In 1995, 1.5 percent of all science and engineering doctorates in the labor force were unemployed and looking for work. Chemistry doctorates, at 2.2 percent, had the highest unemployment rate, whereas computer sciences and social sciences had the lowest rates, 0.9 percent and 1.1 percent, respectively (see Table 7 ).
By gender, there was no difference in the unemployment rate for science and engineering doctorates overall. Two fields, however, had notable differences in the rates by gender: physics/astronomy with female unemployment rates at 3.7 percent compared with men at 1.4 percent and engineering with rates for females at 4.7 percent compared with 1.6 percent for men.
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UNEMPLOYMENT RATES ."
Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States 1995 Profile . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press,
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