DETAILED STATISTICAL TABLES

1

 

Distribution of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s in the United States, by Field of Doctorate, 1995

 

42

2

 

Demographic Characteristics of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)

 

43

3

 

Demographic Characteristics of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Years Since Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)

 

44

4

 

Employment Status of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)

 

45

5

 

Reasons for Not Working as Reported by Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)

 

46

6

 

Reasons for Working Part-Time as Reported by Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)

 

47

7

 

Labor Force Status of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate and Gender, 1995 (in percent)

 

48

8

 

Employment Sector of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)

 

49

9

 

Occupation of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Sector, 1995 (in percent)

 

50

10

 

Occupation of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Years Since Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)

 

51

11

 

Occupation of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)

 

52

12

 

Primary Work Activity of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)

 

53

13

 

Primary Work Activity of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Years Since Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)

 

54

14

 

Median Annual Salaries of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate and Gender, 1995

 

55

15

 

Median Annual Salaries of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Employment Sector and Gender, 1995

 

56

16

 

Government Support Status of Employed Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)

 

57

17

 

Federal Agencies and Departments Supporting Work of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, 1995 (in percent)

 

58

18

 

Government Support Status of Employed Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Employment Sector, 1995 (in percent)

 

59

19

 

Relationship of Principal Job of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s to Doctoral Degree, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)

 

60

20

 

Most Important Reason for Science and Engineering Ph.D.s Working Outside Field of Degree, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)

 

61



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Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States DETAILED STATISTICAL TABLES 1   Distribution of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s in the United States, by Field of Doctorate, 1995   42 2   Demographic Characteristics of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   43 3   Demographic Characteristics of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Years Since Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   44 4   Employment Status of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   45 5   Reasons for Not Working as Reported by Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   46 6   Reasons for Working Part-Time as Reported by Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   47 7   Labor Force Status of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate and Gender, 1995 (in percent)   48 8   Employment Sector of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   49 9   Occupation of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Sector, 1995 (in percent)   50 10   Occupation of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Years Since Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   51 11   Occupation of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   52 12   Primary Work Activity of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   53 13   Primary Work Activity of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Years Since Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   54 14   Median Annual Salaries of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate and Gender, 1995   55 15   Median Annual Salaries of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Employment Sector and Gender, 1995   56 16   Government Support Status of Employed Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   57 17   Federal Agencies and Departments Supporting Work of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, 1995 (in percent)   58 18   Government Support Status of Employed Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Employment Sector, 1995 (in percent)   59 19   Relationship of Principal Job of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s to Doctoral Degree, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   60 20   Most Important Reason for Science and Engineering Ph.D.s Working Outside Field of Degree, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   61

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Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States 21   Academically Employed Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate and Academic Rank, 1995 (in percent)   62 22   Academically Employed Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Years Since Doctorate, Gender, and Academic Rank, 1995 (in percent)   63 23   Academically Employed Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate and Tenure Status, 1995 (in percent)   64 24   Academically Employed Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Years Since Doctorate, Gender, and Tenure Status, 1995 (in percent)   65 25   Number of Postdocs Ever Held by Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate and Years Since Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   66 26   Reasons for Holding Postdocs for Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   68 27   1995 Postdoc Status of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate and Years Since Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   69 28   Characteristics of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s on Postdoctoral Appointments, by Selected Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   70 29   Relevance of Most Recent Postdoc to Principal Job for Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Selected Field of Doctorate and Years Since Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   71 30   Second Job Status and Occupation of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   72 31   Second Job Status of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Employment Sector, 1995 (in percent)   73 32   Relationship of Second Job of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s to Doctoral Degree, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   74 33   Employment Changes of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s Since 1993, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   75 34   Reasons for Changing Employer or Job Between 1993 and 1995 for Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   76 35   Number of Articles and Papers Authored Between April 1990 and April 1995 by Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate and Employment Sector, 1995 (in percent)   77 36   Number of Articles and Papers Authored Between April 1990 and April 1995 by Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Academic Position and Tenure Status, 1995 (in percent)   78 37   Patent Activities Between April 1990 and April 1995 for Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   79 38   Membership of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s in Professional Societies, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   80 39   Work or Research Activities Outside the United States by Science and Engineering Ph.D.s Since Earning the Doctorate, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   81

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Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States 40   Work-Related Training Activities Between April 1994 and April 1995 of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   82 41   Continuing Education of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s Between April 1993 and April 1995, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   83

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Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States TABLE 1 Distribution of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s in the United States, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 Field of Doctorate Number Percent All Fields 542,500 100.0 Computer Sciences 6,600 1.2 Mathematical Sciences 25,200 4.6 Chemistry 61,400 11.3 Physics and Astronomy 38,700 7.1 Earth/Atmospheric/Marine Sciences 16,500 3.0 Agricultural/Environmental Sciences 22,400 4.1 Biological Sciences 109,900 20.3 Health Sciences 16,900 3.1 Social Sciences 75,800 14.0 Economics 22,500 4.1 Political Sciences 16,300 3.0 Sociology 23,000 4.2 Other Social Sciences 13,900 2.6 Psychology 82,200 15.1 Engineering 87,000 16.0 Aerospace/Aeronautical 3,800 0.7 Chemical 12,600 2.3 Civil 7,700 1.4 Electrical/Electronics 22,900 4.2 Industrial 2,400 0.4 Mechanical 10,600 1.9 Other Engineering 27,000 5.0   SOURCE: National Research Council/National Science Foundation, Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 1995.

