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1 INTRODUCTION Summary Report 1996 is the thirtieth in a series of reports on research doctorates awarded by U.S. colleges and universities. The data for the report are from the annual Survey of Earned Doctorates, a census of research doctorate recipients from U.S. institutions. The report notes the continued, but slowing, increase in research doctorates and examines the number of doctorates awarded per doctorate-granting institution. Following an exploration of these general trends in the overall number of doctorates, the report examines trends in doctorate production by field, focusing on the seven broad fields in which doctorates received their degrees. Each of the seven broad fields consists of several "major fields" which are also examined. For example, biological sciences is a major field within the life sciences. The data examined reflect the fields that doctorate recipients themselves reported, using a specialties list provided at the end of the questionnaire. The discussion continues with sections examining trends in doctorate awards by gender, race/ethnicity, and citizenship. These are followed by sections describing time to degree, financial support during graduate school, and the postgraduation status and plans of doctorate recipients at the time the degree is awarded. The brief narratives of key survey findings in these sections are accompanied by figures displaying selected trend data. The numbers and percentages from which the figures are drawn are provided in a set of tables that follow the main text. Relevant tables are referenced at the bottom of the figures. The narratives also discuss key findings from data presented in the tables but not in the figures. Basic tables of data on 1996 doctorate recipients are displayed in Appendix A, and trend data on the 1986-1996 Ph.D. cohorts are presented in Appendix B. Appendix C provides technical notes that include nonresponse rates and other information related to tables and figures in the body of the report. Appendix D contains a copy of the Survey of Earned Doctorates questionnaire. Additional data from the Survey of Earned Doctorates and the Doctorate Records File are available on request. For a fee, off-the-shelf tables on the baccalaureate origins of Ph.D.s by major field of doctorate and tables on the citizenship, race/ethnicity, and gender of Ph.D.s by feld are available to requesters. Customized tables can also be prepared at cost. For more information, please contact: Doctorate Data Project National Opinion Research Center 1155 East 60th Street Chicago, IL 60637 Phone: (773) 753-7500 Fax: (773) 753-7886 E-mail: 4800-sed~norcmail.uchicago.edu

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2 *** IMPORTANT NOTICE *** The estimates reported for the. Survey of Earned Doctorates (S ED). are.simple...tab.ulations........... Of all available information with no adjustment for nonresponse. Therefore, differences in response rates from.year to year can produce numerical fluctuations that are unrelated to real trends. Although response to the SED has been 95 to 98 percent in most years, it declined to 92 percent during the 1980s. In an effort to improve the.response rate, the survey methodology was modified in:the years after 1989. Response has risen as hoped, stabilizing around 95 percent for 1991; to 1995. The response rate for 1996, however, was 92.8 percent. (Note: These percentages represent self-report rates, that is, the proportion of questionnaires completed by doctorate recipients. While survey forms containing partial information f~.ed..in........ by either the doctoral institution or staff of the National Research Council are not included in these rates tables in this resort incorporate the available data from these forms.) The self . report rate tor l99b may Increase slightly In the next year if additional questionnaires are received from doctorate recipients. See page 99 in Appendix C for a table giving survey . response rates from 1965 to 1996. Item response rates have.shown a parallel improvement since 199~a natural consequence of the increase in the overall self-report rate, as well as a result of format revisions to the ques:~to~re:and:.:.fsIlow. ~ups:.:.for:.:=ss:~.::i .o ado .::::~:::~:990:,::n.w:fst] p:: Q ed re ::::::::::::::::::: were implemented to increase: coverage of several variables: birth year, gender, race/ ethnicity, citizen.ship status, country: of c~tizenshi.p, baccalaureate year and institution, and postgraduation plans Response: rates for these variables have since improved especially for citizenship and race/ethnicity resulting in an increase in the reported numbers of minority ......................... .................................... .. , ......... ... ....... .................. ..... ............ .............. .. ... ......................... ......... ....... Ph.D.s. Whether or not individuals completed the sunrey questionnaire, the following four data items. are available for all recipients: Renders. Ph.D.insti~tion.Ph.D-f~eld.and Ph.D. .................................................................................................................................................................................. The data for a given year are updated the following year with any responses received after survey closure. Postsurvey adjustment was most significant for 1990 and 1991 Ph.D.s, with the largest impact on the number of blacks. For both of these years the total number of black Ph.D.s increased by about 7.5 percent in the year after survey closure. The survey cycle was then extended to allow receipt of more follow-up information before closure, resulting in much smaller postsurvey adjustments for 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1995 data (a 1.4 percent increase in black Ph.D.s for 1992, a 0.2 percent increase for 1993, a 0.5 percent increase for 1994, and a 1.5 percent increase in 19951. The same is expected for 1996 data. : Adjustments to data are presented in reports subsequent to the initial report for a survey. Updates for 1994 appeared in S'cnanaty Report 199S, and those for 199S.are.~eluded In this year's r.eport.(see Appendix Table B-2 for adjustments to racial/ethnic data). The data for 1996 will. likewise be subject to further revision, but as for the past: three years'. adjustments are expected to be minimal. Updates to 1996 data will be presented in next year's report. In using. SED data the: reader should keep in mind that numerical trends are affected by fluctuations in response rates. Increasing or decreasing numbers in a citizenship or racial/ ethnic group. reflect to some degree any change tin both overall survey.response and item response. . . .