Guidelines for Chemical Warfare Agents in Military Field Drinking Water

Subcommittee on Guidelines for Military Field Drinking-Water Quality

Committee on Toxicology

Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology

Commission on Life Sciences

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1995



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Guidelines for Chemical Warfare Agents in Military Field Drinking Water Guidelines for Chemical Warfare Agents in Military Field Drinking Water Subcommittee on Guidelines for Military Field Drinking-Water Quality Committee on Toxicology Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Commission on Life Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1995

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Guidelines for Chemical Warfare Agents in Military Field Drinking Water NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, D.C.20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Harold Liebowitz is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Harold Liebowitz are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. The project was supported by the U.S. Army under contract No. DAMD 17-89-C-9086. Additional copies of this report are available from the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418. Copyright 1995 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Guidelines for Chemical Warfare Agents in Military Field Drinking Water SUBCOMMITTEE ON GUIDELINES FOR MILITARY FIELD DRINKING-WATER QUALITY IAN A. GREAVES (Chair), University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. GEORGE B. KOELLE, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. LOREN D. KOLLER, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oreg. ROBERT I. KRIEGER, University of California, Riverside, Calif. JOSEPH J. SAADY, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Va. DOUGLAS K. STEVENS, Washington State University, Pullman, Wash. BAILUS WALKER, JR. Howard University, Washington, D.C. ANNETTA P. WATSON, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn. Staff KULBIR S. BAKSHI, Project Director RUTH E. CROSSGROVE, Editor CATHERINE M. KUBIK, Senior Program Assistant LUCY FUSCO, Project Assistant Sponsor: U.S. Army

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Guidelines for Chemical Warfare Agents in Military Field Drinking Water COMMITTEE ON TOXICOLOGY ROGENE F. HENDERSON (Chair), Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute, Albuquerque, N.Mex. DONALD E. GARDNER (Vice-Chair), Raleigh, N.C. DEBORAH A. CORY-SLECHTA, University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y. ELAINE M. FAUSTMAN, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. CHARLES E. FEIGLEY, University of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C. DAVID W. GAYLOR, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, Ark. WALDERICO M. GENEROSO, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn. IAN A. GREAVES, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. SIDNEY GREEN, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Laurel, Md. LOREN D. KOLLER, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oreg. MICHELE A. MEDINSKY, Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology, Research Triangle Park, N.C. JOHN L. O'DONOGHUE, Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, N.Y. ROBERT SNYDER, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Piscataway, N.J. BAILUS WALKER, JR., Howard University, Washington, D.C. ANNETTA P. WATSON, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn. HANSPETER R. WITSCHI, University of California, Davis, Calif. GERALD N. WOGAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. GAROLD S. YOST, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah

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Guidelines for Chemical Warfare Agents in Military Field Drinking Water Staff, Commitee on Toxicology KULBIR S. BAKSHI, Program Director for the Committee on Toxicology MARVIN A. SCHNEIDERMAN, Senior Staff Scientist RUTH E. CROSSGROVE, Editor CATHERINE M. KUBIK, Senior Program Assistant LUCY FUSCO, Project Assistant

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Guidelines for Chemical Warfare Agents in Military Field Drinking Water BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY PAUL G. RISSER (Chair), Miami University, Oxford, Ohio MICHAEL J. BEAN, Environmental Defense Fund, Washington, D.C. EULA BINGHAM, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio EDWIN H. CLARK II, Clean Sites, Inc., Alexandria, Va. ALLAN H. CONNEY, Rutgers University, Piscataway, N.J. ELLIS COWLING, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, N.C. JOHN L. EMMERSON, Portland, Oreg. ROBERT C. FORNEY, Unionville, Pa. ROBERT A. FROSCH, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. KAI LEE, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass. JANE LUBCHENCO, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oreg. GORDON ORIANS, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. FRANK L. PARKER, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn. GEOFFREY PLACE, Hilton Head, S.C. DAVID P. RALL, Washington, D.C. LESLIE A. REAL, Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. KRISTIN SHRADER-FRECHETTE, University of South Florida, Tampa, Fla. BURTON H. SINGER, Princeton University, Princeton, N.J. MARGARET STRAND, Bayh, Connaughton and Malone, Washington, D.C. GERALD VAN BELLE, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. BAILUS WALKER, JR., Howard University, Washington, D.C.

