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Aitken, D., D. West, F. Smith, W. Poznanski, J. Cowan, J. Hurtig, E. Peterson, and B. Benoit. 1977. Cyanide toxicity following nitroprusside induced hypotension. Can. Anaesth. Soc. J. 24:651-660.

Anderson, A.L., and the Carcinogen Assessment Group, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1983. Quantitative approaches in use to assess cancer risk. Risk Anal. 3:277-295.

Avellino, J.D. 1963. Potability Standards for BZ in Water Supplies. USAEHA-MM, Project No. 4461M73-63. U.S. Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood, Md.

Ballantyne, B. 1977. In vitro production of cyanide in normal human blood and the influence of thiocyanate and storage temperature. Clin. Toxicol. 11:173-193.

Battaglia, G., and E.B. De Souza. 1989. Pharmacologic profile of amphetamine derivatives at various brain recognition sites: Selective effects on serotonergic systems. NIDA Res. Monogr. 94:240-258.

Benschop, H.P., and L.P.A. de Jong. 1989. Toxicokinetics of Soman in Rats, Guinea Pigs, and Marmosets. Pp. 163-171 in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Protection Against Chemical Warfare Agents. Swedish Defense Research Establishment, Umea, Sweden.

Berlin, C. 1977. Cyanide poisoning—A challenge [editorial]. Arch. Intern. Med. 137:993-994.



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Guidelines for Chemical Warfare Agents in Military Field Drinking Water References Aitken, D., D. West, F. Smith, W. Poznanski, J. Cowan, J. Hurtig, E. Peterson, and B. Benoit. 1977. Cyanide toxicity following nitroprusside induced hypotension. Can. Anaesth. Soc. J. 24:651-660. Anderson, A.L., and the Carcinogen Assessment Group, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1983. Quantitative approaches in use to assess cancer risk. Risk Anal. 3:277-295. Avellino, J.D. 1963. Potability Standards for BZ in Water Supplies. USAEHA-MM, Project No. 4461M73-63. U.S. Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood, Md. Ballantyne, B. 1977. In vitro production of cyanide in normal human blood and the influence of thiocyanate and storage temperature. Clin. Toxicol. 11:173-193. Battaglia, G., and E.B. De Souza. 1989. Pharmacologic profile of amphetamine derivatives at various brain recognition sites: Selective effects on serotonergic systems. NIDA Res. Monogr. 94:240-258. Benschop, H.P., and L.P.A. de Jong. 1989. Toxicokinetics of Soman in Rats, Guinea Pigs, and Marmosets. Pp. 163-171 in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Protection Against Chemical Warfare Agents. Swedish Defense Research Establishment, Umea, Sweden. Berlin, C. 1977. Cyanide poisoning—A challenge [editorial]. Arch. Intern. Med. 137:993-994.

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Guidelines for Chemical Warfare Agents in Military Field Drinking Water BNA (Bureau of National Affairs). 1990. Maryland Air Pollution Control Regulations. Section 401:0501-0577. Environment Reporter: State Air Laws, Vol. 3. Bogusz, M., J. Moroz, J. Karski, J. Gierz, A. Regieli, R. Witkowska, and A. Golabek. 1979. Blood cyanide and thiocyanate concentrations after administration of sodium nitroprusside and hypotensive agent in neurosurgery. Clin. Chem. 25:60-63. Bukowski, R., C. Vaughn, R. Bottomley, and T. Chen. 1982. Phase II study of anguidine in gastrointestinal malignancies: A southwest oncology group study. Cancer Treat. Rep. 66:381-383. California State Water Resources Control Board. 1963. Water Quality Criteria. Publ. No. 3A, 2nd Ed., J.E. McKee and H.W. Wolf, eds. Sacramento, Calif.: California State Printing Office. Chandra, H., B.N. Gupta, S.K. Bhargava, S.H. Clerk, and P.N. Mahendra. 1980. Chronic cyanide exposure—A biochemical and industrial hygiene study. J. Anal. Toxicol. 4:161-165. Chresthull, P., W.S. Koon, F.P. McGrath, and F.W. Oberst. 1957. Inhalation Effects (Incapacitation and Mortality) for Monkeys Exposed to GA, GB, and GF Vapors. CWL CWRP 2179. U.S. Army Chemical Warfare Laboratories, Army Chemical Center, Edgewood, Md. Compton, J.A. 1988. Military Chemical and Biological Agents: Chemical and Toxicological Properties. Caldwell, N.J.: Telford Press. 440 pp. Cotton, F.A., and G. Wilkinson. 1980. Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, A Comprehensive Text, 4th Ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Dacre, J.C., and W.D. Burrows. 1988. Recommended Field Drinking Water Criteria for Chemical Agent Sulfur Mustard. Tech. Rep. 8816. U.S. Army Biomedical Research and Development Laboratory, Frederick, Md. Daniels, J.I. 1990a. Organophosphorus nerve agents. Pp. 4-1-4-40 in Evaluation of Military Field-Water Quality. Vol. 4. Health Criteria and Recommendations for Standards. Part 2. Interim Standards for Selected Threat Agents and Risks from Exceeding These Standards, J.I. Daniels, ed. AD UCRL-21008. Report prepared by the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, Calif., for the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.

