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Il. Private Contributions 29

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National Academy of Sciences FY 1998 PRIVATE CONTRIBUTIONS We gratefully acknowledge the support of private contributors to the National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, and National Research Council. Contributions made to honor pledges from years past were recognized in the year the pledge was made; in accordance with accounting practices, they are not listed here. Contributions to the National Academy of Engineering are recognized in the NAE Program Report. Every effort has been made to ensure that the names in this report are accurate and complete. Please contact the Development Ounce to correct any omissions or errors. Foundations Archstone Foundation Carnegie Corporation of New York The Commonwealth Fund Liz Claiborne and Art Ortenberg Foundation The Arthur Vining Davis Foundations The Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation, Inc. Ford Foundation Foundation for Child Development Irvine Health Foundation Irving Harris Foundation Homeland Foundation Howard Hughes Medical Institute The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation W. K. Kellogg Foundation Abbott Laboratories Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. Airbus Industries of North America, Inc. Aluminum Company of America Amgen, Inc. Bayer Corporation Bell Atlantic Corporation BP America, Inc. Bristol-Myers Squibb Company Carolina Biological Supply Company Chevron Corporation Conrail Corning, Inc. Cyanamid Daiichi Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company Eastman Chemical Company Eastman Kodak Company Electric Power Research Institute Robert J. and Helen C. Kleberg Foundation John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Merck Company Foundation National Starch and Chemical Foundation, Inc. The New-Land Foundation New York State Science and Technology Foundation The David and Lucille Packard Foundation Rasmussen Foundation Research Corporation Research Foundation of Health and Environmental Effects Alfred P. Sloan Foundation The Rockefeller Foundation Turner Foundation, Inc. The Winslow Foundation Corporations Elf Aquitaine, Inc. Elf Atochem-North America, Inc. Ford Motor Company Frito-Lay, Inc. Genencor International, Inc. General Electric Company Hershey Foods Corporation Hewlett-Packard Company Hitachi, LTD. Hoffmann-La Roche, Inc. Honda R & D North America, Inc. Hughes STX Corporation Intel Corporation Johnson & Johnson Kellogg Company Kemin Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation Kimley-Horn and Associates Kraft Foods, Inc. Eli Lilly and Company Lockheed Martin Corporation Lord Corporation The Lubrizol Corporation Lucent Technologies ABB Lummus Global, Inc. M&M/Mars, Inc. Massachusetts Biological Services McDonald's Corporation Mead Johnson Nutrition Group Merck & Company, Inc. Microsoft Corporation Minnesota Mining & Mfg. Company Monsanto Company Motorola, Inc. Nabisco, Inc. Nestle USA, Inc. Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation Nokia, Inc.

