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3 TRENDS IN DOCTORATE RECIPIENTS Continued but Slowing Increase in Research Doctorate Awards The 392 colleges and universities in the United States and its territories that conferred research doctorates in ~ 996 awarded a record 42,4 ~ 5 doctorate degrees. As shown in Figure I, the number of doctorates earned at U.S. colleges and universities increased steeply throughout the ~ 960s. Doctorate production reached a peak in ~ 973, declined slightly in the mid- ~ 970s, and leveled off through ~ 985. Since ~ 986 the number of doctorate recipients has again grown each year, and the ~ 996 figure continued the upward trend in doctorates awarded. (See Table I, page 35.) Rate of Growth While the number of Ph.D.si awarded has increased since ~ 986, the rate of growth in the past decade has not matched the rate of growth in the ~ 960s and has generally been below the average annual growth rate of 4 percent for the past 40 years. (See Table 2, page 35.) Figure 2 shows that annual growth rates for 1960 to 1970 ranged from 5.6 to 14.6 percent as doctoral programs and the number of institutions offering doctoral degrees expanded. This was a period in which the numbers of undergraduate and graduate students grew because of the baby boom, an increase in federal support for higher education, the availability of drabs deferments for graduate study through ~ 968, and institutional expansion accommodating growing scientific research brought by the Cold War.2 Growth rates for the period 1986 to 1996 ranged from I.5 to 5.! percent. Doctorate awards increased only I.6 percent from 1995 to 1996. Nearly two-thirds of the increase in doctorate awards from 1986 to ~996 63 percent-was due to a doubling in the number of non-U.S. citizens receiving Ph.D.s in the United States during that period. Trends in Baccalaureate, Master's, and Doctorate Degrees The trends in the number of research doctorate awards have been roughly similar to trends in the number of baccalaureates and master's degrees awarded by U.S. colleges and universities since 1961. There were substantial increases in each degree category in the 1960s, particularly for doctorates, slower growth and/or declines in the 1970s and early ~ 980s, growing numbers of awards from the mid-198Os through the early ~ 990s, and still stronger growth in the mid- ~ 990s. "'Ph.D." is used in this report to refer to Me doctor of philosophy degree and recipients of this degree and to any of the other research doctoral degrees covered by the survey. Over 88 percent of the degrees earned in 1996 were the doctor of philosophy. More than two-thirds of the remaining degrees were Ed.D.s or other doctorates in education. A hill list of included degrees can be found inside the back cover. 2See, for example, William G. Bowen and Neil L. Rudenstine, In Pursuit of the Ph.D., Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992, p. 23.

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4 FIGURE 1 Doctorates awarded by U.S. colleges and universities, 1956-1996. 45,000 40,000 35,000 cot ~30,000 o o 25,000 20,000 1 5,000 10,000 5,000 O See Table 1, page 35. ~T T T ' T T T ~, , 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 11~ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1956 1961 1966 1971 1976 Year SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Earned Doctorates. 1981 1986 1991 1996 FIGURE 2 Annual grown or decline in doctorates awarded by U.S. colleges and universities, 1957-1996. 20% 15% as s cat 1 0% a so-so C) oo/o See Table 2, page 35. _ _ . _ . . ~J ~ ~ ~ -solo 1957 1960 1963 1966 1969 1972 1975 1978 1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 Year SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Earned Doctorates.

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5 While patterns of growth have been similar, the rate of growth has differed for each degree. The number of master's degrees awarded has grown fastest since ~ 96 l, followed by the number of doctorates and then the number of baccalaureates.3 Doctorates per Institution The number of doctorate-granting institutions has increased substantially and steadily since the early ~ 960s, even in periods when the number of doctorates awarded was declining or stabilizing. The number of institutions granting doctorates was ~ 74 in 1961, climbed to 242 by 1971,325 by 1981, and 367 by 1991. In 1996, 392 institutions in the United States and its territories granted research doctorates. (See Table 3, page 36.) As seen in Figure 3, the number of doctorates granted per institution annually has fluctuated over time, though it has increased overall since ~961. During the ~960s, when doctorate production tripled, the average number of Ph.D.s per institution doubled, from 60 in 1961 to 122 in 1970. As the number of institutions granting doctorates continued growing in the ~ 970s even though the number of doctorates awarded decreased, the number of Ph.D.s per institution steadily declined to the low nineties by the early 198Os. Since the late 198Os the number of doctorates awarded has grown faster than the number of institutions awarding ~20 00 cot o o cot o id 80 60 40 20 a See Table 3, page 36. them, and the number of doctorates per institution has increased to almost ~ ~ 0. FIGURE 3 Mean number of doctorates awarded by U.S. colleges and universities per institution, 1961- 1996. __ ,~~` ,~ f ~~ - __ _~ i__ 1961 1966 1971 1976 Year SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Earned Doctorates. 1981 1986 1991 1996 3U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, 1993, NCES 93-292, by Thomas D. Snyder and Charlene M. Hoffman, Washington,D.C., 1993, p. 243, and Projections of Education Statistics to 2007, NCES 97-382, by Debra E. Gerald and William J. Hussar, Washington, D.C.: 1997, pp. 61-62.

