8

PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

Scientists and engineers trained at the doctorate level undertook a number of activities to further develop the skills they needed for their field, to enhance their work or research, and to interact with others with similar professional interests.

Professional Societies

  • In 1995, 84 percent of all science and engineering Ph.D.s belonged to at least one professional society or association. By field, health and earth/atmospheric/marine sciences had the highest proportions (93 and 91 percent, respectively) and physics/astronomy had the lowest proportion (79 percent) (see Table 38 ).

Foreign Work or Research

  • Since completing their doctorates, 38 percent of science and engineering Ph.D.s traveled outside the United States to work or conduct research. There was considerable variation by field. High percentages of Ph.D.s in earth/atmospheric/marine sciences (59 percent), social sciences (52 percent), and agricultural/environmental sciences (50 percent) had worked or done research outside the United States. Percentages were relatively low for health sciences (29 percent) and psychology (20 percent) (see Table 39 ).

FIGURE 16. Proportion of science and engineering Ph.D.s conducting work or research outside the United States since earning the doctorate, by field, 1995.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 35
Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States 8 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT Scientists and engineers trained at the doctorate level undertook a number of activities to further develop the skills they needed for their field, to enhance their work or research, and to interact with others with similar professional interests. Professional Societies In 1995, 84 percent of all science and engineering Ph.D.s belonged to at least one professional society or association. By field, health and earth/atmospheric/marine sciences had the highest proportions (93 and 91 percent, respectively) and physics/astronomy had the lowest proportion (79 percent) (see Table 38 ). Foreign Work or Research Since completing their doctorates, 38 percent of science and engineering Ph.D.s traveled outside the United States to work or conduct research. There was considerable variation by field. High percentages of Ph.D.s in earth/atmospheric/marine sciences (59 percent), social sciences (52 percent), and agricultural/environmental sciences (50 percent) had worked or done research outside the United States. Percentages were relatively low for health sciences (29 percent) and psychology (20 percent) (see Table 39 ). FIGURE 16. Proportion of science and engineering Ph.D.s conducting work or research outside the United States since earning the doctorate, by field, 1995.