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Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States DOCTORAL SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS IN THE UNITED STATES 1995 PROFILE Prudence Brown Peter Henderson Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, DC 1998
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Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The survey project is part of the program of the Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel (OSEP). The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Under authority of the charter granted by Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, areas of research, and topics for education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council (NRC) was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This report is based on research conducted by OSEP with the support of the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under NSF Contract No. SRS-9531746. Opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of OSEP and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsoring agencies. Recommended citation: Brown, P. and P. H. Henderson, 1998. Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 1995 Profile. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. (The report gives the results of data collected in the Survey of Doctorate Recipients, sponsored by NSF, NIH, and DOE, and conducted by the NRC.) Available from: Survey of Doctorate Recipients Project National Research Council OSEP—Room TJ 2006 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 Material in this publication is in the public domain and, with appropriate credit, may be reproduced without permission. Printed in the United States of America
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Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC AND ENGINEERING PERSONNEL ADVISORY COMMITTEE M. R. C. Greenwood (Chair), University of California David Breneman, University of Virginia Nancy Cantor, University of Michigan Carlos Gutierrez, California State University Stephen J. Lukasik, Independent Consultant William H. Miller, University of California (ex officio) Barry Munitz, California State University Janet Norwood, The Urban Institute John D. Wiley, University of Wisconsin Tadataka Yamada, SmithKline Beecham Corporation A. Thomas Young, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired)
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Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The conduct of the 1995 Survey of Doctorate Recipients, maintenance of the resulting data file, and publication of this report were funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF). Kelly Kang, who serves as project officer for NSF, and Nirmala Kannankutty of NSF assisted the project staff of the Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel (OSEP) with helpful advice on the draft report. The 1995 survey was conducted under the administrative supervision of Susan Mitchell and Peter Henderson. Prudence Brown and Peter Henderson analyzed the survey results and drafted the text. Julie Clarke prepared the report’s figures and Martha Bohman prepared the tables and finalized the manuscript for publication. Special appreciation is expressed to Eileen Milner, who supervised the coding and editing of the data, and to her data processing support staff—Kevin Williams, Gedamu Abraha, and Kevin Kocur. Thanks are also extended to Cindy Woods, senior analyst, and SiuChong Wan, statistical programmer, who were responsible for system design and file generation. This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity and evidence. The content of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Stephen J. Lukaski, independent consultant; and Carol B. Lynch, University of Colorado. While the individuals listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the authors and the NRC. The work of this report was overseen by the Advisory Committee of OSEP, which is concerned with the activities of the National Research Council that contribute to the effective development and utilization of the nation’s scholars and research personnel. During the development of this report, Charlotte V. Kuh, Executive Director of OSEP, provided helpful guidance, as did Marilyn Baker, Associate Executive Director. Finally, thanks go to all of the doctorate recipients who have completed the survey over the years. Without their continuing cooperation, this survey project would not be possible. M. R. C. Greenwood, Chair Advisory Committee Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel
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Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 1 1 DOCTORAL POPULATION IN THE SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING 3 Distribution by Field 3 Demographic Characteristics 4 Gender 4 Race/Ethnicity 5 Age in 1995 5 Year of Doctorate 5 Citizenship Status 6 2 EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT 7 Employment Status 7 Reasons for Not Working 8 Reasons for Working Part-Time 8 Unemployment Rates 8 3 PRINCIPAL JOB 11 Employment Sector 11 Occupation 12 Retention and Mobility 13 Primary Work Activity 14 Salary 16 Government Support Status 17 Relationship of Principal Job to Doctoral Degree 17 Focus on Academe 19 Academic Rank 19 Tenure 21 4 POSTDOCTORAL APPOINTMENTS 23 Number of Postdocs 23 Reasons for Holding Postdocs 24 1995 Postdocs 25 Relevance of Postdoc to 1995 Principal Job 26 5 SECOND JOB 27 6 EMPLOYMENT CHANGES SINCE 1993 29
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Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States 7 ARTICLES, PAPERS, AND PATENTS 31 Articles 31 Papers 33 Patents 33 8 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT 35 Professional Societies 35 Foreign Work or Research 35 Work-Related Training 36 Further Education 38 DETAILED STATISTICAL TABLES 39 APPENDIXES A 1995 Survey Methodology 85 B 1995 Survey Cover Letters and Questionnaire 89 C Description of Terms 115 D Ph.D. Fields Included in the 1995 Survey of Doctorate Recipients 117 E Occupation Codes 123
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Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States LIST OF FIGURES 1 Science and engineering Ph.D. population, by field of doctorate, 1995. 3 2 Field composition of science and engineering Ph.D.s, by gender, 1995. 4 3 Science and engineering Ph.D.s, by field and employment status, 1995. 7 4 Employed science and engineering Ph.D.s, by sector of employment and field, 1995. 11 5 Retention in field of science and engineering Ph.D.s, by field of doctorate, 1995. 13 6 Employed science and engineering Ph.D.s, by primary work activity and field, 1995. 15 7 Median annual salaries of science and engineering Ph.D.s, by field and gender,1995. 16 8 Science and engineering Ph.D.s, by relationship of job to doctoral field, 1995. 18 9 Faculty status of academically employed science and engineering Ph.D.s, by field, 1995. 20 10 Proportion of academically employed science and engineering Ph.D.s with tenure, by time since Ph.D. and gender, 1995. 21 11 Proportion of science and engineering Ph.D.s having at least one postdoctoral appointment, by field, 1995. 23 12 Science and engineering Ph.D.s with second jobs, by field of doctorate, 1995. 27 13 Employment changes of science and engineering Ph.D.s, from 1993 to 1995. 29 14 Mean number of articles published by science and engineering Ph.D.s between April 1990 and April 1995, by academic position. 32 15 Proportion of science and engineering Ph.D.s named as inventors on patent applications between April 1990 and April 1995, by field. 34 16 Proportion of science and engineering Ph.D.s conducting work or research outside the United States since earning the doctorate, by field, 1995. 35 17 Proportion of science and engineering Ph.D.s participating in work-related training between April 1994 and April 1995, by field. 37
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