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Corporations (continued) Olin Corporation Pfizer, Inc. The Procter & Gamble Company Rockwell International Corporation Rohm & Haas Company QUALCOMM, Inc. Semiconductor Research Corporation American Academy of Nursing American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials American Automobile Manufacturers Association American Bureau of Shipping American Chemical Society American Concrete and Pavement Association American Physical Therapy Association American Mathematical Society American Petroleum Institute American Psychological Association American Psychological Society American Public Transportation Association American Society of Laboratory Animal Practitioners Asphalt Institute, Inc. Association of American Railroads Batelle Memorial Institute Canadian Feed Industry Association Chemical Manufacturers Association Shell Oil Company Siemens Corporation Silicon Valley Group Wilbur Smith Associates SmithKline Beecham Corporation Texaco, Inc. Other Organizations Trillium Digital Systems, Inc. TRW, Inc. Uniroyal Chemical Corporation URS Greiner, Inc. Warner-Lambert Company Welder Nutrition Group Wyeth-Ayerst Research Commission for Environmental Cooperation Fogarty Center German-American Academic Council Massachusetts Institute of Technology National Asphalt and Pavement Association National Council of Teachers of Mathematics National Mining Association Northwestern University Oceanography Society The Psychonomic Society, Inc. Society for Research in Child Development Stanford University University of California at Los Angeles University of Illinois University of Prince Edward Island University of Washington University of Wisconsin Washington University The World Conservation Union The Academy Industry Program of the National Research Council The Academy Industry Program (AIP) brings together representatives from private industry who are leading the nation's research and development efforts. Companies listed below support the ongoing operations of the AIR Amgen, Inc. Amoco Corporation Becton Dickinson and Company Bell Atlantic Corporation Citicorp/Citibank N.A. E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company Eastman Kodak Company Elf Aquitaine, Inc. Ford Motor Company GTE Corporation Johnson & Johnson Mitsubishi Electric Information Technology Center of America, Inc. Monsanto Company Nissan Research & Development, Inc. Pfizer Central Research Praxair, Inc. The Procter & Gamble Company Texaco, Inc. ~ 1

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Individuals Contributors of $10,000 or More to the National Academy of Sciences Bruce Alberts H. H. Barshall* Katherine Esau* T. H. Geballe William Golden Jerome H. Grossman Daniel E. Koshland, Jr. Ralph Landau Arthur B. Pardee Herbert A. Simon The Presidents' Circle of the NAS, NAE, and TOM The Presidents' Circle of the NAS, NAE, and IOM is a support group of individuals from the private sector who advocate a greater awareness of science and technology in our society and a better understanding of the work of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. Major Contributors ($10,000 or More) M. Blakeman Ingle Robert L. James Kenneth A. Jonsson John H. Krehbiel Contributors Under $10,000 Thomas A. Mann Mobil Corporation James McConnell Clark Sara Lee Schupf Thomas D. Barrow Robert S. Ingersoll Jody Potts Warren L. Batts Philip Jonsson Robert A. Pritzker Berkley Bedell Alice Kandell Allen E. Puckett Diane Bernstein William F. Kieschnick George Rathmann E. Milton Bevington Gerald D. Laubach Charles W. Robinson Richard A. Bloch Fred W. Lyons Neil R. Rolde Dan Burns Richard J. Mahoney Jill Sackler Fletcher L. Byrom Thomas J. Malone Harvey S. Sadow Louis W. Cabot Robert H. Malott Charles A. Sanders Dollie Cole Charles Miller CollinW. Scarborough Communities Foundation of Texas G. William Miller H.R. Shepherd George C. Eads JoeF. Moore Dorothy Simpson John Everets Darla Mueller Joseph E. Slater John Brooks Fuqua Patricia Nettleship Walter A. Smith* Robert W. Galvin Guy W. Nichols SmithKline Beecham Corporation Barnett Grace O'Donnell Foundation Georges C. St. Laurent E. Andrews Grinstead Jack S. Parker Deborah Szekely Samuel F. Heffner Peter Pfendler Daniel M. Tellep Jane Hirsh John C. Westwater * Deceased 32