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Guidelines for Chemical Warfare Agents in Military Field Drinking Water Daniels, J.I. 1990b. The trichothecene mycotoxin T-2. Pp. 5-1-5-27 in Evaluation of Military Field-Water Quality. Vol. 4. Health Criteria and Recommendations for Standards. Part 2. Interim Standards for Selected Threat Agents and Risks from Exceeding These Standards, J.I. Daniels, ed. AD UCRL-21008. Report prepared by the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, Calif., for the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md. Daniels, J.I. 1990c. Lewisite. Pp. 6-1-6-22 in Evaluation of Military Field-Water Quality. Vol. 4. Health Criteria and Recommendations for Standards. Part 2. Interim Standards for Selected Threat Agents and Risks from Exceeding These Standards, J.I. Daniels, ed. AD UCRL-21008. Report prepared by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, Calif., for the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md. DHHS (Department of Health and Human Services). 1988. Final recommendations for protecting the health and safety against potential adverse effects of long-term exposure to low doses of agents GA, GB, VX, mustard agent (H, HD, T), and lewisite. Fed. Regist. 53(March 15):8504-8507. Diggs, C.H., M.J. Scoltock, and P.H. Wiernik. 1978. Phase II evaluation of anguidine (NSC-141537) for adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum. Cancer Clin. Trials 1:297-299. Dillon, H.K., and M.H. Ho. 1987. Biological monitoring of exposure to organophosphorus pesticides. Pp. 227-287 in Biological Monitoring of Exposure to Chemicals: Organic Compounds , M.H. Ho and H.K. Dillon, eds. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Dunn, M.A., and F.R. Sidell. 1989. Progress in medical defense against nerve agents. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 262:649-652. El Ghawabi, S.H., M.A. Gaafar, A.A. El-Saharti, S.H. Ahmed, K.K. Malash, and R. Fares. 1975. Chronic cyanide exposure: A clinical, radioisotope, and laboratory study. Br. J. Ind. Med. 32:215-219. Epstein, J. 1974. Properties of GB in water. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 66:31-37. ERDEC (Edgewood Research Development and Engineering Center). 1990. Material Safety Data Sheets on HT. U.S. Army Chemical and Biological Defense Agency, Edgewood Research, Development and

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Guidelines for Chemical Warfare Agents in Military Field Drinking Water Engineering Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood, Md. ERDEC (Edgewood Research Development and Engineering Center). 1992. Material Safety Data Sheets on HD, and THD. U.S. Army Chemical and Biological Defense Agency, Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood, Md. Gage, J.C. 1967. The significance of blood cholinesterase activity measurements. Residue Rev. 18:159-173. Gates, M., J.W. Williams, and J.A. Zapp. 1946. Arsenicals in Chemical Warfare Agents and Related Chemical Problems . Summary Technical Report of Division 9, National Defense Research Committee. Office of Scientific Research and Development, Washington, D.C. Geomet. 1991. Chemical and Toxicological Assessment for a Water Purification System . Rep. L-2369, Contract DAAK60-90-P2249. Report prepared by Geomet Technologies, Inc., Gaithersburg, Md., for the U.S. Army Troop Support Command, Natick Research, Development, and Engineering Center, Natick, Mass. Goldman, M. and J. Dacre. 1989. Lewisite: Its chemistry, toxicology, and biological effects. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 110:75-115. Goodwin, W., C.D. Haas, C. Fabian, I. Heller-Bettinger, and B. Hoogstraten. 1978. Phase I evaluation of anguidine (diacetoxyscirpenol, NSC-141537). Cancer 42:23-26. Grob, D., and A.M. Harvey. 1953. The effects and treatment of nerve gas poisoning. Am. J. Med. 14:52-63. Gupta, B.N., S.H. Clerk, H. Chandra, S.K. Bhargava, and P.N. Mahendra. 1979. Clinical studies on workers chronically exposed to cyanide. Indian J. Occup. Health 22:103-112. Haber, L.F. 1986. The Poisonous Cloud: Chemical Warfare in the First World War. Oxford, U.K.: Clarendon Press. Hackett, P.L., R.L. Rommereim, F.G. Burton, R.L. Buschbom, and L.B. Sasser. 1987a. Teratology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Effects of Sulfur Mustard in Rats and Rabbits. PNL-6344. Final Report prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Wash., for the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md. Hackett, P.L., L.B. Sasser, R.L. Rommereln, J.A. Cushing, R.L. Buschuom, and D.L. Kalkwarf. 1987b. Teratology Studies on Lewisite and Fulfur Mustard Agents: Effects of Lewisite in Rats and Rab-