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Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States TABLE 2 Demographic Characteristics of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   Field of Doctorate   Demographic Characteristics All Fields Computer Sciences Mathematical Sciences Chemistry Physics and Astronomy Earth/Atmospheric/Marine Sciences Agricultural/Environmental Sciences Biological Sciences Health Sciences Social Sciences Psychology Engineering Total Population (No.) 542,500 6,600 25,200 61,400 38,700 16,500 22,400 109,900 16,900 75,800 82,200 87,000 Year of Doctorate   1942-49 0.6 0.0 0.8 2.0 0.8 0.7 0.4 0.4 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.3 1950-59 5.9 0.0 4.0 10.9 8.3 4.8 7.1 6.2 1.9 4.9 4.2 4.8 1960-69 15.0 0.0 20.6 20.2 19.8 16.6 16.0 14.5 6.6 13.5 10.9 15.7 1970-79 28.5 5.1 35.8 25.5 31.0 28.9 27.2 28.3 24.1 33.8 28.8 25.7 1980-89 30.9 43.7 24.0 26.2 24.4 29.4 32.3 31.3 37.8 31.2 36.4 30.5 1990-94 19.2 51.2 14.9 15.1 15.7 19.6 17.1 19.3 29.6 16.4 19.5 23.1 Gender   Male 78.5 84.3 88.2 86.2 94.3 87.8 87.5 73.2 49.2 73.8 57.7 94.9 Female 21.5 15.7 11.8 13.8 5.7 12.2 12.5 26.8 50.8 26.2 42.3 5.1 Race/Ethnic Group   White 83.9 67.0 82.0 83.5 83.2 91.2 86.3 86.8 84.9 86.4 91.6 70.8 Black 2.0 1.2 1.4 1.5 0.8 0.4 1.3 1.8 4.3 3.6 3.1 1.3 Asian 11.5 28.7 13.4 12.6 14.2 6.6 10.1 9.3 8.0 6.8 2.0 25.6 Native American 2.2 2.8 3.0 2.1 1.5 1.5 2.1 1.9 2.0 2.6 2.6 2.1 Hispanic 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.2 Age in 1995   34 or Younger 11.4 27.6 10.0 13.6 13.3 10.5 7.2 12.4 5.9 6.3 8.3 16.8 35-44 30.9 53.7 24.7 27.7 24.7 31.3 33.2 33.8 35.2 26.6 33.5 32.0 45-54 32.6 17.4 40.2 27.9 33.0 31.9 30.7 30.8 37.3 38.2 37.1 27.3 55-64 16.0 1.1 18.9 18.4 18.7 17.3 17.8 14.0 14.9 17.9 13.6 16.2 65-75 9.1 0.3 6.2 12.4 10.3 8.9 11.2 8.9 6.7 11.0 7.5 7.6 Citizenship   U.S. Citizen 92.1 71.7 89.2 93.4 90.4 93.5 93.0 93.9 94.9 93.3 98.2 84.5 Non-U.S. Citizen 7.9 28.3 10.8 6.6 9.6 6.5 7.0 6.1 5.1 6.7 1.8 15.5 NOTE: Numbers are rounded to the nearest hundred; therefore, subcategories may not add to total. SOURCE: National Research Council/National Science Foundation, Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 1995.

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Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States TABLE 3 Demographic Characteristics of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Years Since Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   Years Since Doctorate Demographic Characteristics Total 5 Years or Less 6-15 Years 16-25 Years More Than 25 Years Total Population (No.) 542,500 104,200 167,400 154,600 116,300 Gender Male 78.5 65.8 71.9 83.7 92.5 Female 21.5 34.2 28.1 16.3 7.5 Race/Ethnic Group White 83.9 71.4 83.1 86.8 92.3 Black 2.0 2.9 2.4 2.0 0.8 Asian 11.5 21.6 11.8 8.9 5.5 Native American 2.2 3.6 2.4 1.9 1.0 Hispanic 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.3 Citizenship U.S. Citizen 92.1 75.7 92.6 97.8 98.7 Non-U.S. Citizen 7.9 24.3 7.4 2.2 1.3   SOURCE: National Research Council/National Science Foundation, Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 1995.