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6 Field of Doctorate Trends in the number of doctorates awarded have varied by field. This section discusses trends for science and engineering fields, which have experienced sustained growth in the aggregate, and for humanities, education, and professional fields, which are rebounding after a collective decline. Science and Engineering Fields As can be seen in Figure 4, the number of doctorate awards in the four science and engineering broad fields has grown substantially in the past several decades. Together, they have grown in number, from ~ 1,633 in 1966 to 28,049 in 1996. (See Table 4, page 37.) . In 1996 more doctorates were awarded in life sciences than in any other broad field. The annual number of doctorates awarded in the life sciences grew from 5,734 in ~ 986 to 8,255 in 1996, a 44 percent increase. Within the life sciences, growth was fueled by a 72 percent increase in doctorates in health sciences and a 50 percent increase in biological sciences in the past decade. Doctorates in agricultural sciences grew only 4 percent since 1986. Though ranking second in the number of doctorates awarded among all broad fields, social sciences had below-average growth among broad fields over the past decade, growing at just 16 percent from 5,893 in 1986 to 6,814 in 1996. There were, however. substantial differences in growth among the major social science fields in the past decade: political science/international relations grew by 47 percent, economics by 17 percent, and psychology by 7 percent; sociology grew by 5 percent and anthropology by 4 percent. Sociology and anthropology decreased from ~ 986 to ~ 99 ~ by 5 and ~ 0 percent, respectively, before rebounding in the past five years. The "other" social sciences collectively grew by 57 percent, indicating more rapid growth among smaller fine fields. The annual number of doctorates in physical sciences grew from 4,807 to 6,675, or by 39 percent, between ~ 986 and ~ 996. The number of doctorates in ~ 996, though, is ~ 33 fewer than in ~ 995. This broad field contains two major fields that have grown strongly in the past decade: computer sciences grew 131 percent and mathematics 54 percent since ~ 986. These two fields, however, dropped in the number of awards by ~ and 6 percent, respectively, from 1995 to 1996. helping to account for most of the overall ~ ~ decrease In physical science awards from 1995 to 1996. Engineering, which ranked fifth overall in number of awards, had both the most rapid growth and the largest numerical growth of any broad field from ~ 986 to ~ 996. The annual number of engineering doctorate awards grew from 3,376 to 6,305~r 87 percent-between 1986 and 1996.

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7 Humanities, Education, and Professional Fields As shown in Figure 5, education, humanities, and professional/other fields experienced strong growth in the ~ 960s and early ~ 970s, with their aggregate numbers increasing from 6,3 ~ 6 in ~ 966 to 14~363 in ~ 976. The total number of doctorates in these fields in 1996, though, was 14,366, almost the same as in 1976. (See Table 4, page 37.) Humanities doctorates increased in the 1960s and early 1970s, only to experience a sharp decline from ~ 974 to ~ 985. The number of humanities doctorates has since increased substantially, registering the second fastest growth rate among broad fields for the period 1986 to 1996, during which time the field grew 48 percent, from 3,461 to 5,] 16. History led this recent growth with a 52 percent increase from ~ 986 to ~ 996. American/English language and literature and foreign language and literature also had strong growth at 41 and 36 percent, respectively. As with other high-growth fields, these three major fields had declines in annual awards from 1995 to 1996. Doctorates in the "other" humanities grew at 52 percent, indicating strong growth in smaller fields. After a period of tremendous growth that peaked in the ~ 970s, the number of doctorates in education fields slowly declined until the late 198Os, when the number of education doctorates began to grow again. The number of annual doctorates in education rose from 6,649 to 6,772 by just 2 percent-between ~ 986 and ~ 996. This represents the smallest numerical and percentage growth among the broad fields. Teacher education and teaching fields registered large decreases in annual awards of 24 percent each between 1986 and 1996. Growth in education has come in "other" fields. . Professional and other fields, the smallest of the broad fields at 2,478 in ~ 996, has enjoyed sustained growth over the past three decades. The number for ~ 996, though, is 7 percent less than in 1995. Among professional/other fields, communications increased 5 ~ percent in the number of awards and business and management increased 4 ~ percent from ~ 986 to ~ 996. As with other high growth fields, though, business and management declined from 1995 to 1996 in awards. Communications Ph.D.s slowed to just 2 percent growth in the past year.

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8 FIGURE 4 Science and engineering doctorates awarded by broad field, 1966-1996. 9,000 8,000 7,000 ~ _~ u, 6,000- . _ ~ 5000 i3,000 2,000 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1,000 See Table 4, page 37. of 1966 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 Year SOllRCE: National Research Council, Survey of Earned Doctorates. ~ Life Sciences Physical Sciences - Social Sciences Engineering FIGURE 5 Education, humanities, and professional/other doctorates awarded by broad field, 1966-1996. 9,000 8,000 7,000 u, ~ 6,000 . lo 5,000 4,000 3 000 ~ ' 2,000 1,000 O IN ,} ~ I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ,,,,,,,,,, I, ~- l 1966 1971 1976 See Table 4, page 37. 1981 1986 1991 1996 Year SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Earned Doctorates. Education I Humaluties Professional/Other I

