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APPENDIX C

Table of Lethal and Incapacitating Chemical Weapons

Agent

Effects

Onset

First Aid

Nerve Agents:

GA (Tabun), ethyl N,N-dimethyl-phosphoramidocyanidate

GB (Sarin), isopropyl-methylphophonofluoridate

GD (Soman), Trimethylpropylmethylphophonofluoridate

GF, cyclohexyl-methylphophonofluoridate

VX, o-ethyl S-[2-(diiospropylamino)ethyl]methylphophonofluoridate

Miosis, rhinorrhea, dyspnea, convulsions

seconds to minutes

Atropine, pralidoxime,anticonvulsants, ventilation

Vesicants:

H, HD (mustard), bis-2-chlorethyl sulfide

CX (Phosgene oxime), dichloroformoxime

Erythema, blisters, eye irritation, dyspnea

minutes to hours

Decontamination, topical antibiotics, bronchodilators, ventilation

L (Lewisite), β-chlorovinyldichloroarsine

British antilewisite

Cyanide:

AC (Hydrocyanic acid)

CK (Cyanogen chloride)

Loss of consciousness, convulsions, apnea

minutes

Nitrites, sodium thiosulfaate

Pulmonary Agents:

CG (phosgene), carbonyl chloride DP (Diphosgene), trichloromethylchlorformate

Dyspnea, coughing

minutes to hours

Oxygen, ventilation, bronchodilators



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OCR for page 67
Improving Civilian Medical Response to Chemical or Biological Terrorist Incidents: Interim Report on Current Capabilities APPENDIX C Table of Lethal and Incapacitating Chemical Weapons Agent Effects Onset First Aid Nerve Agents: GA (Tabun), ethyl N,N-dimethyl-phosphoramidocyanidate GB (Sarin), isopropyl-methylphophonofluoridate GD (Soman), Trimethylpropylmethylphophonofluoridate GF, cyclohexyl-methylphophonofluoridate VX, o-ethyl S-[2-(diiospropylamino)ethyl]methylphophonofluoridate Miosis, rhinorrhea, dyspnea, convulsions seconds to minutes Atropine, pralidoxime,anticonvulsants, ventilation Vesicants: H, HD (mustard), bis-2-chlorethyl sulfide CX (Phosgene oxime), dichloroformoxime Erythema, blisters, eye irritation, dyspnea minutes to hours Decontamination, topical antibiotics, bronchodilators, ventilation L (Lewisite), β-chlorovinyldichloroarsine British antilewisite Cyanide: AC (Hydrocyanic acid) CK (Cyanogen chloride) Loss of consciousness, convulsions, apnea minutes Nitrites, sodium thiosulfaate Pulmonary Agents: CG (phosgene), carbonyl chloride DP (Diphosgene), trichloromethylchlorformate Dyspnea, coughing minutes to hours Oxygen, ventilation, bronchodilators

OCR for page 67
Improving Civilian Medical Response to Chemical or Biological Terrorist Incidents: Interim Report on Current Capabilities Riot Control Agents: CS, 2-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile CN, 1-chloroacetophenone CR, dibenz (b,F)-1:4-oxazepine CA, bromobenzylcyanide DM, diphenylaminearsine DA, diphenylchlorarsine DC, diphenylcyanoarsine Burning stinging of eyes, nose, airway, vomiting seconds to minutes Water for eyes, skin, bronchodilators, oxygen, ventilation for lungs Opioids: Carfentanil Sufentanil Dyspnea, ataxia, catatonia minutes Naloxone, nalnefene, naltrexone, ventilation Anesthetics: Chloroform Halathane Cyclopropane Ether Analgesia, loss of reflexes and conciousness minutes Ventilation Antimuscarinics: BX, 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate mydriasis, erythema, ataxia, delirium 1 hour Tacrine, physostigmine Cholinergics: Nicotine Epibatidine Anatoxin A Weakness, tremors, apnea, convulsions minutes Mecamylamine