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Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States Demographic Characteristics Demographic characteristics of science and engineering Ph.D.s, including gender, race, age, and citizenship are described in this section (see Table 2 and Table 3 ). Gender Women comprised 22 percent of the U.S. population of science and engineering doctorates in 1995. The fields of health sciences and psychology had the highest representation of women (51 and 42 percent, respectively). The fields with the lowest proportion of women were engineering and physics/astronomy (5 and 6 percent, respectively). The proportion of female science and engineering Ph.D.s has grown with each successive cohort. Only 8 percent of the group that earned its doctoral degrees more than 25 years earlier were women, while 34 percent of the doctorates from the most recent 5-year cohort were women (see Table 3 ). FIGURE 2. Field composition of science and engineering Ph.D.s, by gender, 1995.