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9 Gender As seen in Figure 6, women earned 16,945 research doctorates in 1996, or 40 percent of the 42,415 doctorates awarded by U.S. colleges and universities that year. This figure is about eight times the number reported in ~ 966, when women earned 2,086 Ph.D.s., or about 12 percent of all Ph.D.s. Men earned 25,470 doctorates in 1996, up from 1995 and the highest number earned by men since 1975. The highest number ever earned by men was 27,754 in 1972. (See Table 5, page 38, and Appendix Table B-2, pages 95-97.) FIGURE 6 Doctorate recipients, total and by gender, 1966-1996. 45,000 40,000 35,000 30,000 2s,000 20,000 5,000 0,000 s,ooo o . By. 1 l ~ . 1 r ~ ~ ~ ~ i . 1, ~ I I I I ~r I I I I I I I I I ~I I I I I ~3 1966 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 Year See Table 5, page 38, and Appendix Table ~2, pages 95-97. SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Earned Doctorates. . I ~ Total Men Women As seen in Figure 7, the percentage of Ph.D.s earned by women in the United States has increased considerably, especially in the past 30 years. Between World Wars ~ and Il. women generally earned between ~ 3 and ~ ~ percent of doctorates awarded in the United States. Abler peaking slightly above 20 percent of all Ph.D.s during World War IT, the percentage of doctorates earned by women dropped below ~ O percent from ~ 949 to ~ 956 and then stabilized around ~ ~ percent in the late 1950s and early 1960s. After 1965 the percentage of doctorates earned by women rose at a crisp pace until the 19SOs, when it leveled off around 35 percent. The percentage has risen since 1989 to 40 percent in 1996.4 (See Table 6, page, 39.) 4While women constituted 40 percent of all doctorate recipients in 1996, they have earned the majority of baccalaureate and master's degrees for some time. In 1995, the most recent year for which data are available, women earned about 55 percent of baccalaureate and master's degrees awarded by U.S. colleges and universities (U.S. DeparUnent of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, 'Completions" survey, 1994-1995~.

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10 FIGURE 7 Percentage of doctorates Mom U.S. colleges and universities earned by women, 1921-1996. solo 4so/o 4oo/o 3So/o 3oo/o 25% 20% 15% 1 oo/o 5o/o oo/o See Table 6, page 39. 1921 1936 1951 Year SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Earned Doctorates. . 1966 1981 1996 As seen in Figure 8, the percentage of doctorates earned by women has risen even more dramatically among U.S. citizens. The number of U.S. men earning doctorates has risen since their low number in 1987. Still, at 14,700 in 1996, U.S. men earned only three- quarters of the number of doctorates they earned in the early ~ 970s. Meanwhile, the number of U.S. women earning Ph.D.s has risen steadily. Thus, while women earned just one-quarter of doctorates earned by U.S. citizens in ~ 976, they earned 47 percent of doctorates awarded to U.S. citizens in 1996. Among non-U.S. citizens with permanent visas, women earned 34 percent of doctorates in 1996; among temporary residents, women earned 23 percent.

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11 FIGURE 8 U.S. citizen doctorate recipients, total and by gender, 1976-1996. 30,000 25,000 can ~ 20,000 car o c40 o ao ~10,000 1 5,000 5,000 o See Appendix Table B-2, pages 95-97. r _ ~ _ 1 he' 1~'1~~1~~1~~ T ~i 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 Year SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of [Darned Doctorates. Gender by Field I U.S. Citizens - ~ Men ~ Women While women have earned an ever-larger percentage of Ph.D.s, the number and percentage of Ph.D.s earned by women varied substantially by field as can be seen in Figure 9. (See Table 5, page 38.) In ~ 996 a greater number of doctorates were awarded to men than to women in five of seven broad fields. Women remained outnumbered in life sciences (earning 44 percent of Ph.D.s), professional/other fields (38 percent), physical sciences (21 percent), and engineering (12 percent). In the fifth field, humanities, men earned only slightly more Ph.D.s than women (2,572 men and 2,544 women). Women continued to earn the majority of doctorates in education (62 percent). For the second year in a row, women also outnumbered men in social sciences (3,514 to 3,300~. The number of female Ph.D.s has increased in every broad field over the past 30 years, and gains continued from ~ 995 to 1996 in every broad field except physical sciences, for which the number of women dropped from 1,499 to I,3 84, and professional/other fields, in which the number of women dropped from 980 to 953.

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12 The field with the highest growth rate for women in the past decade was engineering, in which the number of female doctorates increased by 245 percent, growing from 225 in 1986 to 776 in 1996. Engineering, though, remains the broad field in which women earned the fewest and smallest percentage of doctorates. The largest numerical change for women was in life sciences, in which the number of women jumped from 1,984 in ~ 986 to 3,595 in ~ 996. Women earned their highest number of doctorates in education, at 4,~79 in ~996; this field had the slowest growth rate for women over the past decade, at just ~ 6 percent. FIGURE 9 Number of female doctorate recipients, by field, 1986, 1991, 1996. 4,500 4,000 3,soo u' 3,000 a o 0 2,000 ,500 2,500 ,000 500 . a See Table 5, page 38. ~! ~ ~ ;1 ~,. 1 1 16 Physical Engineering Life Sciences Sciences ~ 0 1986 Social Humanities Sciences ~ 1991 0 1996 SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Earned Doctorates. Education Professional/ Other