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Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States TABLE 4 Employment Status of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   Field of Doctorate Employment Status All Fields Computer Sciences Mathematical Sciences Chemistry Physics and Astronomy Earth/Atmospheric/Marine Sciences Agricultural/Environmental Sciences Biological Sciences Health Sciences Social Sciences Psychology Engineering Total Population (No.) 542,500 6,600 25,200 61,400 38,700 16,500 22,400 109,900 16,900 75,800 82,200 87,000 Full-Time Employed * 84.1 96.5 86.3 81.7 84.9 83.2 82.2 84.7 85.9 83.6 80.5 87.4 Part-Time Employed * 5.2 1.4 4.4 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.8 5.5 5.6 11.8 3.0 Not Employed ** 10.6 2.1 9.3 14.4 11.1 12.9 13.9 11.4 8.6 10.8 7.7 9.6 Seeking Employment 1.4 0.9 1.6 1.9 1.4 1.7 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.0 0.6 1.6 Retired 7.5 0.0 6.5 10.8 8.2 9.3 11.1 7.2 5.6 8.0 4.9 7.0 Not Seeking Employment 1.8 1.3 1.3 1.7 1.6 1.8 1.3 2.7 1.6 1.8 2.3 0.9 NOTE: Numbers are rounded to the nearest hundred; therefore, subcategories may not add to total. *Includes those who held postdoctoral appointments. **Percentages are not unemployment rates because they are based on the total population, which includes those retired and those not seeking employment; none of these is considered part of the labor force in this report. Unemployment rates are shown in Table 7. SOURCE: National Research Council/National Science Foundation, Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 1995.

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Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States TABLE 5 Reasons for Not Working as Reported by Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   Field of Doctorate Reasons for Not Working All Fields Computer Sciences Mathematical Sciences Chemistry Physics and Astronomy Earth/Atmospheric/Marine Sciences Agricultural/Environmental Sciences Biological Sciences Health Sciences Social Sciences Psychology Engineering Total Not Employed (No.) 57,800 * 2,300 8,800 4,300 2,100 3,100 12,600 1,500 8,200 6,300 8,400 Retired 72.3 * 73.0 78.8 76.5 73.2 80.7 65.1 65.6 75.3 64.3 75.9 On Layoff 5.9 * 8.0 6.6 6.1 8.0 4.9 6.2 8.4 3.0 1.8 9.4 Student 2.8 * 1.4 0.7 2.2 4.3 1.6 4.7 3.0 2.1 5.4 1.9 Family Responsibilities 6.6 * 6.6 4.8 2.8 7.8 3.6 9.7 8.2 4.8 13.7 2.5 Ill/Disabled 5.1 * 5.1 3.5 5.1 3.3 2.0 6.5 6.3 6.1 9.2 2.2 Suitable Job Not Available 10.3 * 13.1 9.0 12.0 12.3 6.6 10.0 10.9 9.8 10.0 11.1 No Need or Desire to Work 8.8 * 14.5 8.3 10.0 11.1 6.7 9.0 13.8 7.4 13.2 4.1 Other Reason 6.8 * 5.4 4.1 8.5 7.9 8.7 8.3 5.7 4.8 6.5 7.9 NOTE: Numbers are rounded to the nearest hundred; therefore, subcategories may not add to total. Percentages may total more than 100 because multiple answers were allowed. *Too few cases to estimate. SOURCE: National Research Council/National Science Foundation, Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 1995.

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Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States TABLE 6 Reasons for Working Part-Time as Reported by Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   Field of Doctorate Reasons for Working Part-Time All Fields Computer Sciences Mathematical Sciences Chemistry Physics and Astronomy Earth/Atmospheric/Marine Sciences Agricultural/Environmental Sciences Biological Sciences Health Sciences Social Sciences Psychology Engineering Total Employed Part-Time (No.) 27,700 * * 2,400 1,500 * * 4,000 * 4,200 9,500 2,500 Retired or Semi-Retired 32.8 * * 50.3 51.6 * * 40.7 * 31.3 19.0 41.3 Student 1.7 * * 2.0 0.0 * * 4.4 * 1.9 0.9 0.6 Family Responsibilities 25.1 * * 6.9 8.2 * * 23.8 * 21.6 40.3 9.3 Ill/Disabled 2.1 * * 0.3 0.0 * * 1.1 * 2.4 3.6 1.3 Suitable Job Not Available 22.3 * * 28.5 34.6 * * 21.5 * 26.3 15.5 31.5 No Need or Desire for Full-Time Work 35.7 * * 31.1 28.4 * * 30.3 * 27.9 42.6 33.5 Other Reason 13.3 * * 12.2 9.3 * * 12.6 * 17.8 12.4 10.2 NOTE: Percentages may total more than 100 because multiple answers were allowed. *Too few cases to estimate. SOURCE: National Research Council/National Science Foundation, Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 1995.