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Guidelines for Chemical Warfare Agents in Military Field Drinking Water bits. PNL-6408. Final Report prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Wash., for the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md. Haig, A.M., Jr. 1982. Chemical Warfare in Southeast Asia and Afghanistan. Special Rep. No. 98. U.S. Department of State, Washington, D.C. Hardy, H.L., W.M. Jeffries, M.M. Wasserman, and W.R. Waddell. 1950. Thiocyanate effect following industrial cyanide exposure. New Engl. J. Med. 242:968-972. Hayes, W.J., Jr. 1975. Toxicology of Pesticides. Baltimore, Md.: Williams & Wilkins. Hayes, W.J., Jr. 1982. Pesticides Studied in Man. Baltimore, Md.: Williams & Wilkins. Heylin, M. 1988. U.S. decries apparent chemical arms attack. Chem. Eng. News 66:23. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1993. Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite, C.M. Pechura and D.P. Rall, eds. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Jenks, W.R. 1979. Cyanides. Pp. 307-334 in Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Vol. 7, 3rd Ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Ketchum, J.S. 1963. The Human Assessment of BZ. Tech. Memo. EATM 20-29. U.S. Army Edgewood Arsenal, Chemical Research and Development Laboratories , Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood, Md. Ketchum, J.S., B.R. Tharf, E.B. Crowell, D.L. Sawhill, and M.E. Vancil. 1967. The Human Assessment of BZ Disseminated under Field Conditions. Tech. Rep. EATR 4140. U.S. Army Edgewood Arsenal, Chemical Research and Development Laboratories , Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood, Md. Kitzes, D.L., and M.E. Vancil. 1965. Estimate of Minimal Effective Dose of BZ by the Intramuscular Route in Man. CRDLR Tech. Memo. 2-30. U.S. Army Edgewood Arsenal, Chemical Research and Development Laboratories , Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood, Md. Knowles, C.J. 1976. Microorganisms and cyanide. Bacteriol. Rev. 40:652-680. Lang, J., D. Mullin, C. Fenyvesi, R. Rosenberg, and J. Baines. 1986.

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Guidelines for Chemical Warfare Agents in Military Field Drinking Water Is the protector of lions losing his touch? U.S. News and World Report, Nov. 10, p. 29. Lauwerys, R.R., and P. Hoet. 1993. Industrial Chemical Exposure: Guidelines for Biological Monitoring , 2nd Ed. Boca Raton, Fla.: Lewis Publishers. 318 pp. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 1988. Evaluation of Military Field-Water Quality, Vol. 4, Part 1, J.I. Daniels, ed. Publ. No. AD UCRL-21008. Report prepared for the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 1990a. Evaluation of Military Field-Water Quality, Vol. 4, Part 2, J.I. Daniels, ed. Publ. No. AD UCRL-21008. Report prepared for the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 1990b. Evaluation of Military Field-Water Quality, Vol. 1, Executive Summary, J.I. Daniels and G.M. Gallegos, eds. Publ. No. AD UCRL-21008. Report prepared for the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md. Leduc, G. 1981. Ecotoxicology of cyanides in freshwater. Pp. 487-494 in Cyanide in Biology, B. Vennesland, E.E. Conn, C.J. Knowles, J. Westley, and F. Wissing, eds. New York: Academic. Le Quesne, P.M., and J.G. McLeod. 1977. Peripheral neuropathy following a single exposure to arsenic. J. Neurol. Sci. 32:437-451. Martin, B.R. 1985. Biodisposition of [3H]diisopropylfluorophosphate in mice. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 77:275-284. Maxwell, D.M., D.E. Lenz, W.A. Groff, A. Kaminskis, and H.L. Froehlich. 1987. The effects of blood flow and detoxification on invivo cholinesterase inhibition by soman in rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 88:66-76. McNamara, B.P. 1963a. Toxicological Studies of Effects of BZ on Animals. CRDL Special Publ. 1-50. U.S. Army Edgewood Arsenal, Chemical Research and Development Laboratories , Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood, Md. McNamara, B.P. 1963b. Possible Human Estimates of BZ. Edgewood Arsenal Internal Document. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood, Md. McNamara, B.P., and F. Leitnaker. 1971. Toxicological Basis for

