TABLE 37 Patent Activities Between April 1990 and April 1995 for Science and Engineering Ph.D.s, by Field of Doctorate, 1995 (in percent)

 

Field of Doctoarte

Patent Activities

All Fields

Computer Sciences

Mathematical Sciences

Chemistry

Physics and Astronomy

Earth/Atmospheric/Marine Sciences

Agricultural/Environmental Sciences

Biological Sciences

Health Sciences

Social Sciences

Psychology

Engineering

Total Employed (No.)

484,800

6,400

22,800

52,500

34,400

14,400

19,300

97,400

15,500

67,600

75,800

78,600

Named as Inventor

12.4

14.3

3.8

30.9

17.4

4.7

8.2

13.0

5.6

0.4

0.9

24.6

Not Named as Inventor

87.6

85.7

96.2

69.1

82.6

95.3

91.8

87.0

94.4

99.6

99.1

75.4

Total Named on Patent Applications

60,100

*

*

16,300

6,000

*

1,600

12,600

*

*

*

19,300

Number of Applications

 

1-2

59.4

*

*

47.6

57.1

*

78.5

71.0

*

*

*

59.0

3-10

35.6

*

*

44.3

38.3

*

21.5

26.1

*

*

*

36.8

More Than 10

5.0

*

*

8.1

4.6

*

0.0

2.8

*

*

*

4.2

Number of Patents Granted

 

None

30.0

*

*

20.9

22.4

*

37.1

43.8

*

*

*

28.2

1-2

45.9

*

*

42.4

51.0

*

48.1

44.5

*

*

*

48.1

3-10

20.6

*

*

29.9

23.3

*

14.8

11.1

*

*

*

20.5

More Than 10

3.5

*

*

6.9

3.4

*

0.0

0.5

*

*

*

3.1

Total with Patents Granted

42,100

*

*

12,900

4,600

*

*

7,100

*

*

*

13,900

Number of Products/Licenses

 

None

48.3

*

*

46.0

51.9

*

*

55.8

*

*

*

47.9

1-2

39.2

*

*

37.1

39.3

*

*

36.4

*

*

*

40.1

More Than 2

12.5

*

*

16.9

8.9

*

*

7.9

*

*

*

12.0

NOTE: Numbers are rounded to the nearest hundred; therefore, subcategories may not add to total.

SOURCE: National Research Council/National Science Foundation, Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 1995.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement