical simulations performed for the SPTP and HPCC efforts. In addition, she is an associate scientist on NRL's LASCO coronagraph on the SOHO mission and is involved in analysis of data from LASCO and EIT/SOHO in support of her theoretical studies. Dr. Karpen is a member of the American Astronomical Society, Solar Physics Division; the International Astronomical Union; and the American Geophysical Union. She was elected a member of the AAS Solar Physics Division Council in 1991-1993, an AAS/SPD Nominating Committee member in 1995-1996, and a member of the MOWG advising the NASA Solar Physics Branch for several years. ROBERT P. LIN obtained his BS in 1962 from Caltech and his PhD in physics in 1967 from the University of California, Berkeley. Since then he has been doing research at Berkeley in experimental space plasma physics, solar physics, planetary science, and high-energy astrophysics. Since 1991 he has been a professor in the Physics Department at Berkeley, and also associate director of the Space Sciences Laboratory. He is currently the principal investigator of the High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI) Small Explorer mission to
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Readiness for the Upcoming Solar Maximum be launched in 2000 and is also involved in experiments on the NASA Wind, Mars Global Surveyor, and Lunar Prospector missions. GLENN M. MASON received his AB in Physics from Harvard College in 1965 and his PhD in Physics from the University of Chicago in 1971. Dr. Mason is a professor in the Department of Physics and the Institute for Physical Science and Technology at the University of Maryland, College Park. He has worked on the development of novel instrumentation that allows determination of the mass composition of solar and interplanetary particles in previously unexplored energy ranges. His research work has included galactic cosmic rays, solar energetic particles, and the acceleration and transport of particles both in the solar atmosphere and in the interplanetary medium. He is principal investigator on the NASA Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Explorer (SAMPEX) spacecraft mission and is co-investigator on energetic particle instruments for the NASA Wind spacecraft and the NASA Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft. He was former chair of the NASA Sun-Earth Connections Advisory Subcommittee (SECAS), the NASA Space Science Advisory Committee (SScAC), and the Steering Committee of the Space Science Working Group of the Association of American Universities. MARGARET A. SHEA has worked in the Geophysics Division of the Air Force Phillips Laboratory at Hanscomb Air Force Base since 1964. She has received numerous Air Force awards for superior performance and in 1985 was a recipient of the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory Guenter Loeser Memorial Award for outstanding career contributions. She was elected as an associate of the Royal Astronomical Society (equivalent to fellow) in 1991, and in 1995 she was elected as corresponding member of the International Academy of Astronautics. Ms. Shea holds BS and MS degrees in physics from the University of New Hampshire. HARLAN E. SPENCE is a professor of astronomy and space physics in both the Department of Astronomy and the Center for Space Physics at Boston University. He received a BA degree in astronomy and physics in 1983 from Boston University. He earned his MS in 1985 and a PhD in geophysics and space physics in 1989 from the University of California, Los Angeles, studying the distribution of magnetic fields and thermal plasma in geospace and their consequences for global stability. At the Aerospace Corporation he continued research on magnetospheric and auroral physics and was promoted to senior member of the technical staff in 1993. At Aerospace, he acquired hardware experience as lead investigator covering all phases of development of the Imaging Proton Spectrometer sensor of the CEPPAD experiment on the orbiting NASA/Polar spacecraft—this instrument is now returning ground-breaking energetic neutral atom images. He is a co-investigator on both energetic particle experiments on Polar, as well as on the energetic particle experiment to fly on the Danish Ørsted satellite project. In 1994, he returned to Boston University as an assistant professor of astronomy. He is a member of the American Geophysical Union, American Association for the Advancement of Science, and Space Science Working Group; has been an associate editor of the Journal of Geophysical Research; was a National Science Foundation GEM steering committee member and working group chair; and has been awarded two Editor's Citations for Excellence in Refereeing (Journal of Geophysical Research, 1990, and Geophysical Research Letters, 1993). Dr. Spence received a 1994 Young Investigator Award from NSF. He is the author or co-author of nearly 50 refereed publications in journals and books.