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13 Race/Ethnicib U.S. minorities earned a record number of Ph.D.s in ~ 996, increasing from 3,5 ~ 7 awards in ~ 995 to 3,542 in ~ 996, while the number of white U.S. citizens earning Ph.D.s declined to 23,856 in 1996 from 23,920 in 1995~he highest number of whites since 1976. As in 1995, almost 13 percent of the doctorates awarded to U.S. citizens in 1996 were earned by racial/ethnic minorities Asians, blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians up from percent in ~ 994.s The overall minority share of doctorates has increased by over 6 percentage points since 1976. (See Table 7, page 40, and Appendix Table B-2, pages 95-97.) Among U.S. citizens, as shown in Figures ~ O and ~ I, three of the four racial/ethnic minority groups reached record numbers in 1996: The number of blacks receiving doctorates increased ~ 8.9 percent from I, ~ 0 ~ in ~ 994 to ~ ,309 in ~ 995, and the number of blacks remained at this higher level with I,3 ~ 5 in ~ 996. At 4.8 percent in ~ 996, blacks earned their highest proportion among U.S. Ph.D.s ever. . . Of the ~ ~ institutions awarding the most baccalaureates to blacks who later received Ph.D.s between 1992 and ~ 996, ~ ~ are Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). (See Table 9, page 42.) Three HBCUs are also among the 20 institutions that awarded the most Ph.D.s to blacks between 1992 and 1996. (See Table 10, page 43.) The number of Asians receiving doctorates increased by 20 percent from 950 in ~994 to 1,140 in 1995 but decreased slightly to 1,091 in 1996, still a 15 percent increase over ~ 994. Asians received 4 percent of all doctorates awarded to U.S. citizens in ~ 996, three times as high as in 1976. Hispanics continued to increase their numbers among U.S. citizens receiving doctorates, rising from 884 in 1994 to 919 in 1995 and 950 in 1996. Their share of U.S. citizen doctorates is now nearly 3.5 percent. The number of American Indians receiving doctorates jumped 25 percent from 149 in 1995 to 186 in 1996, their highest number ever among U.S. citizens. The percentage of U.S. citizens earning Ph.D.s who are American Indians increased from 0.2 percent in ~ 976 to 0.7 percent in ~ 996. 5"Asians" includes Asians and Pacific Islanders; "American Indians" includes Alaskan Natives.

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48 TABLE 16 Median Years to Doctorate Dom Baccalaureate Award, by Demographic Group and Broad Field, 1996 All Physical Engi- Life Social nearing Sci. Sci. Fields Sci.* Human- Educa- Prof./ ities tion Over Total Time from Baccalaureate All Ph.D.s 10.8 8.3 9.0 9.6 10.3 11.8 20.2 13.8 Men 10.2 8.5 9.1 9.5 10.3 11.5 19.3 13.2 Women 12.0 7.9 8.3 9.9 10.2 12.0 20.8 15.3 U.S. Citizens 11.1 7.4 8.0 9.0 10.0 12.0 21.0 15.7 Non-U.S., Permanent Visas 11.4 11.0 11.2 10.8 12.0 13.0 14.3 12.9 Non-U.S., Temporary Visas 9.8 9.0 9.1 10.0 10.4 10.2 13.9 11.0 U.S. Citizens Asianst 9.0 7.3 8.4 8.1 9.0 10.6 18.3 17.0 Blacks 15.3 8.0 8.4 9.6 12.0 12.8 21.0 16.0 Hispanics 11.0 8.3 8.4 9.3 9.0 11.5 17.9 15.7 American Indianst 12.0 9.9 8.3 11.0 11.0 11.3 18.5 12.0 Whites 11.1 7.3 8.0 9.0 10.0 12.0 21.0 15.6 Registered Time from Baccalaureate All Ph.D.s 7.2 6.7 6.4 7.0 7.4 8.3 8.2 7.5 Men 7.0 6.8 6.5 6.9 7.4 8.3 8.3 7.5 Women 7.5 6.3 6.3 7.0 7.4 8.5 8.2 7.6 U.S. Citizens 7.3 6.4 6.3 7.0 7.4 8.5 8.3 7.6 Non-U.S., Permanent Visas 7.8 7.8 7.3 7.4 8.6 8.7 8.3 7.9 Non-U.S., Temporary Visas 6.8 6.8 6.4 6.8 7.2 7.5 6.8 7.3 U.S. Citizens Asianst 7.0 6.3 6.5 7.0 7.6 8.6 7.0 9.3 Blacks 7.7 6.6 6.3 7.3 7.6 8.2 8.2 7.0 Hispanics 7.3 7.1 6.5 7.0 7.3 8.1 8.0 7.9 American Indians:t 7.3 7.0 6.7 6.6 7.3 8.8 7.5 6.6 Whites 7.3 6.4 6.1 7.0 7.4 8.5 8.5 7.6 NOTE: Median calculations are based on the number of individuals who provided complete information about their postbaccalaureate education. "Total" time to degree measures the number of years elapsed between receipt of the baccalaureate and the Ph.D. "Registered" time to degree gauges the amount of time enrolled in graduate school, including master's degrees and enrollment in nondegree programs. Please note that the method Comedian computation was revised three years ago. See technical notes in Appendix C for explanation of the revision and also for rates of nonresponse to the applicable survey questions. *Includes mathematics and computer sciences. ""Asians" includes Pacific Islanders. ""American Indians" includes Alaskan Natives. SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Earned Doctorates.

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49 TABLE 17 Primary Sources of Support for Doctorate Recipients, by Broad Field and Demographic Group, 1996 Concludes only Ph.D.s who reported primary source of support) Primary Source U.S. Citizens* of SupportAll U.S. Penn. Temp. His- Amer. (responses only)Ph.D.s Men Women Cits. Visas Visas Asians Blacks panics Indians Whites All Fields N 42,415 25,47016,94527,7413,7659,6101,0911,31595018623,856 Personal NO 35.1 28.844.743.919.814.925.349.540.351.244.6 University NO 51.9 57.643.442.974.769.953.733.240.532.542.9 Federal NO 5.8 5.56.17.81.71.513.38.211.210.67.3 Over NO 7.2 8.15.85.53.913.67.79.28.15.65.1 Physical Sciencest N 6,675 5,2911,3843,4468392,1611766983133,037 Personal HO 11.3 11.610.515.47.36.010.68.317.725.015.7 University NO 77.8 78.176.970.789.885.377.651.759.575.071.0 Federal HO 5.3 4.87.39.20.80.66.821.711.40.09.0 Over HO 5.5 5.55.34.72.08.15.018.311.40.04.3 Engineering N 6,305 5,5297762,5917922,7162715986142,123 Personal HO 15.7 16.510.618.616.112.717.616.016.016.718.8 University NO 67.4 67.467.356.279.275.358.440.044.433.356.8 Federal DO 6.4 5.512.814.10.70.512.020.019.841.713.9 Over NO 10.4 10.69.311.14.111.612.024.019.88.310.4 Life Sciences N 8,255 4,6603,5955,0141,0172,040289141150314,335 Personal DO 19.8 16.823.625.610.79.316.328.522.023.826.4 University DO 58.5 61.854.249.580.870.350.438.246.257.149.9 Federal NO 13.3 11.915.019.44.32.127.123.625.819.018.4 Over DO 8.5 9.47.35.54.218.36.29.86.10.05.4 Social Sciences N 6,814 3,3003,5145,1954041,006127247235384,495 Personal HO 45.8 40.650.650.437.924.136.641.543.346.951.6 University NO 44.4 47.541.641.857.053.547.344.443.340.641.4 Federal % 4.5 4.54.55.00.93.48.97.29.89.44.5 Over HO 5.2 7.43.32.84.218.97.16.83.63.12.4 Humanities N 5,116 2,5722,5443,95935364991119140203,540 Personal NO 43.6 43.643.646.740.525.136.636.838.863.247.4 University NO 49.0 48.849.247.054.458.456.147.451.731.646.8 Federal NO 2.1 2.31.91.91.03.71.24.21.70.01.9 Over % 5.4 5.35.44.34.212.86.111.67.85.33.9 Education N 6,772 2,5934,1795,86619647792582204604,879 Personal NO 75.0 73.076.277.655.448.870.771.570.772.778.7 University HO 16.4 16.216.514.738.630.413.320.518.27.313.9 Federal NO 1.5 1.81.31.40.03.110.71.35.09.11.0 Over NO 7.1 9.06.06.36.017.75.36.66.110.96.3 Professional/O~er N 2,478 1,5259531,670164561459852101,447 Personal NO 51.0 50.152.360.131.528.152.844.344.955.661.9 University % 38.5 38.638.431.462.253.536.132.932.744.431.0 Federal NO 2.1 1.92.42.60.01.10.012.78.20.01.9 Over NO 8.4 9.46.95.86.317.311.110.114.30.05.1 l NOTE: Numbers represent those Phases with known primary support; percentages are based on these numbers. Because nonresponse to "primary" source of support is much greater than for other variables and fluctuates from year to year, the reader is advised not to compare percentages in this table with those published in earlier reports. The overall nonresponse rate for "primary" source of support was 12.1 percent in 1996, compared to 25.2 percent in 1995, 27.6 percent in 1994, 33.8 percent in 1993, and 30.3 percent in 1992. See technical notes in Appendix C for further information. "Personal" includes loans as well as one's own earnings and contributions from spouse/family. Federally funded research assistantships (RAs) are grouped under "University" because not all recipients of such support are aware of the actual source of funding. For further definition of "Federal" support, see item All on the survey questionnaire in Appendix D. "Other" support includes U.S. nationally competitive fellowships, business/employer funds, foreign government, and state government. *"Asians" includes Pacific Islanders; "American Indians" includes Alaskan Natives. "Includes mathematics and computer sciences. SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Earned Doctorates.

