• Thirteen percent of chemistry doctorates received their degrees before 1960, the highest proportion by field, compared with 7 percent of science and engineering doctorates overall.

Citizenship Status

  • Eight percent of science and engineering doctorates were foreign citizens in 1995 (including both permanent and temporary residents).

  • Computer sciences and engineering had the highest proportions of foreign citizens, 28 and 16 percent, respectively. The lowest proportion (2 percent) was in psychology.

  • Foreign citizens comprised 24 percent of science and engineering doctorates earned within the most recent 5 years.



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Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States Thirteen percent of chemistry doctorates received their degrees before 1960, the highest proportion by field, compared with 7 percent of science and engineering doctorates overall. Citizenship Status Eight percent of science and engineering doctorates were foreign citizens in 1995 (including both permanent and temporary residents). Computer sciences and engineering had the highest proportions of foreign citizens, 28 and 16 percent, respectively. The lowest proportion (2 percent) was in psychology. Foreign citizens comprised 24 percent of science and engineering doctorates earned within the most recent 5 years.