NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The survey project is part of the program of the Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel (OSEP).

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Under authority of the charter granted by Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, areas of research, and topics for education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council (NRC) was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

This report is based on research conducted by OSEP with the support of the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under NSF Contract No. SRS-9531746. Opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of OSEP and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsoring agencies.

Recommended citation:

Brown, P. and P. H. Henderson, 1998. Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 1995 Profile. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. (The report gives the results of data collected in the Survey of Doctorate Recipients, sponsored by NSF, NIH, and DOE, and conducted by the NRC.)

Available from: Survey of Doctorate Recipients Project

National Research Council

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2101 Constitution Avenue, NW

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Material in this publication is in the public domain and, with appropriate credit, may be reproduced without permission.

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