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so TABLE 18 Cumulative Debt Related to me Education of Doctorate Recipients, by Broad Field, 1996 All Physical Engi- Life Social Human- Educa- Prof./ Fields Sci.* neer~ng Sci. Sci. ities lion Over All Ph.D.s N 42,415 6,675 6,305 8,255 6,814 5,116 6,772 2,478 Responses to Debt Status N 38,662 6,115 5,779 7,616 6,163 4,707 6,057 2,225 Without Debt TO 52.3 58.9 63.0 52.6 37.8 42.6 58.0 51.4 Win Debt TO 47.7 41.1 37.0 47.4 62.2 57.4 42.0 48.6 $5,000 or less % 11.3 12.2 11.2 12.5 9.9 11.9 10.4 9.2 $5,001 to $10,000 TO 9.1 9.9 7.8 9.8 9.6 11.0 7.5 7.6 $10,001 to $15,000 TO 6.9 6.7 5.0 7.1 8.7 8.8 5.6 7.0 $15,001 to $20,000 % 4.9 3.9 3.2 4.8 6.7 6.9 4.3 4.9 $20,001 to $25,000 % 3.8 2.9 - 1.9 3.6 5.5 5.1 3.7 4.1 $25,001 to $30,000 TO 3.1 1.6 1.8 2.8 5.0 4.0 3.2 3.5 $30~001 or more TO 8.6 4.0 6.3 6.6 16.8 9.7 7.4 12.4 NOTE: This table displays information on debt related to a recipient's combined undergraduate and graduate education. "All Ph.D.s" includes recipients whose debt status is unknown. Percentages are based on the number with "Responses to Debt Status." The "With Debt" and "Without Debt" percentages add to 100.0. Percentages for levels of debt add to the total percentage of Ph.D.s "With Debt." See technical notes in Annendix C for the rate of nnnr~nonce to the ~nnlir.~hi`' Rev question. *Includes mathematics and computer sciences. SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Earned Doctorates. __r ~~~r ~~ ~rr^~~~'~ V~'~} TABLE 19 Cumulative Debt Related to We Education of Doctorate Recipients, by Demographic Group, 1996 U S. Citizens* . . All U.S. Perm. Temp. His- Amer. Ph.D.s Men Women Cits. Visas Visas Asians Blacks panics Indians Whites AllPh.D.s N 42,415 25,470 16,945 27,741 3,765 9,610 1,091 1,315 950 186 23,856 Responses to Debt Status N 38,662 23,156 15,506 26,162 3,571 8,864 1,032 1,189 895 171 22,687 Without Debt % 52.3 53.1 51.1 44.6 71.2 67.6 50.2 32.3 30.4 43.9 45.5 Win Debt TO 47.7 46.9 48.9 55.4 28.8 32.4 49.8 67.7 69.6 56.1 54.5 $5,000 or less TO 11.3 11.4 11.0 11.7 8.8 11.0 9.4 12.7 13.1 11.7 11.7 $5,001 to$10,000 TO 9.1 9.2 9.0 10.9 5.6 5.3 11.4 11.5 11.2 12.9 10.8 $10,001 to $15,000 TO 6.9 6.9 7.0 8.4 3.3 3.9 8.4 9.3 11.2 5.8 8.3 $15,001 to $20,000 TO 4.9 4.7 5.3 6.2 2.7 1.9 5.2 7.3 9.5 4.1 6.1 $20,001 to $25,000 TO 3.8 3.4 4.2 4.7 1.7 1.7 3.9 5.2 5.0 2.9 4.7 $25,001 to $30,000 TO 3.1 2.9 3.3 3.9 1.5 1.3 3.5 6.1 5.7 5.8 3.7 $30,001 or more % 8.6 8.4 9.0 9.5 5.2 7.3 7.9 15.6 14.0 12.9 9.1 NOTE: This table displays information on debt related to a recipient's combined undergraduate and graduate education. "All Ph.D.s" includes recipients whose debt status is unknown. Percentages are based on the number with "Responses to Debt Status." The "With Debt" and "Without Debt" percentages add to 100.0. Percentages for levels of debt add to the total percentage of Ph.D.s "With Debt." See technical notes in Appendix C for the rate of nonresponse to the applicable survey question. *"Asians" includes Pacific Islanders; "American Indians" includes Alaskan Natives. SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Earned Doctorates.

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51 TABLE 20 Post~aduation Status of Doctorate Recipients, by Broad Field for Selected Years, 1976-1996 All Physical Engi- Life Social Human- Educa- Prof./ Fields Sci.* peering Sci. Sci. ities tion Over All Ph.D.s 1976 N32,946 4,509 2,834 5,026 6,214 4,881 7,725 1,757 1981 N31,356 4,170 2,528 5,611 6,141 3,751 7,497 1,658 1986 N31,902 4,807 3,376 5,734 5,893 3,461 6,649 1,982 1991 N37,534 6,280 5,214 6,933 6,152 4,099 6,454 2,402 1996 N42,415 6,675 6,305 8,255 6,814 5,116 6,772 2,478 Total Responses to Postgraduation Status 1976 N31,097 4,296 2,673 4,759 5,886 4,524 7,321 1,638 1981 N28,802 3,883 2,298 5,147 5,611 3,418 6,936 1,509 1986 N28,964 4,318 2,960 5,293 5,337 3,137 6,140 1,779 1991 N34,353 5,763 4,598 6,452 5,587 3,807 5,976 2,170 1996 N38,558 6,104 5,727 7,612 6,164 4,698 6,041 2,212 Definite Comminnents for Employment or Study 1976 NO72.4 72.4 71.5 76.1 73.0 60.3 74.7 83.3 1981 NO76.0 80.7 77.4 78.4 74.6 66.4 75.1 84.8 1986 NO73.5 76.4 69.8 75.8 72.0 63.9 75.4 81.2 1991 NO70.5 70.3 62.4 74.1 69.8 64.2 74.7 78.6 1996 NO67.5 67.4 63.6 70.8 65.4 58.5 74.1 73.3 Seeking Employment or Study 1976 NO27.6 27.6 28.5 23.9 27.0 39.7 25.3 16.7 1981 NO24.0 19.3 22.6 21.6 25.4 33.6 24.9 15.2 1986 NO26.5 23.6 30.2 24.2 28.0 36.1 24.6 18.8 1991 DO29.5 29.7 37.6 25.9 30.2 35.8 25.3 21.4 1996 NO32.5 32.6 36.4 29.2 34.6 41.5 25.9 26.7 NOTE: Percentages are based on the number of Ph.D.s who reported their postgraduation status (definite or seeking), regardless of plans (employment or study). See technical notes in Appendix C for rates of nonresponse to the applicable survey questions arid for further explanation of postgraduation plans. *Includes mathematics and computer sciences. SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Earned Doctorates.