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The Elkan Blout Society of the National Academy of Sciences Elkan Blout Society members have made a legacy gift to the National Academy of Sciences to ensure the future vitality of the institution. Bruce and Betty Alberts Anonymous H. H. and Eleanor Barschall Paul and Mildred Berg Elkan and Gail Blout Daniel Branton Ellis and Bettsy Cowling Lee J. Cronbach Mildred and Gene Dresselhaus Ernest and Eva Eliel Emanuel and Hazel Epstein Richard L. Garwin Norman H. and Doris V. Giles Hermann and Eleanor Haus Martin and Barbara Larrabee G. Lewis and Ingrid Meyer Francis Daniels Moore Arno and Gretel Motulsky Oliver E. Nelson, Jr., and Gerda Nelson The TOM Society of the Institute of Medicine Frank and Billie Press Simon and Virginia Ramo Alexander and Jane Rich Frederic and Sarah Richards Charles M. Rick Richard and Hinda Rosenthal Rhoda G. and Bernard G. Sarnat Paul and Cleo Schimmel Rudi and Sonja Schmid Robert L. Sinsheimer The IOM Society was established in 1997 to recognize exceptional giving by individual members and friends in support of the Institute's mission. Membership currently is reservedfor those who make contributions of $10,000 or more through present or planned gift arrangements. Jerome H. and Barbara Grossman Robert W. Miller Arno and Gretel Motulsky Mary O' Neil Mundinger Thomas K. and Lois P. Oliver Gilbert S. Omenn and Martha A. Darling Henry W. and Frances R. Riecken Frederick C. and Alice N. Robbins Rhoda G. and Bernard G. Sarnat Kenneth I. and Carolyn Shine 199X Annual Funds of the National Academy of Sciences and Institute of Medicine Donors to the NAS Annual Fund provide the National Academy of Sciences with unrestricted support that is used to fund the priorities of the NAS Council and member-initiated programs. The Prometheus Society recognizes donors who contribute $1,000 or more each year to the NAS Annual Fund. Donors to the Institute of Medicine provide unrestricted support for IOM-initiated programs. The Prometheus Society Andreas Acrivos Clarence R. Allen Richard C. Atkinson Stanley D. Beck Paul Berg H. A. Bethe Elkan R. Blout Harvey Brooks Donald D. Brown H. E. Carter Marvin H. Caruthers Anthony Cerami * Deceased Arthur D. Code Stirling A. Colgate Nicholas R. Cozzarelli H. Richard Crane Edward C. Creutz Pedro M. Cuatrecasas Edward E. David Annie Dicke Marye Anne Fox Carl Frieden William E. Gordon Frances K. Graham Ronald L. Graham Jack Halpern Philip C. Hanawalt W. C. Herring Leonard A. Herzenberg Norman H. Horowitz George W. Housner A. James Hudspeth Alex Inkeles Bonnie L. Kaiser Walter Kauzmann James S. Langer Edward B. Lewis Hans W. Liepmann Rodolfo R. Llinas Laszlo Lorand Maclyn McCarty Fred W. McLafferty Richard A. Meserve Robert L. Metzenberg James A. Miller John A. Moore Hans J. Muller-Eberhard* William W. Mullins