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Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States TABLE 7 Labor Force Status of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate and Gender, 1995 (in percent)   Field of Doctorate Labor Force Status and Gender All Fields Computer Sciences Mathematical Sciences Chemistry Physics and Astronomy Earth/Atmospheric/Marine Sciences Agricultural/Environmental Sciences Biological Sciences Health Sciences Social Sciences Psychology Engineering Total Ph.D. Labor Force (No.) 492,100 6,500 23,200 53,700 35,000 14,600 19,700 99,000 15,700 68,300 76,300 80,100 Full-Time Employed * 92.8 97.7 93.5 93.3 94.1 93.6 93.8 94.1 92.6 92.8 86.7 95.0 Part-Time Employed * 5.8 1.4 4.8 4.5 4.4 4.4 4.5 4.3 5.9 6.2 12.7 3.2 Unemployed and Seeking 1.5 0.9 1.7 2.2 1.6 2.0 1.7 1.7 1.5 1.1 0.6 1.8 Male 385,200 5,500 20,500 46,200 33,000 12,800 17,100 72,500 7,700 50,100 44,000 75,800 Full-Time Employed * 94.5 98.1 94.7 93.5 94.3 94.1 94.4 95.3 94.0 94.0 92.7 95.4 Part-Time Employed * 4.1 1.0 3.5 4.3 4.2 3.8 4.0 3.2 4.2 5.0 6.6 3.0 Unemployed and Seeking 1.5 0.9 1.7 2.2 1.4 2.1 1.6 1.6 1.8 1.0 0.7 1.6 Female 106,900 ** 2,700 7,500 2,000 1,800 2,600 26,500 8,100 18,200 32,300 4,200 Full-Time Employed * 86.6 ** 84.5 92.0 89.4 90.1 89.9 90.8 91.2 89.3 78.5 87.8 Part-Time Employed * 11.8 ** 14.1 5.8 6.9 8.6 7.7 7.3 7.5 9.3 20.9 7.5 Unemployed and Seeking 1.5 ** 1.4 2.2 3.7 1.2 2.4 1.9 1.3 1.4 0.6 4.7 NOTE: Numbers are rounded to the nearest hundred; therefore, subcategories may not add to total. *Includes those who held postdoctoral appointments. **Too few cases to estimate. SOURCE: National Research Council/National Science Foundation, Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 1995.

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Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States TABLE 8 Employment Sector of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   Field of Doctorate Employment Sector All Fields Computer Sciences Mathematical Sciences Chemistry Physcis and Astronomy Earth/Atmospheric/Marine Sciences Agricultural/Environmental Sciences Biological Sciences Health Sciences Social Sciences Psychology Engineering Employed Population (No.) 484,800 6,400 22,800 52,500 34,400 14,400 19,300 97,400 15,500 67,600 75,800 78,600 Educational Institution 48.5 50.2 67.0 33.1 47.7 47.7 47.1 58.8 56.2 65.7 39.8 33.1 2-Year College 1.4 0.6 2.0 1.9 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.6 1.3 2.2 1.4 0.3 4-Year College/University 41.2 45.5 59.3 26.0 34.5 36.8 39.2 52.3 50.7 58.8 33.1 27.3 University-Affiliated Research Institute 4.7 3.6 5.0 4.4 11.2 8.9 6.0 4.2 3.1 4.0 1.5 5.3 Elementary or Secondary School 1.1 0.5 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.7 1.1 0.8 3.9 0.1 Private For-Profit Company 30.3 43.2 22.6 55.2 33.5 22.5 30.1 22.3 21.2 10.9 19.1 53.8 Self-Employed 5.9 1.3 2.1 2.7 2.8 3.8 4.4 3.1 3.6 4.6 20.0 3.1 Private Not-for-Profit Organization 4.9 2.0 3.3 2.9 5.6 4.8 2.3 4.9 7.4 5.0 9.1 2.9 State/Local Government 2.7 0.7 0.5 1.0 0.5 3.0 2.9 2.3 4.0 4.0 7.0 0.8 U.S. Government 7.1 2.2 4.2 4.7 9.7 17.9 12.9 8.4 7.0 7.4 4.8 6.1 Other Employer 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.6 2.4 0.3 0.2 NOTE: Numbers are rounded to the nearest hundred; therefore, subcategories may not add to total. SOURCE: National Research Council/National Science Foundation, Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 1995.

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Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States TABLE 32 Relationship of Second Job of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s to Doctoral Degree, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   Field of Doctorate Relationship All Fields Computer Sciences Mathematical Sciences Chemistry Physics and Astronomy Earth/Atmospheric/Marine Sciences Agricultural/Environmental Sciences Biological Sciences Health Sciences Social Sciences Psychology Engineering Total Holding Second Job (No.) 75,300 * 2,200 4,700 3,300 1,600 2,300 10,500 3,200 13,000 24,800 8,900 Closely Related 65.9 * 51.8 52.5 37.2 57.8 54.7 52.2 68.6 65.1 82.3 61.2 Somewhat Related 19.4 * 26.9 19.4 25.7 18.8 25.0 26.6 20.9 23.0 11.2 23.0 Not Related 14.8 * 21.3 28.1 37.0 23.4 20.3 21.2 10.5 12.0 6.6 15.8 *Too few cases to estimate. SOURCE: National Research Council/National Science Foundation, Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 1995.

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Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States TABLE 33 Employment Changes of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s Since 1993, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   Field of Doctorate 1995 Status All Fields Computer Sciences Mathematical Sciences Chemistry Physics and Astronomy Earth/Atmospheric/Marine Sciences Agricultural/Environmental Sciences Biological Sciences Health Sciences Social Sciences Psychology Engineering Total Employed in 1995 (No.) 484,800 6,400 22,800 52,500 34,400 14,400 19,300 97,400 15,500 67,600 75,800 78,600 Not Employed in 1993 4.8 7.4 3.0 4.1 4.1 4.7 5.2 5.4 5.1 4.9 3.9 5.7 No Change Since 1993 73.5 60.3 77.9 72.6 74.0 74.1 74.9 72.1 71.6 77.1 75.1 70.7 Change in Employer and Job 10.1 18.7 7.4 10.5 9.9 10.3 7.2 11.2 12.2 8.5 9.6 10.7 Change in Employer Only 4.5 5.4 5.6 3.5 4.6 4.0 4.3 4.5 4.7 3.9 5.8 4.2 Change in Job Only 7.1 8.1 6.0 9.2 7.4 6.9 8.4 6.8 6.4 5.6 5.6 8.7 NOTE: Numbers are rounded to the nearest hundred; therefore, subcategories may not add to total. SOURCE: National Research Council/National Science Foundation, Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 1995.

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Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States TABLE 34 Reasons for Changing Employer or Job Between 1993 and 1995 for Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   Field of Doctorate Reasons for Changing * All Fields Computer Sciences Mathematical Sciences Chemistry Physics and Astronomy Earth/Atmospheric/Marine Sciences Agricultural/Environmental Sciences Biological Sciences Health Sciences Social Sciences Psychology Engineering Total Changing (No.) 105,300 2,100 4,300 12,200 7,500 3,100 3,900 22,000 3,600 12,200 15,900 18,600 Pay/Promotion Opportunities 52.4 59.9 46.1 52.6 42.1 53.7 59.2 53.1 59.7 55.7 51.9 51.6 Working Conditions 28.4 21.8 27.9 23.1 18.1 25.2 24.8 28.9 37.1 30.7 39.3 24.8 Job Location 21.3 30.1 15.9 17.5 14.7 24.1 19.3 21.9 25.3 24.6 25.2 19.6 Family-Related Reasons 10.9 8.7 8.3 7.3 8.9 10.5 10.3 10.5 15.5 13.4 16.8 8.3 School-Related Reasons 13.8 17.1 17.1 13.0 12.2 9.8 9.8 17.2 12.8 10.9 15.8 11.7 Laid Off/Job Terminated 19.0 15.1 20.6 18.5 33.4 25.2 19.3 18.6 16.5 15.7 16.1 18.2 Retired 3.8 0.8 4.5 4.2 5.8 3.5 3.6 4.1 4.5 3.5 4.0 2.4 Other Reason 11.2 9.0 12.2 11.6 11.5 16.7 8.4 9.5 6.8 13.7 13.0 10.4 NOTE: Numbers are rounded to the nearest hundred; therefore, subcategories may not add to total. *Percentages may total more than 100 because multiple answers were allowed. SOURCE: National Research Council/National Science Foundation, Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 1995.

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Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States TABLE 35 Number of Articles and Papers Authored Between April 1990 and April 1995 by Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate and Employment Sector, 1995 (in percent)     Total Number of Articles Total Number of Papers Field of Doctorate and Employment Sector Total Number Employed None 1-2 3-5 6-10 More Than 10 Mean No. of Articles None 1-2 3-5 6-10 More Than 10 Mean No. of Papers Total 484,800 37.1 19.7 18.0 12.8 12.4 4.7 26.7 16.8 21.7 17.6 17.1 6.4 Field of Doctorate Computer Sciences 6,400 32.6 25.3 22.6 10.5 8.9 3.6 13.9 20.2 21.7 18.7 25.5 8.4 Mathematical Sciences 22,800 37.9 22.3 17.1 13.3 9.4 4.0 32.8 18.9 23.9 14.2 10.2 4.4 Chemistry 52,500 41.6 18.9 17.2 10.8 11.6 4.6 33.8 19.5 21.9 13.3 11.4 4.9 Physics and Astronomy 34,400 33.3 16.9 15.8 14.6 19.5 6.7 25.2 14.2 21.0 18.9 20.7 7.8 Earth/Atmospheric/Marine Sciences 14,400 23.3 20.9 21.7 18.9 15.2 5.6 14.7 12.2 24.1 23.9 25.2 8.6 Agricultural/Environmental Sciences 19,300 33.9 18.6 17.7 15.1 14.7 4.9 23.5 15.3 19.3 20.8 21.1 7.5 Biological Sciences 97,400 22.4 17.5 21.5 18.0 20.7 7.0 19.2 15.3 23.8 19.9 21.7 7.7 Health Sciences 15,500 26.6 23.9 20.5 14.1 14.8 5.4 18.0 15.5 21.4 21.8 23.2 8.3 Social Sciences 67,600 40.9 22.1 19.6 11.0 6.4 3.1 23.7 16.7 25.2 20.8 13.6 5.5 Psychology 75,800 56.1 17.2 11.9 7.7 7.0 2.8 42.1 16.9 16.1 12.4 12.5 4.7 Engineering 78,600 37.9 22.3 18.4 11.8 9.7 4.1 23.8 18.5 21.1 17.6 18.9 7.1 Employment Sector *   Educational Institution 234,900 22.3 19.0 21.6 18.2 18.9 6.7 15.1 14.6 23.2 22.4 24.8 8.8 Private For-Profit Company 146,700 52.1 21.6 14.7 7.2 4.4 2.4 38.1 20.8 21.2 12.1 7.8 3.9 Self-Employed 28,600 71.7 15.3 8.4 2.5 2.0 1.1 58.8 16.8 13.5 6.5 4.5 2.4 Private Not-for-Profit Organization 23,800 42.3 20.5 16.1 9.9 11.1 4.4 31.4 15.3 22.3 16.4 14.7 6.3 Government 48,000 39.6 18.7 17.1 11.9 12.6 4.4 27.6 16.0 20.3 18.7 17.5 3.9 *Those reporting "other" types of employers are not included. SOURCE: National Research Council/National Science Foundation, Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 1995.