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All U.S. Perm. Temp. Ph.D.s Men Women Cits. 52 TABLE 21 Postgraduation Status of Doctorate Recipients, by Demographic Group for Selected Years, 1976- 1996 U.S. Citizens & Permanent Residents* Amer. Visas Visas Asians Blacks panics Indians Whites All Ph.D.s 1976 N 32,946 25~262 7,684 27,269 1,494 3,529975 1,146 374 40 24,943 1981 N 31,356 21,464 9,892 25,060 1,281 3,9401,073 1,110 529 85 22,470 1986 N 31,902 20,595 11,307 23,086 1,433 5,2761,061 956 679 99 21,236 1991 N 37,534 23,661 13,873 25,573 1,857 9,3111,531 1,166 867 132 23,185 1996 N 42,415 25,470 16,945 27,741 3,765 9,6103,697 1,457 1,105 187 24,685 Total Responses to Post~aduation Status 1976 N 31,097 23,856 7,241 26,264 1,431 3,326934 1,104 361 39 24,436 1981 N 28,802 19,717 9,085 23,962 1,183 3,608991 1,052 505 82 21,739 1986 N 2S,964 18,515 10,449 22,635 1,344 4,913994 929 656 96 20,882 1991 N 34,353 21,498 12,855 24,291 1,719 8,2781,424 1,050 819 127 22,256 1996 N 38,558 23,080 15,578 26,113 3,528 8,8603,469 1,308 1,042 172 23,434 Definite Commitments for Emnlovment or StudY ~, ~ 1976 TO 72.4 74.2 66.3 73.6 61.8 67.3 64.2 70.6 74.5 56.4 73.6 1981 TO 76.0 78.4 70.8 77.0 66.4 72.3 70.5 72.3 74.3 75.6 77.0 1986 % 73.5 75.1 70.8 75.1 61.2 69.7 66.4 68.8 69.8 66.7 75.2 1991 TO 70.5 70.3 70.8 73.9 57.2 63.4 61.7 68.6 68.7 67.7 73.9 1996 TO 67.5 67.6 67.4 70.5 60.1 61.5 61.9 68.0 70.7 69.8 70.4 Seeking Employment or Study 1976 TO 27.6 25.8 33.7 26.4 38.2 32.7 35.8 29.4 25.5 43.6 26.4 1981 TO 24.0 21.6 29.2 23.0 33.6 27.7 29.5 27.7 25.7 24.4 23.0 1986 TO 26.5 24.9 29.2 24.9 38.8 30.3 33.6 31.2 30.2 33.3 24.8 1991 TO 29.5 29.7 29.2 26.1 42.8 36.6 38.3 31.4 31.3 32.3 26.1 1996 TO 32.5 32.4 32.6 29.5 39.9 38.5 38.1 32.0 29.3 30.2 29.6 - NOTE: Percentages are based on the number of Ph.D.s who reported their postgraduation status (definite or seeking), regardless of plans (employment or study). See technical notes in Appendix C for rates of nonresponse to the applicable survey questions and for further explanation of postgraduation plans. * "Asians" includes Pacific Islanders; "American Indians" includes Alaskan Natives. SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Earned Doctorates.