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The Prometheus Society (continued) Craig G. Naylor Bernard O. Phinney Leon T. Silver Peter K. Vogt William D. Neff Dominick P. Purpura Maxine F. Singer Sidney Weinhouse Masayasu Nomura Peter H. Raven Software Construction Company Irving L. Weissman Stuart H. Orkin Rudi Schmid H. Guyford Stever John C. Whitehead Sanford L. Palay Betty L. Seidmon Lubert Stryer Torsten N. Wiesel Morton B. Panish Andrew M. Sessler Martha Vaughan Charles Yanofsky Ruth Patrick Richard B. Setlow Andrew J. Viterbi TOM Contributors ($1,000 to $9,999) Yu-MeiY. Chao William H. Danforth RhebaK. deTornyay Lee N. Robins Harvey R. Colten Worth B. Daniels Frederick C. Robbins Bailus Walker NAS Annual Fund Contributors ($100 to $999J Robert A. Alberty Harold Amos Abram Amsel Kinsey A. Anderson Theodore W. Anderson Henry N. Andrews John W. Arendt Edward M. Arnett Kenneth J. Arrow Association of Community Cancer Centers Mary E. Avery Julius Axelrod Stanley A. Barber Grigory I. Barenblatt Fred Basolo William J. Baumol Baruj Benacerraf George B. Benedek Michael V. Bennett John E. Bercaw Peter J. Bickel Elizabeth Blackburn Gunter Blobel Konrad E. Bloch Nicolaas Bloembergen Allan G. Bogue F. R. Boyd Herbert W. Boyer Robert M. Bovnton ~ew~s M. Branscomn Daniel Branton 34 John I. Brauman John M. Bremner Jan L. Breslow Victoria R. Bricker Winslow R. Briggs Andrew L. Brill Frank Brink W. F. Brinkman Norman H. Brooks Harold Brown Walter L. Brown William A. Buehring Donald L. Burkholder R. H. Burris John Cairns Charles R. Cantor Webster K. Cavenee Britton Chance Orville L. Chapman Shiing-shen Chern Mary-Dell Chilton John S. Chipman Chiron Corporation Ralph J. Cicerone George W. Clark Thomas W. Cline Albert M. Clogston Morrel H. Cohen Morris Cohen Julian D. Cole R. J. Collier Allan H. Conney Robert E. Connick Esther M. Conwell Claude Corty Erminio Costa Gerald R. Crabtree Albert V. Crewe John C. Crowell David Y. Curtin G. B. Dalrymple Horace W. Davenport Eric H. Davidson James O. Davis Raymond Davis Igor B. Dawid John M. Dawson D. C. Deno Theodor O. Diener Francis J. DiSalvo J. L. Doob Paul M. Doty Daniel L. Drake Harry G. Drickamer Floyd Dunn Dean E. Eastman Joseph N. Eckert John T. Edsall Dennett K. Ela Gertrude B. Elion W. G. Ernst Ronald M. Evans Stanley Falkow Saul J. Farber Anthony S. Fauci John D. Ferry Clement A. Finch Edmond H. Fischer James L. Flanagan Robert W. Fogel Hans Frauenfelder Donald S. Fredrickson Irwin Fridovich Gerhart Friedlander Herbert Friedman Victoria A. Fromkin Joseph S. Fruton Robert F. Furchgott Robert Galambos Robert C. Gallo E. P. Geiduschek Eloise R. Giblett P. Roger Gillette Alfred G. Gilman Michael A. Gimbrone Harold S. Ginsberg GlaxoWellcome, Inc. Ralph E. Gomory Robert A. Good Richard M. Goody Roy Gordon Roy W. Gould Jesse L. Greenstein Ulf Grenander Carol A. Gross Jerome Gross

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NAS Annual Fund Contributors ($100 to $999) (continued) Donald J. Grove Melvin M. Grumbach Norman Hackerman John E. Halver Hidesaburo Hanafusa Stephen E. Harris Theodore E. Harris Stanley R. Hart Leland H. Hartwell Richard J. Havel Elizabeth D. Hay Charles Heiser R. A. Helliwell Robert W. Hellwarth August C. Helmholz Robert L. Hill John P. Hirth Mahlon Hoagland Henry M. Hoenigswald Joseph F. Hoffman Frank Hole Richard H. Holm Ralph T. Holman Hoyt C. Hottel* W. W. Howells John P. Huchra Vernon W. Hughes Jerard Hurwitz Shinya Inoue Kurt J. Isselbacher J. D. Jackson Smilja Jakovcic-Rabinowitz Yuh N. Jan Holger W. Jannasch* Wolfgang K. Joklik