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Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States TABLE 36 Number of Articles and Papers Authored Between April 1990 and April 1995 by Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Academic Position and Tenure Status, 1995 (in percent)     Total Number of Articles Total Number of Papers Academic Position and Tenure Status Total Number Employed in Academe None 1-2 3-5 6-10 More Than 10 Mean No. of Articles None 1-2 3-5 6-10 More Than 10 Mean No. of Papers Total 229,500 21.0 19.1 22.0 18.6 19.3 6.9 13.9 14.4 23.5 22.9 25.3 8.9 Academic Position *   Postdoc Appointee 17,700 6.2 19.2 38.4 24.3 11.9 5.4 4.9 16.5 36.8 27.6 14.2 6.3 Full Professor 80,200 22.8 16.5 17.3 17.4 26.0 9.2 14.8 13.7 21.0 21.8 28.8 10.4 Associate Professor 50,700 19.4 18.4 21.8 18.9 21.6 7.2 12.8 13.1 20.9 23.6 29.5 10.2 Assistant Professor 42,100 13.6 21.6 26.4 23.3 15.0 5.9 7.6 13.3 25.2 26.7 27.2 9.0 Instructor/Lecturer 6,300 39.2 23.9 20.6 11.6 4.7 3.0 26.8 20.3 27.5 16.3 9.0 4.2 Adjunct Faculty 4,700 41.8 24.2 16.2 11.1 6.6 3.2 31.9 19.0 22.4 15.0 11.8 4.9 Not Applicable 24,700 32.1 22.1 20.3 13.4 12.1 4.9 23.1 17.3 22.8 19.1 17.8 6.6 Tenure Status   Postdoc Appointee 17,700 6.2 19.2 38.4 24.3 11.9 5.4 4.9 16.5 36.8 27.6 14.2 6.3 Tenured 118,600 22.3 17.5 19.0 17.7 23.5 8.2 14.5 14.0 21.0 22.4 28.1 10.1 On Tenure Track 37,400 11.5 20.2 26.5 24.1 17.7 6.5 6.3 11.9 23.8 27.5 30.5 9.8 Not Tenured 18,500 22.6 22.1 21.1 18.8 15.3 5.7 15.4 15.1 28.1 21.0 20.3 7.3 Not Applicable 37,200 32.4 21.5 19.6 13.2 13.3 5.1 23.0 16.7 22.6 18.6 19.1 7.0 NOTE: Numbers are rounded to the nearest hundred; therefore, subcategories may not add to total. *Those reporting "other" academic ranks were not included in this table. SOURCE: National Research Council/National Science Foundation, Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 1995.

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Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States TABLE 37 Patent Activities Between April 1990 and April 1995 for Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   Field of Doctoarte Patent Activities All Fields Computer Sciences Mathematical Sciences Chemistry Physics and Astronomy Earth/Atmospheric/Marine Sciences Agricultural/Environmental Sciences Biological Sciences Health Sciences Social Sciences Psychology Engineering Total Employed (No.) 484,800 6,400 22,800 52,500 34,400 14,400 19,300 97,400 15,500 67,600 75,800 78,600 Named as Inventor 12.4 14.3 3.8 30.9 17.4 4.7 8.2 13.0 5.6 0.4 0.9 24.6 Not Named as Inventor 87.6 85.7 96.2 69.1 82.6 95.3 91.8 87.0 94.4 99.6 99.1 75.4 Total Named on Patent Applications 60,100 * * 16,300 6,000 * 1,600 12,600 * * * 19,300 Number of Applications   1-2 59.4 * * 47.6 57.1 * 78.5 71.0 * * * 59.0 3-10 35.6 * * 44.3 38.3 * 21.5 26.1 * * * 36.8 More Than 10 5.0 * * 8.1 4.6 * 0.0 2.8 * * * 4.2 Number of Patents Granted   None 30.0 * * 20.9 22.4 * 37.1 43.8 * * * 28.2 1-2 45.9 * * 42.4 51.0 * 48.1 44.5 * * * 48.1 3-10 20.6 * * 29.9 23.3 * 14.8 11.1 * * * 20.5 More Than 10 3.5 * * 6.9 3.4 * 0.0 0.5 * * * 3.1 Total with Patents Granted 42,100 * * 12,900 4,600 * * 7,100 * * * 13,900 Number of Products/Licenses   None 48.3 * * 46.0 51.9 * * 55.8 * * * 47.9 1-2 39.2 * * 37.1 39.3 * * 36.4 * * * 40.1 More Than 2 12.5 * * 16.9 8.9 * * 7.9 * * * 12.0 NOTE: Numbers are rounded to the nearest hundred; therefore, subcategories may not add to total. SOURCE: National Research Council/National Science Foundation, Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 1995.