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Readiness for the Upcoming Solar Maximum KEITH T. STRONG is the department manager and staff scientist at Lockheed Palo Alto Research Center. He has a PhD in solar physics from Mullard Space Science Laboratory, UCLA (1978) and a BSc in astronomy from University College, London (1974). His scientific interests include the use of diagnostics derived from x-ray lines to characterize the temperature, abundances, and dynamics of coronal plasmas to improve understanding of active regions and how they evolve and produce flares. He led the solar maximum mission effort to understand energetics of solar flares; discovered the anomalously broad x-ray emission line in active regions, which imply nonthermal energy dissipation in the corona, and variations in coronal abundances in time and space in active regions; and has studied x-ray bright points, particularly in relation to flux emergence and cancellation, their variability, and the high-velocity plasma jets they produce when they flare. He is deputy principal investigator for science on the Yohkoh Soft X-ray Telescope and principal investigator on the SMM X-Ray Polychromator. MICHELLE F. THOMSEN is staff member in the Space and Atmospheric Sciences Group and a laboratory fellow at Los Alamos National Laboratory, where she has worked since 1981. She received her PhD in physics in 1977 from the University of Iowa and did postdoctoral research at Iowa and at the Max-Planck-Institute for Aeronomy in Lindau, West Germany, before assuming her present position at Los Alamos. Her research interests include the structure and dynamics of Earth's magnetosphere; ion and electron heating at collisionless shocks; the formation and dynamics of the foreshock region of collisionless shocks; Earth's magnetopause; the magnetospheres of the outer planets; kinetic instabilities in collisionless plasmas; and solar wind-comet interactions. Her primary research activities have involved the analysis and interpretation of spacecraft data (especially plasma data from ISEE 1, 2, and 3 and from Los Alamos geosynchronous satellites) as they relate to these various research areas. She is the author or co-author of more than 200 scientific publications. In 1983 and again in 1991 she received the Editor's Citation for Excellence in Refereeing (J. Geophys. Res.). In 1985 she received a Distinguished Alumni Award from the University of Iowa and in 1992 was awarded an honorary doctorate of science from Colorado College. She is a past member of the Ionosphere and Magnetosphere Management Operations Working Group for NASA's Space Physics Division and has served as an associate editor for Geophysical Research Letters. RICHARD A. WOLF received his PhD in theoretical astrophysics from the CalTech in 1966. He joined the Rice University faculty in 1967, after having completed a postdoctoral appointment at CalTech and serving a year on the technical staff of Bell Laboratories. Although his early research was in theoretical astrophysics, he now works primarily on the plasma physics of the solar system, particularly concentrating on the space near Earth. He is best known for his work with the Rice Convection Model, which is a large computer code representing plasma motions in Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere. For the past 7 years, Dr. Wolf has participated in the development of the Magnetospheric Specification Model that will soon be placed in service at the USAF Space Forecast Center, providing data for reports on “space weather ” conditions. His research group is participating in two national efforts to develop comprehensive research computer models of Earth 's magnetosphere. Currently, Dr. Wolf is finishing a book on Earth 's magnetosphere and completing simulations for use in interpreting data from the Galileo spacecraft, which is now orbiting Jupiter.
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Readiness for the Upcoming Solar Maximum COMMITTEE ON SOLAR-TERRESTRIAL RESEARCH MICHAEL C. KELLEY attended Kent State University from 1961 to 1964 where he majored in mathematics and won the Bordon and Manchester awards as outstanding freshman and senior man, respectively. He attended Kent State on an athletic scholarship, played varsity basketball, and spent two summers at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Professor Kelley did graduate work in the Physics Department of the University of California, Berkeley, under Forrest Mozer, obtaining his PhD degree in 1970. In subsequent years he was a postdoctoral researcher at Berkeley and, for eight months, held a joint appointment as a Von Humboldt Fellow with Gerhard Haerendel at the Max-Planck-Institute in Garching, West Germany. In January 1975 he became an assistant professor at Cornell University, advancing to associate professor in 1978 and to professor in 1982. In 1979, he won the James B. Macelwane award from the American Geophysical Union, and from Cornell University 's College of Engineering he won the 1980 Tau Beta Pi Outstanding Teacher Award, the 1994 Dean's Prize for Excellence and Innovation in Teaching and Advising, and the 1997 Robert '55 and Vanne '57 Cowie Award for Excellence in Teaching. MARVIN A. GELLER is the director of the Institute of Atmospheric Science (ITPA) at the State University of New York in Stony Brook, New York. He received his bachelor's degree and PhD in meteorology in 1964 and 1969, respectively, from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He held assistant professorships in electrical engineering and meteorology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and in meteorology and physical oceanography at the University of Miami. His primary research interests are in atmospheric dynamics, with an emphasis on atmospheric waves; climate variablity studies; and upper atmosphere and ocean dynamics. Dr. Geller has played a key role in the development of the activities, tools, accomplishments, plans, and priorities for upper-atmosphere research. He is a member of the American Meteorological Society and the Amercian Geophysical Union. GUY P. BRASSEUR is an atmospheric scientist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. He received his BS in engineering physics form the University of Brussels in 1971 and his PhD in atmospheric sciences from the University of Belgium in 1976. His professional experiences include assignments as a visiting senior scientist at the Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany; senior scientist, Belgian National Science Aeronomy; and senior scientist at the Belgian National Scientific Foundation. He is a member of the American Geophysical Union, the American Meteorological Society, and COSPAR subcommittees. JOHN T. GOSLING is a fellow at Los Alamos National Laboratory where he is the team leader for the Space Plasma Physics Section within the Space and Atmospheric Sciences group. He has a PhD in physics from the University of California, Berkeley (1965). His research interests include solar wind dynamics, coronal mass ejections, interplanetary disturbances, collisionless shock physics, magnetic reconnection, solar wind-magnetospheric coupling, magnetospheric physics, and ion optics. As author or co-author he has published more than 325 papers in the above areas of research. He is the principal investigator for the Los Alamos plasma experiment on IMP 8 and is a co-investigator on the Ulysses plasma experiment. He has previously served as the principal investigator for data analysis for the Los Alamos plasma experiments on ISEE 1, 2, and 3 (ICE), was a co-investigator on the Skylab coronagraph experiment, and has worked