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Guidelines for Chemical Warfare Agents in Military Field Drinking Water Staff Program Directors, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology JAMES J. REISA, Director DAVID J. POLICANSKY, Associate Director and Program Director for Natural Resources and Applied Ecology CAROL A. MACZKA, Program Director for Toxicology and Risk Assessment LEE R. PAULSON, Program Director for Information Systems and Statistics RAYMOND A. WASSEL, Program Director for Environmental Sciences and Engineering

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Guidelines for Chemical Warfare Agents in Military Field Drinking Water COMMISSION ON LIFE SCIENCES THOMAS D. POLLARD (Chair), The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. BRUCE N. AMES, University of California, Berkeley, Calif. JOHN C. BAILAR III, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada J. MICHAEL BISHOP, University of California, San Francisco, Calif. JOHN E. BURRIS, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Mass. MICHAEL T. CLEGG, University of California, Riverside, Calif. GLENN A. CROSBY, Washington State University, Pullman, Wash. MARIAN E. KOSHLAND, University of California, Berkeley, Calif. SUSAN E. LEEMAN, Boston University, Boston, Mass. RICHARD E. LENSKI, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Mich. EMIL A. PFITZER, Hoffmann-La Roche Inc., Nutley, N.J. MALCOLM C. PIKE, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif. HENRY C. PITOT III, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisc. JONATHAN M. SAMET, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. HAROLD M. SCHMECK, JR., North Chatham, Mass. CARLA J. SHATZ, University of California, Berkeley, Calif. SUSAN S. TAYLOR, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, Calif. P. ROY VAGELOS, Merck & Company, Whitehouse Station, N.J. JOHN L. VANDEBERG, Southwestern Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, Tex. PAUL GILMAN, Executive Director

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Guidelines for Chemical Warfare Agents in Military Field Drinking Water RECENT REPORTS Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Science and the Endangered Species Act (1995) Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment (1994) Ranking Hazardous Sites for Remedial Action (1994) Review of EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program: Forests and Estuaries (1994) Review of EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program: Surface Waters (1994) Environmental Information for Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Decisions (1994) Measuring Lead Exposure in Infants, Children, and Other Sensitive Populations (1993) Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993) Issues in Risk Assessment (1993) Setting Priorities for Land Conservation (1993) Protecting Visibility in National Parks and Wilderness Areas (1993) Biologic Markers in Immunotoxicology (1992) Dolphins and the Tuna Industry (1992) Environmental Neurotoxicology (1992) Hazardous Materials on the Public Lands (1992) Science and the National Parks (1992) Animals as Sentinels of Environmental Health Hazards (1991) Assessment of the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Studies Program, Volumes I-IV (1991-1993) Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants (1991) Monitoring Human Tissues for Toxic Substances (1991) Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution (1991) Decline of the Sea Turtles (1990) Biologic Markers in Pulmonary Toxicology (1989) Biologic Markers in Reproductive Toxicology (1989)

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Guidelines for Chemical Warfare Agents in Military Field Drinking Water Committee on Toxicology Review of the U.S. Naval Medical Research Institute's Toxicology Program (1994) Health Effects of Permethrin-Impregnated Army Battle-Dress Uniforms (1994) Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants, Volume 1 (1994) Health Effects of Ingested Fluoride (1993) Guidelines for Developing Community Emergency Exposure Levels for Hazardous Substances (1993) Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants (1992) Review of the U.S. Army Environmental Hygeine Agency Toxicology Division (1991) Permissible Exposure Levels and Emergency Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Airborne Contaminants (1991) These reports may be ordered from the National Academy Press. (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313

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Guidelines for Chemical Warfare Agents in Military Field Drinking Water Preface In 1992, the U.S. Army requested the National Research Council (NRC) to review its proposed field drinking-water-quality standards for several chemical warfare (CW) agents. The proposed standards had been developed by the Army, in collaboration with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, as a defensive measure to protect the health and performance of U.S. and NATO military personnel in the event of a chemical attack. In response to the Army's request, the NRC organized the Subcommittee on Guidelines for Military Field Drinking-Water Quality within the Committee on Toxicology. The subcommittee met several times beginning in February 1993 to address the toxicity of various CW agents, the adequacy of proposed field-water-quality standards, and the Army's assumptions in developing the field-water-quality standards. The subcommittee comprised professionals with expertise in toxicology, epidemiology, medicine, biochemistry, pathology, pharmacology, analytical chemistry, and public health. We hope that the report of this subcommittee will be useful in protecting the health and performance of U.S. and NATO military personnel. The subcommittee was greatly assisted by several individuals who provided information on the toxicity of the CW agents considered in this report. We gratefully acknowledge Colonel Frederick Erdtmann and Colonel Eric Evenson of the U.S. Army for their interest and support of

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Guidelines for Chemical Warfare Agents in Military Field Drinking Water the project. We also thank other persons who provided information for the subcommittee, including Lieutenant Colonel Gary M. Bratt (U.S. Army), Jeffery Daniels (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), and Stephen Schaub (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). We are grateful for the assistance of the NRC staff in the preparation of this report. In particular, the subcommittee wishes to acknowledge Kulbir S. Bakshi, project director for the subcommittee and program director for the Committee on Toxicology, whose hard work and expertise were most effective in bringing this report to completion. Other staff members who contributed to this effort are Paul Gilman, executive director of the Commission on Life Sciences; James J. Reisa, director of the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology; Carol A. Maczka, program director for toxicology and risk assessment; Ruth E. Crossgrove, editor; and Lucy Fusco, project assistant. Last, but by no means least, the work of all the members of the subcommittee is greatly appreciated. Ian A. Greaves, Chair Subcommittee on Guidelines for Military Field-Drinking Water Quality Rogene F. Henderson, Chair Committee on Toxicology