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Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States TABLE 38 Membership of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s in Professional Societies, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   Field of Doctorate Membership All Fields Computer Sciences Mathematical Sciences Chemistry Physics and Astronomy Earth/Atmospheric/Marine Sciences Agricultural/Environmental Sciences Biological Sciences Health Sciences Social Sciences Psychology Engineering Total Population (No.) * 542,100 6,600 25,100 61,300 38,700 16,500 22,400 109,700 16,900 75,700 82,100 86,900 None 15.6 19.6 18.1 15.8 20.8 9.4 13.4 16.0 7.1 17.7 12.5 16.2 One 21.1 22.4 23.5 28.3 27.4 17.4 18.7 16.6 13.7 14.6 22.9 25.0 Two 23.7 31.2 27.2 26.9 24.3 21.9 25.0 20.5 22.4 21.4 23.8 25.6 Three 17.4 14.6 15.9 15.6 15.4 20.2 19.2 18.4 20.6 19.5 17.1 15.7 Four or More 22.3 12.3 15.3 13.4 12.2 31.1 23.7 28.6 36.3 26.8 23.7 17.6 NOTE: Numbers are rounded to the nearest hundred; therefore, subcategories may not add to total. *Those who reported that they had never worked were excluded. SOURCE: National Research Council/National Science Foundation, Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 1995.

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Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States TABLE 39 Work or Research Activities Outside the United States by Science and Engineering Ph.D.s Since Earning the Doctorate, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   Field of Doctorate   All Fields Computer Sciences Mathematical Sciences Chemistry Physics and Astronomy Earth/Atmospheric/Marine Sciences Agricultural/Environmental Sciences Biological Scien- Sciences Health Sciences Social Sciences Psychology Engineering Total Population (No.) * 542,100 6,600 25,100 61,300 38,700 16,500 22,400 109,700 16,900 75,700 82,100 86,900 Conducted Foreign Work/Research 38.4 34.1 39.4 38.2 44.6 59.2 49.5 35.1 29.1 52.0 19.6 40.6 Did Not Conduct Foreign Work/Research 61.6 65.9 60.6 61.8 55.4 40.8 50.5 64.9 70.9 48.0 80.4 59.4 Total Conducting Foreign Work/Research   Outside the U.S. 207,900 2,200 9,900 23,400 17,300 9,700 11,100 38,500 4,900 39,400 16,100 35,300 Length of Last Trip   Less Than One Week 21.6 21.1 21.0 27.7 19.8 15.0 18.6 19.7 31.5 13.2 24.8 30.2 7 to 30 days 43.1 45.8 38.4 38.9 42.4 54.0 55.0 40.4 42.2 44.7 42.0 42.5 1 to 6 months 18.6 18.9 22.3 14.0 18.9 20.4 12.0 20.3 14.8 26.0 17.0 13.0 More than 6 months 16.7 14.1 18.3 19.3 19.0 10.7 14.4 19.6 11.4 16.1 16.2 14.4 Total Not Conducting Foreign Work/Research   Outside the U.S. 334,100 4,300 15,200 37,900 21,400 6,700 11,300 71,300 12,000 36,300 66,000 51,600 Reasons for Not Conducting   Work/Research **   Not Relevant to Career 38.7 27.4 36.0 41.9 41.0 34.9 28.7 32.9 30.2 42.3 44.7 39.4 No Interest 20.7 21.3 28.1 21.5 20.0 16.7 18.4 19.0 18.7 15.1 25.2 20.3 No Time 35.6 46.8 34.3 28.2 31.6 32.5 33.5 37.9 37.8 37.5 40.7 31.5 Unable to Identify Host Institution 17.3 24.0 20.4 15.3 16.9 18.6 18.4 13.8 21.2 16.7 17.1 21.8 Concerns About Losing Place in Job Market 16.1 17.1 11.9 16.7 19.2 10.1 15.0 17.5 13.6 11.2 17.6 16.5 Unaware of Funding Sources 31.3 39.2 31.0 24.3 28.2 33.8 34.2 29.5 37.8 30.6 35.3 32.2 Lack of Foreign Language Skills 15.5 14.8 13.8 12.8 11.8 12.0 20.4 13.7 17.3 17.3 20.5 13.7 Family-Related Reasons 36.5 41.9 39.8 30.6 34.3 29.7 36.7 41.4 41.5 36.7 39.3 29.7 Other Reasons 10.8 7.6 9.8 12.4 11.4 12.8 15.8 10.1 10.5 12.2 7.5 13.1 NOTE: Numbers are rounded to the nearest hundred; therefore, subcategories may not add to total. SOURCE: National Research Council/National Science Foundation, Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 1995.

