TABLE 28 Characteristics of Science and Engineering Ph.D.s on Postdoctoral Appointments, by Selected Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)

 

Field of Doctorate

Characteristics

All Fields *

Chemistry

Physics and Astronomy

Biological Sciences

Psychology

Engineering

Total 1995 Postdocs

22,800

2,400

2,700

10,900

1,600

1,800

Years Since Doctorate

 

5 Years or Less

84.9

87.0

86.2

85.5

75.3

91.6

6-10 Years

9.4

7.5

8.3

10.7

9.8

6.7

11-15 Years

2.3

0.9

2.2

1.6

7.2

1.8

25 Years or More

3.4

4.6

3.3

2.1

7.8

0.0

Gender

 

Male

66.8

74.0

92.2

59.6

35.3

86.0

Female

33.2

26.0

7.8

40.4

64.7

14.0

Race/Ethnic Group

 

White

67.6

57.2

63.6

71.3

88.4

40.5

Black

1.5

2.0

0.3

1.3

1.9

0.5

Asian

27.0

35.6

33.8

23.8

5.2

56.5

Native American

3.5

5.1

0.6

3.4

3.1

2.3

Hispanic

0.3

0.1

0.8

0.2

0.5

0.1

Age in 1995

 

34 or Younger

58.1

66.0

71.8

60.3

39.2

62.1

35-44

33.9

27.4

23.2

34.6

34.3

32.2

45 or Older

7.9

6.7

5.0

4.8

26.7

5.7

Citizenship

 

U.S. Citizen

71.0

62.5

64.0

76.3

93.7

36.9

Non U.S. Citizen

29.0

37.5

36.0

23.7

6.3

63.1

Sector

 

Educational Institution

54.9

53.6

51.1

57.1

49.8

48.2

Business/Industry

6.6

4.9

6.0

6.9

5.7

12.0

Government

33.1

38.9

40.0

30.5

24.5

38.9

Other

5.4

2.5

2.9

5.6

20.0

0.9

Employment Benefits **

 

Received Health Benefits

83.5

88.7

89.6

86.7

57.1

73.3

Received Pension Benefits

37.2

43.3

49.6

34.5

17.9

31.9

*Includes all science and engineering doctorates on postdoctoral appointments in 1995, including fields not shown separately in this table.

**Does not add to 100 because some respondents and both benefits.

SOURCE: National Research Council/National Science Foundation, Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 1995.



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