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Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States 6 EMPLOYMENT CHANGES SINCE 1993 This chapter examines changes in the employment situation of science and engineering doctorates between April 1993 and April 1995, including changes in status, employer, and job. Under examination here are those science and engineering doctorates employed in April 1995. Of these, 74 percent were employed in 1993 and did not change either employer or job in the interim. Ten percent changed both employer and job, while 5 percent changed employer only and another 7 percent changed job only. Five percent reported that they were not employed in April 1993 8 (see Table 33 ). Doctorates in computer sciences were most likely to have made any type of employer and/or job change (32 percent). Change rates for all other fields were between 18 and 24 percent. FIGURE 13. Employment changes of science and engineering Ph.D.s, from 1993 to 1995. 8 It should be noted that approximately 33 percent of this category consisted of those still working on their Ph.D. requirements at that time.
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Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States Computer sciences doctorates were also most likely to change both employer and job (19 percent), while mathematical and agricultural/environmental sciences doctorates were least likely to have done so (7 percent). Changes in employer ranged from 12 percent in both agricultural/environmental and social sciences to 17 percent in health sciences and 24 percent in computer sciences. (Employer changes include those doctorates who changed both employer and job and those who changed employer only.) Computer sciences doctorates also made job changes most frequently (27 percent). For other fields, job changes ranged from 13 percent in mathematical sciences to 20 percent for chemistry. (Job changes include those doctorates who changed both job and employer and those who changed job only.) The reason cited most frequently by science and engineering doctorates for changing job or employer was “pay, promotion opportunities” (52 percent). Computer, agricultural/environmental, and health sciences doctorates were more likely than those in other fields to give this reason (between 59 and 60 percent), while physics/astronomy Ph.D.s were least likely (42 percent). The second most cited reason was working conditions (28 percent) and the third was job location (21 percent) (see Table 34 ).
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