Race/Ethnicity

  • The population of science and engineering doctorates was 84 percent white, 12 percent Asian, 2 percent black, 2 percent Native American, and less than 1 percent Hispanic.

  • Asians comprised 29 percent of the doctorates in computer sciences and engineering.

  • The highest concentrations of blacks were in health and social sciences, both 4 percent.

  • The racial/ethnic composition of science and engineering Ph.D. cohorts changed over time as each successive cohort included a higher proportion of Asians, Native Americans, and blacks. Of the doctorates who earned degrees more than 25 years earlier, 6 percent were Asian; for the most recent 5-year cohort, the proportion who were Asian was 22 percent. Looking at these same two cohorts, the proportion of doctorates who were Native American increased from 1 to 4 percent, and the proportion who were black increased from 1 to 3 percent.

Age in 1995

  • Of all science and engineering doctorates, 42 percent were age 44 or younger. Doctorates age 55 or older accounted for 25 percent of the population.

  • The youngest doctorates were in computer sciences: 81 percent were age 44 or less. Chemistry had the highest proportion of doctorates age 55 or older (31 percent).

Year of Doctorate

  • About 7 percent of all science and engineering doctorates received their degrees before 1960. Another 44 percent were earned between 1960 and 1979, and 50 percent were earned after 1979.

  • Fifty-one percent of the degrees in computer sciences were earned since 1989, due primarily to the burgeoning number of programs in that field. A relatively high proportion of health science doctorates were also earned within the most recent 5 years—30 percent, compared with 19 percent for science and engineering doctorates overall.



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Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States Race/Ethnicity The population of science and engineering doctorates was 84 percent white, 12 percent Asian, 2 percent black, 2 percent Native American, and less than 1 percent Hispanic. Asians comprised 29 percent of the doctorates in computer sciences and engineering. The highest concentrations of blacks were in health and social sciences, both 4 percent. The racial/ethnic composition of science and engineering Ph.D. cohorts changed over time as each successive cohort included a higher proportion of Asians, Native Americans, and blacks. Of the doctorates who earned degrees more than 25 years earlier, 6 percent were Asian; for the most recent 5-year cohort, the proportion who were Asian was 22 percent. Looking at these same two cohorts, the proportion of doctorates who were Native American increased from 1 to 4 percent, and the proportion who were black increased from 1 to 3 percent. Age in 1995 Of all science and engineering doctorates, 42 percent were age 44 or younger. Doctorates age 55 or older accounted for 25 percent of the population. The youngest doctorates were in computer sciences: 81 percent were age 44 or less. Chemistry had the highest proportion of doctorates age 55 or older (31 percent). Year of Doctorate About 7 percent of all science and engineering doctorates received their degrees before 1960. Another 44 percent were earned between 1960 and 1979, and 50 percent were earned after 1979. Fifty-one percent of the degrees in computer sciences were earned since 1989, due primarily to the burgeoning number of programs in that field. A relatively high proportion of health science doctorates were also earned within the most recent 5 years—30 percent, compared with 19 percent for science and engineering doctorates overall.