Richard V. Kadison Jerome Karle Robert W. Kates Noel T. Keen Charles F. Kennel Nathan Keyfitz Edwin D. Kilbourne Arthur L. Kimball Judith Kimble Ivan R. King Seymour J. Klebanoff * Deceased Irving M. Klotz Ernst Knobil Leon Knopoff Hans Kornberg Edward A. Kravitz Michael A. Kriss Norman M. Kroll Arthur H. Lachenbruch Rolf W. Landauer Martin G. Larrabee Peter D. Lax William J. Lennarz Nelson J. Leonard Edwin N. Lightfoot Gene E. Likens Eli Lilly and Company Dan L. Lindsley Donald B. Lindsley Richard S. Lindzen Gardner Lindzey Gwilym S. Lodwick Richard M. Losick Floyd G. Lounsbury* Francis E. Low Christopher S. Lynnes Eleanor E. Maccoby Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation Anthony P. Mahowald Donald C. Malins Willem V. Malkus Vincent T. Marchesi Rudolph A. Marcus Emanuel Margoliash Vincent Massey John C. Mather Pamela A. Matson Ernst Mayr Bruce S. McEwen Christopher F. McKee Lionel W. McKenzie Peter Meyer John W. Miles Neal E. Miller Stanley L. Miller Mortimer Mishkin Mobil Corporation John L. Moll Harley W. Moon Francis D. Moore Peter B. Moore Cathleen S. Morawetz Aron A. Moscona Frederick Mosteller Arno G. Motulsky Walter H. Munk Royce W. Murray Eugene W. Nester Norman D. Newell Louis Nirenberg Douglas L. Oliver Jack E. Oliver Gordon H. Orians Douglas D. Osheroff Jeremiah P. Ostriker Robert T. Paine George E. Palade George W. Parshall Robert W. Pearson Daniel W. Pettengill Gordon H. Pettengill Philip Morris Companies, Inc. Norman A. Phillips Gerard Piel Leopold J. Pospisil Leo J. Postman Ananda S. Prasad William H. Press Dale Purves Frank W. Putnam Roy Radner J. E. Rall Richard F. Rankin Marina Ratner Lester J. Reed Richard J. Reed Winston H. Reed Frederick Reines* Randall W. Reyer Charles C. Richardson Burton Richter Lorrin A. Riggs Hans Ris Eugene Roberts John D. Roberts Irwin A. Rose Leon E. Rosenberg Michael G. Rosenfeld Irving Rouse Wallace R. Rust Robert G. Sachs Howard K. Schachman Arthur L. Schawlow Randy W. Schekman Sandra Schmid John H. Schwarz William R. Sears Frederick Seitz Claude E. Shannon Ascher H. Shapiro Y. R. Shen Thomas E. Shipley G. Shirane Abraham Shulman Robert L. Sinsheimer Virginia B. Sisson G. W. Skinner William S. Sly James L. Smith James R. Smith Louis Sokoloff Dieter Soll Scott W. Spaulding Melford E. Spiro John E. Stauffer Jay F. Stearns G. L. Stebbins Janet L. Stein Joan A. Steitz Jacob Struck Julian M. Sturtevant Harry Suhl Hewson H. Swift Herbert Tabor Paul Talalay Kouichi Tanaka J. H. Taylor Richard E. Taylor George W. Thorn ;'J

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NAS Annual Fund Contributors ($100 to $999) (continued) Maury Tigner Shirley M. Tilghman James Tobin William Trager George H. Trilling Karl K. Turekian J. A. Tyson Roger H. Unger Arthur C. Upton William N. Valentine Henry Aaron Faye G. Abdellah Herbert L. Abrams Dyanne D. Affonso Bobby R. Alford Thomas P. Almy Samuel P. Asper Robert Austrian Mary E. Avery Daniel L. Azarnoff Howard L. Bailit H. D. Banta Clyde F. Barker Jeremiah A. Barondess William Baxt John C. Beck Richard E. Behrman John A. Benson Paul Berg Robert M. Berne Lionel M. Bernstein William Bevan Mina J. Bissell Robert J. Blendon Floyd E. Bloom Baruch S. Blumberg Enriqueta C. Bond Stuart Bondurant Robert L. Brent Jan L. Breslow William E. Bunney Ann W. Burgess 36 Jack R. Van Lopik Alexander Varshavsky Peter H. von Hippel Warren H. Wagner Ching C. Wang James C. Wang Robert H. Wasserman George D. Watkins Steven Weinberg