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Guidelines for Chemical Warfare Agents in Military Field Drinking Water Controlling Emission of GB into the Environment. Edgewood Arsenal Special Publ. EASP 100-98. Department of the Army Edgewood Arsenal, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood, Md. McNamara, B.P., F.C. Leitnaker, and F.J. Vocci. 1973. Proposed Limits for Human Exposure to VX Vapor in Nonmilitary Operations . Edgewood Arsenal Special Publ. EASP 1100-1 (R-1), AD 770443. Department of the Army Edgewood Arsenal, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood, Md. Michenfelder, J. D., and J. H. Tinker. 1977. Cyanide toxicity and thiosulfate protection during chronic administration of sodium nitroprusside in the dog. Anesthesiology 47:441-448. Murphy, S.D. 1975. Pesticides. Pp. 416-426 in Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, L.J. Casarett and J. Doull, eds. New York: Macmillan. Murphy, W.K., M.A. Burgess, M. Valdivieso, R.B. Livingston, G.P. Bodey, and E.J. Freireich. 1978. Phase I clinical evaluation of anguidine. Cancer Treat. Rep. 62:1497-1502. Namba, T., C.T. Nolte, J. Jackrel, and D. Grob. 1971. Poisoning due to organophosphate insecticides. Acute and chronic manifestations. Am. J. Med. 50:475-492. NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 1976. Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts. DHEW (NIOSH) Publ. No. 77-108. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Washington, D.C. Niyogi, S.K. 1973. Drug levels in cases of poisoning. Forensic Sci. 2:67-98. NRC (National Research Council). 1983. Protection Against Trichothecene Mycotoxins. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 227 pp. NTP (National Toxicology Program). 1989. Fifth Annual Report on Carcinogens. Summary 1989. NTP 89-239. National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, N.C. Palmer, W.G. 1990. Field-Water Quality Standards for BZ. Tech Rep. 9001. U.S. Army Biomedical Research and Development Laboratory, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.

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Guidelines for Chemical Warfare Agents in Military Field Drinking Water U.S. Army. 1990c. Water Supply in Theaters of Operations. Field Manual 10-52 (FM 10-52). Department of the Army Headquarters, Washington, D.C. U.S. Army. 1991. Water Supply Point Equipment and Operations. Field Manual 10-52-1 (FM 10-52-1). Department of the Army Headquarters, Washington, D.C. U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force. 1975. Field Manual: Military Chemistry and Chemical Compounds. FM 3-9/AFR 355-7. Department of the Army Headquarters, Washington, D.C. Wannemacher, R.W., Jr., D.L. Bunner, and H.A. Neufeld. 1991. Toxicity of trichothecenes and other related mycotoxins in laboratory animals. Pp. 499-552 in Mycotoxins and Animal Foods, J.E. Smith and R.S. Henderson, eds. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press. Watson, A.P., and G.D. Griffin. 1992. Toxicity of vesicant agents scheduled for destruction by the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Environ. Health Perspect. 98:259-280. Watson, A.P., J.D. Adams, R.J. Cerar, T.L. Hess, S.L. Kistner, S.S. Leffingwell, R.G. MacIntosh, and J.R. Ward. 1992. Estimated General Population Control Limits for Unitary Agents in Drinking Water, Milk, Soil, and Unprocessed Food Items. ORNL/TM-12035. Report prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn., for the U.S. Department of the Army. Watson, A.P., T.D. Jones, and G.D. Griffin. 1989. Sulfur mustard as a carcinogen: Application of relative potency analysis to the chemical warfare agents H, HD, and HT. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 10:1-25. WHO (World Health Organization). 1975. Data Sheets on Pesticides No. 6 Parathion. Geneva: World Health Organization. Yap, H.-Y., W.K. Murphy, A. DiStefano, G.R. Blumenschein, and G.P. Bodey. 1979. Phase II study of anguidine in advanced breast cancer. Cancer Treat. Rep. 63:789-791. Yurow, H.W., S. Sass, and C.L. Evans. 1963. Basic Esters of Glycolic Acids VI. Chemical Reactions Relating to Structure Activity Characteristics . CRDLR 3190. U.S. Army Edgewood Arsenal, Chemical Research and Development Laboratories , Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood, Md.

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