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Readiness for the Upcoming Solar Maximum extensively with plasma data from IMP 6 and 7 and Vela 2 and 3. He has served as secretary of the Solar-Heliospheric section of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) as chair of the SPA/AGU Awards Committee and as a member of the Bowie Medal Committee, and is currently serving his second term as an associate editor of the Journal of Geophysical Research. He has served on a variety of NASA panels and committees. He is a fellow of the American Geophysical Union and has received the National Center for Atmospheric Research Technology Achievement Award, two Los Alamos National Laboratory Distinguished Performance Awards, several NASA Achievement Awards, two Editor's Citations for Excellence in Refereeing from the Journal of Geophysical Resesarch, and one from Geophysical Research Letters. MAURA HAGAN is a scientist at the High Altitude Observatory of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (1992 to the present). She received her PhD in physics from Boston College in 1987. Her professional experience includes (1) research assistant, Department of Physics, Boston College (1983-1986); (2) visiting scientist, National Center for Atmospheric Research (1990-1991); and (3) research assistant, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Haystack Observatory (1986-1992). Dr. Hagan is a member of the American Geophysical Union and American Association for the Advancement of Science. Her research interests include the physics of the upper atmosphere; chemical/dynamical coupling between the mesophere, lower and upper thermosphere, and ionosphere; atmospheric tides and waves; and other related areas. MARY K. HUDSON is an associate professor of physics and astronomy in the Physics and Astronomy Department at Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. She received her BS (1969), MS (1971), and PhD (1974) degrees from the University of California, Berkeley. Her professional experience includes work as a research physicist at the Aerospace Corporation from 1969 to 1971 and as a research physicist in space physics at the University of California, Berkeley. Her research interests include theoretical models of ionosphere plasma phenomena; E and F region irregularities; ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling and transport phenomena; and ring current-plasma pause interaction and other planetary magnetospheres. She has received the Macelwane Award from the American Geophysical Union. She is a member of the AGU and a past fellow of the American Physics Union. GORDON HURFORD is a senior scientist at the California Institute of Technology. He received his BS in physics form McGill University in 1963, an MA in theoretical physics from the University of Toronto in 1964, and a PhD from the California Institute of Technology in 1974. He has held many scientific positions at CalTech and numerous consulting positions with NASA with an emphasis in solar radiation, solar physics, and astronomy. His research interests include the development and use of observational techniques such as microwave interferometry and spectroscopy and high-resolution hard x-ray imaging for studying the solar atmosphere and high-energy processes in solar flares. NORMAN F. NESS received his PhD from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and had a brief appointment at UCLA's Institute of Geophysics. He joined the then newly established NASA Goddard Space Fight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. His principal research interests are in the development and application of techniques and instrumentation for the measurement and interpretation of weak magnetic fields in interplanetary space and the magnetic fields and magnetospheres of the planets. He has been principal investigator on 18 separate missions,
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Readiness for the Upcoming Solar Maximum including the highly successful IMP series of 10 spacecraft launched from 1963 to 1973. IMP-8 is still operating successfully after 22 years in orbit. His investigations of the structure and dynamics of the interplanetary magnetic field (from 0.3 to 60 AU and beyond) definitively established the present-day understanding of the magnetoplasma structure of interplanetary space. Equally important have been the study and discovery of magnetic fields and magnetospheres at the planets Mercury, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune and their accurate quantitative descriptions. Dr. Ness pioneered in studies of solar wind interaction with the geomagnetosphere and planetary magnetospheres. He is currently principal investigator on the Voyager Magnetic Field experiment and co-investigator on the U.S. Mars Global Surveyor and Advanced Composition Explorer missions. He became president of the Bartol Research Institute on January 1, 1987. He has been involved in cooperative research with colleagues from the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, and the former USSR. A member of the National Academy of Sciences and Accademia dei Lincei, he is also a fellow of the American Geophysical Union and the International Academy of Astronautics. He was a Sigma Xi National Lecturer from 1989 to 1991. THOMAS F. TASCIONE is vice president, Space and Environmental Systems Operations, Sterling Software (1996 to the present); in this position he is leading an effort to start a commercial space weather forecasting center. He received his PhD in space physics from Rice University (1982). His prior professional experience was with the Department of Defense (1972-1993). As Deputy Director of the Air Force Weather Service, Dr. Tascione served as the focal point on all space weather activities. He co-chaired the interagency committee that initiated and developed the National Space Weather Program (NSWP) and was instrumental in the development of the NSWP strategic and implementation plans. During his Air Force career, Dr. Tascione served as the lead space weather forecaster and architect of the Air Force space weather forecast models program.
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