Thomas H. Weller John R. Whinnery Donald E. White Albert E. Whitford Carl E. Wieman David T. Wilkinson William J. Wilson Bruce D. Winstein Evelyn M. Witkin Owen N. Witte Jan Wlodarkiewicz IOM Contributions Under $1,000 John W. Bussman Noah R. Calhoun Charles C. Capen William B. Carey Arvid E. Carlsson Britton Chance Dudley S. Childress Purnell W. Choppin Linda H. Clever Leighton E. Cluff Jewel P. Cobb D. W. Cohen Donald J. Cohen Colleen Conway-Welch Pedro M. Cuatrecasas Jacqueline E. Darroch Edgar G. Davis Paul M. Densen Roman W. DeSanctis Jane F. Desforges David K. Detweiler Allen J. Dietrich Harriet P. Dustan Mickey S. Eisenberg C. McCollister Evarts Saul J. Farber Daniel D. Federman Charles D. Flagle Loretta C. Ford Henry W. Foster Richard G. Frank Howard S. Frazier Frank F. Furstenberg Mitchell H. Gail Harold S. Ginsberg Robert M. Glickman Lewis R. Goldfrank Paul Goldhaber Robert A. Good Larry A. Green Ruth T. Gross Michael Grossman Laurie M. Gunter Zach W. Hall Ruth S. Hanft James G. Haughton Thomas F. Hornbein Robert W. Jamplis Michael M. Johns Richard B. Johnston Robert J. Joynt Michael M. Karl Samuel L. Katz William B. Kerr Charles A. Kiesler Anne K. Kibrick Tadamitsu Kishimoto Seymour J. Klebanoff Luella Klein Richard M. Knapp Casimir A. Kulikowski Joseph Lamer Elaine L. Larson Alexander Leaf Ralph S. Wolfe Dael L. Wolfle John A. Wood James B. Wyngaarden Keith R. Yamamoto Vernon R. Young E-an Zen George A. Zentmyer Stephen A. Ziller Philip R. Lee Howard Leventhal Lawrence S. Lewin James S. Lieberman Gwilym S. Lodwick A. M. Maglacas Halfdan Mahler Margaret E. Mahoney Henri R. Manasse Robert W. Mann Vincent T. Marchesi Robert R. Marshak Bettie Sue S. Masters Charles A. McCallum Roger O. McClellan Marie C. McCormick J. Alexander McMahon Sherman M. Mellinkoff W. W. Menninger Francis D. Moore Edward A. Mortimer Arno G. Motulsky John H. Moxley Elena O. Nightingale Charles P. O'Brien June E. Osborn Herbert Pardes Scott S. Parker Robert E. Patricelli Daniel W. Pettengill Michael E. Phelps Roy M. Pitkin

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IOM Contributions Under $1,000 (continued) Jeffrey L. Platt David P. Rail Malcom Randall George G. Reader Matilda W. Riley Mark L. Rosenberg Edward Rubenstein David H. Sachs Simone Sandier Joseph E. Scherger Benno C. Schmidt Sheldon J. Segal P. Bai Akridge Susan Anton Joyce 0. Beckett Jeane Breinig Vivian Carpenter Allen Castro Duane Champagne Lerita M. Coleman Ethel Shanas Sam Shapiro John F. Sherman Aaron Shirley Eric M. Shooter George A. Silver Carolyn W. Slayman Louis Sokoloff David H. Solomon Harold C. Sox Robert D. Sparks Yolanda L. Comedy Thadious M. Davis John D. Diekman Barbara J. Fields Linnie M. Golightly J. Lee Greene Keith Guinn Trudier Harris William N. Spellacy Nathan J. Stark Judith S. Stern John D. Stobo Robert Straus Albert J. Stunkard Takashi Sugimura Judith L. Swain Robert B. Talley Robert E. Tranquada Harold E. Varmus Joseph J. Volpe NRC Individual Sponsors Evelyn B. Higginbotham Harry Kesten Portia Maultsby Franco Modigliani Joan L. Morrison Victoria E. Pagan Linda Reed Clifford E. Reid Andrew G. Wallace Edward E. Wallach Paul D. Ward Stanley J. Watson M. Donald Whorton Torsten N. Wiesel T. F. Williams Linda S. Wilson Warren Winkelstein Adam Yarmolinsky Samuel S. Yen Thomas C. Rozzell H. R. Shepherd Federico Subervi Gail Triner Doris J. Turner Jerry Volcy Charles Woodward ~7

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