institutions identified as playing a role in the National Knowledge System.

Political leadership

Social and religious leadership

Information industry

Health providers


Chamber of commerce

Industry associations

Engineering associations

Professional associations

CEOs, large, global, and small and medium enterprises


Recommendations will be aimed at establishing sustainable ways to maintain development. That is, permanently removing barriers related to knowledge or instituting incentives for productive use of knowledge will allow a continuous process of establishing knowledge-based enterprises, competition, incremental innovations, and continuing social and economic development.

Following the themes of the knowledge assessment, recommendations will consist of positive steps to improve motivation, creation, access, assimilation, diffusion, and use. Some of the recommendations may be more general, identifying barriers that are not specific to knowledge-based enterprises, such as regulation, energy, and infrastructure. These must be included, because it may be that knowledge-related motivation, access, assimilation, and diffusion are not the limiting factors, and one can not expect to see a change if the other issues are not dealt with.

Recommendations should arise from knowledge assessment in a systematic way. The elaboration of the National Knowledge System, based on the template developed during the pilot project, will reveal institutional weaknesses on a coarse-grained scale. Lack of a government office to carry out an important function identified on the template will alert the team to a possible recommendation to remedy that lack. A published register of patents and trademarks, an overseas technology observatory linked to the embassies, or an information service for industry with access to international sources are examples of candidates for such recommendations.

The source of more specific recommendations will be the virtual case studies. These will identify not just gross features like absence of an office or service, but weaknesses in laws and inefficiency in services that do exist on the National Knowledge System map. It is also here that the non-knowledge specific recommendations will arise, when participants see obstacles to success of the sentinel enterprises that are part of broader problems. But the greatest value will come from the identification of specific inefficiencies: shortage of entrepreneurs or managers, management that does not recognize its key leadership role in encouraging innovation, regulations that are not published, agencies that are corrupt or understaffed, services that do not serve, universities whose graduates are unprepared, or leadership that is unaware of the importance of knowledge and technology. When these are superimposed on the National Knowledge System map, that data that must be collected and the officials and knowledge users who must be interviewed will become apparent, and a program of data collection and interviews will be carried out to reinforce and quantify the recommendations. Based on all these inputs, the recommendations, in the form of a program of remediation, bridge-building, and implementation, may be designed to stimulate sustainable knowledge-based development in the country.

The recommendations and an implementation plan will be prepared by the knowledge assessment team, supplemented by local experts drawn from the virtual case study teams. The global experts, familiar with benchmarks, and the local experts, familiar with local conditions, will provide the balance of opportunity and realism that characterizes a workable plan.

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