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Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States TABLE 40 Work-Related Training Activities Between April 1994 and April 1995 of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   Field of Doctorate   All Fields Computer Sciences Mathematical Sciences Chemistry Physics and Astronomy Earth/Atmospheric/Marine Sciences Agricultural/Environmental Sciences Biological Sciences Health Sciences Social Sciences Psychology Engineering Total Population (No.) * 542,100 6,600 25,100 61,300 38,700 16,500 22,400 109,700 16,900 75,700 82,100 86,900 Taken Work-Related Training 52.1 53.8 43.4 49.4 39.2 47.4 58.5 46.6 69.2 48.1 71.8 50.1 No Work-Related Training 47.9 46.2 56.6 50.6 60.8 52.6 41.5 53.4 30.8 51.9 28.2 49.9 Total with Training (No.) 282,600 3,500 10,900 30,300 15,200 7,800 13,100 51,100 11,700 36,400 58,900 43,500 Types of Work-Related Training **   Management/Supervisor Training 27.7 21.3 17.9 37.7 29.2 24.3 34.8 28.9 31.7 25.5 17.3 35.1 Training in Occupational Field 77.7 79.9 79.1 71.1 69.5 73.1 75.4 76.1 85.8 69.9 91.5 73.7 General Professional Training 19.8 14.8 15.4 23.3 18.9 18.0 24.6 18.6 19.3 23.4 15.5 22.3 Other Work-Related Training 16.5 18.3 16.8 17.0 19.1 21.7 17.1 17.1 16.2 22.5 11.2 15.2 Reasons for Taking Training **   Change Occupational Field 11.1 10.1 14.8 12.3 11.7 11.5 11.0 10.7 12.4 9.4 9.6 13.1 Further Skills in Occupational Field 91.8 88.9 92.8 89.3 86.7 86.0 92.4 91.7 95.9 89.6 96.6 90.7 Licensure/Certification 18.2 3.6 4.2 6.7 5.3 7.6 17.6 15.5 38.5 8.9 45.3 6.0 Increase Opportunities 29.6 33.8 32.3 33.8 28.6 28.5 34.0 29.1 32.3 28.1 22.4 35.8 Learn Skills for New Position 26.6 34.5 24.7 32.8 29.6 27.3 24.4 27.5 29.2 21.3 19.4 33.6 Required or Expected by Employer 33.0 34.0 32.0 42.1 40.7 34.4 36.1 33.0 32.2 32.5 23.0 37.4 Other Reasons 7.1 7.8 7.9 6.6 7.3 9.2 6.0 6.6 6.0 10.5 6.5 5.8 NOTE: Numbers are rounded to the nearest hundred; therefore, subcategories may not add to total. *Those who reported that they had never worked were excluded. **Percentages may total more than 100 because multiple answers were allowed. SOURCE: National Research Council/National Science Foundation, Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 1995.

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Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States TABLE 41 Continuing Education of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s Between April 1993 and April 1995, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)   Field of Doctorate   All Fields Computer Sciences Mathematical Sciences Chemistry Physics and Astronomy Earth/Atmospheric/Marine Sciences Agricultural/Environmental Sciences Biological Sciences Health Sciences Social Sciences Psychology Engineering Total Population (No.) 542,500 6,600 25,200 61,400 38,700 16,500 22,400 109,900 16,900 75,800 82,200 87,000 Courses Taken   Took Courses 5.9 5.2 5.1 5.2 4.8 6.3 5.8 5.9 8.5 5.4 6.9 5.9 Did Not Take Courses 94.1 94.8 94.9 94.8 95.2 93.7 94.2 94.1 91.5 94.6 93.1 94.1 Total Taking Courses 32,000 ** ** 3,200 1,900 ** ** 6,500 ** 4,100 5,700 5,200 Reasons for Taking Courses *   Further Education Before Career 25.3 ** ** 22.9 32.5 ** ** 33.2 ** 20.6 17.6 25.0 Prepare for Graduate School 2.1 ** ** 0.1 5.5 ** ** 1.9 ** 1.4 0.8 4.1 Change Field 26.3 ** ** 24.0 40.9 ** ** 32.2 ** 27.4 20.4 24.1 Gain Further Skills 62.5 ** ** 52.6 58.3 ** ** 62.6 ** 61.9 67.8 61.0 Licensure/Certification 18.9 ** ** 17.6 7.5 ** ** 25.5 ** 15.0 30.2 7.1 Increase Opportunities 37.8 ** ** 42.3 34.4 ** ** 41.6 ** 33.2 28.4 46.4 Required by Employer 9.6 ** ** 14.5 10.2 ** ** 10.9 ** 9.4 7.2 7.7 Leisure/Personal Interest 52.0 ** ** 51.7 56.5 ** ** 47.9 ** 57.1 52.9 52.6 Other Reason 4.7 ** ** 2.7 0.0 ** ** 4.7 ** 5.6 6.6 3.4 School-Related Costs   Employer Paid Costs 45.0 ** ** 51.5 51.7 ** ** 40.7 ** 48.4 34.0 55.2 Employer Did Not Pay Cost 55.0 ** ** 48.5 48.3 ** ** 59.3 ** 51.6 66.0 44.8 Degree/Certificate Status   Completed Degree/Certificate 15.8 ** ** 17.0 11.7 ** ** 20.3 ** 12.7 11.7 17.5 Did Not Complete Degree/Certificate 84.2 ** ** 83.0 88.3 ** ** 79.7 ** 87.3 88.3 82.5 NOTE: Numbers are rounded to the nearest hundred; therefore, subcategories may not add to total. *Those who reported that they had never worked were excluded. **Percentages may total more than 100 because multiple answers were allowed. SOURCE: National Research Council/National Science Foundation, Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 1995.

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