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53 TABLE 22 Postgraduation Commitments of Doctorate Recipients, by Type of Plans and Broad Field for Selected Years, 1976-1996 All Physical Engi Fields Sci.* peering Life Social Sci. Sci. Human- Educa ities tion All Definite Commitments 1976 N 22,503 3,111 1,911 3,622 4,297 2,730 5,468 1,364 1981 N 21,889 3,133 1,778 4,034 4,187 2,270 5,208 1,279 1986 N 21,300 3,300 2,066 4,013 3,842 2,006 4,629 1,444 1991 N 24,218 4,052 2,871 4,781 3,902 2,445 4,462 1,705 1996 N 26,027 4,116 3,642 5,392 4,033 2,747 4,475 1,622 Definite Commitments win Responses to Type of Plans 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 N N N N N 22,315 21,828 21,185 24,115 25,982 3,101 3,122 3,290 4,047 4,110 1,901 1,770 2,059 2,861 3,636 3,601 4,267 4,026 4,181 3,998 3,817 4,771 3,893 5,384 4,026 2,692 5,405 2,259 5,196 1,982 4,600 2,428 4,419 2,739 4,469 1,348 1,274 1,439 1,696 1,618 Employment 1976 TO 81.8 58.7 84.7 50.0 89.6 96.4 97.8 98.6 1981 TO 80.6 65.7 88.5 46.3 86.4 95.7 97.6 99.1 1986 % 75.9 55.7 81.1 41.2 84.1 92.4 97.1 98.0 1991 TO 72.5 51.5 78.9 37.5 82.6 92.5 96.1 97.1 1996 % 70.5 50.2 77.6 35.0 77.5 92.4 97.2 96.4 Study 1976 1981 1986 1991 1 ^~' onto onto onto onto onto 18.2 19.4 24.1 27.5 29.5 41.3 34.3 44.3 48.5 49.8 15.3 11.5 18.9 50.0 10.4 53.7 13.6 58.8 15.9 62.5 17.4 65.0 22.5 3.6 2.2 1.4 4.3 2.4 0.9 7.6 2.9 2.0 7.5 3.9 2.9 7.6 2.8 3.6 NOTE: Only Ph.D.s with definite commitments are included. "All Definite Commitments" includes recipients who reported definite commitments but not type of plans (employment or study). Percentages are based on the number of Ph.D.s who reported a definite commitment and a type of plan. See technical notes in Appendix C for rates of nonresponse to the applicable survey questions and for further explanation of postgraduation plans. *Includes mathematics and computer sciences. SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Earned Doctorates.

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54 TABLE 23 Postgraduation Commitments of Doctorate Recipients, by Type of Plans and Demographic Group for Selected Years, 1976-1996 All U.S. Ph.D.s Men Women Cits. All Definite Commitments 1976 N 22,503 17,703 4,800 19,318 885 2,238600 779 269 22 17,986 1981 N 21,889 15,461 6,428 18,454 786 2,609699 761 375 62 16,738 1986 N 21,300 13,904 7,396 17,007 822 3,424660 639 458 64 15,706 1991 N 24,218 15,122 9,096 17,942 983 5,248879 720 563 86 16,442 1996 N 26,027 15,597 10,430 18,421 2,120 5,4522,147 889 737 120 16,499 U.S. Citizens & Permanent Residents* Penn. Temp. His- Amer. Visas Visas Asians Blacks panics Indians Whites Definite Commitments win Responses to Type of Plans 1976 N22,31517,5634,75219,156 881 2,217599 759 265 2117,851 1981 N21,82815,4146,41418,417 782 2,591696 759 374 6216,706 1986 N21,18513,8407,34516,927 820 3,392656 632 458 6315,638 1991 N24,11515,0599,05617,871 975 5,224873 710 562 8616,380 1996 N25,98215,57110,41118,394 2,114 5,4412,142 888 737 12016,472 Employment 1976 TO81.881.084.982.9 73.1 75.667.3 94.1 89.8 90.582.6 1981 TO80.679.383.780.8 82.6 78.777.3 93.9 85.3 90.380.4 1986 %75.973.580.277.6 75.7 67.067.4 88.6 79.0 71.477.6 1991 TO72.569.877.075.6 69.5 62.563.1 86.3 74.4 77.975.5 1996 %70.568.074.374.7 59.4 60.755.7 85.0 75.2 82.574.7 Study 1976 TO18.219.015.117.1 26.9 24.432.7 5.9 10.2 9.517.4 1981 TO19.420.716.319.2 17.4 21.322.7 6.1 14.7 9.719.6 1986 TO24.126.519.822.4 24.3 33.032.6 11.4 21.0 28.622.4 1991 TO27.530.223.024.4 30.5 37.536.9 13.7 25.6 22.124.5 1996 TO29.532.025.725.3 40.6 39.344.3 15.0 24.8 17.525.3 NOTE: Only Ph.D.s with definite commitments are included. "All Definite Commitments" includes recipients who reported definite commitments but not type of plans (employment or study). Percentages are based on the number of Ph.D.s who reported a definite commitment and a type of plan. See technical notes in Appendix C for rates of nonresponse to the applicable survey questions and for further explanation of postgraduation plans. *"Asians" includes Pacific Islanders; "American Indians" includes Alaskan Natives. SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Earned Doctorates.

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55 TABLE 24 Postdoctoral Location of Non-U.S. Citizen Doctorate Recipients win Pos~aduation Commitments, by Visa Status for Selected Years, 1976-1996 All Non-U.S. Permanent Citizens Visas Temporary visas All Definite Comminnents 1976 N 3,123885 2,238 1981 N 3,395786 2,609 1986 N 4,246822 3,424 1991 N 6,231983 5,248 1996 N 7,5722,120 5,452 Definite Commi~anents win Responses to Location 1976 N 3,007850 2,157 1981 N 3,193742 2,451 1986 N 3,895745 3,150 1991 N 6,040958 5,082 1996 N 7,5392,110 5,429 U.S. Location 1976 NO 50.090.7 34.0 1981 NO 52.491.9 40.5 1986 NO 56.983.2 50.7 1991 NO 62.686.1 58.1 1996 NO 70.292.0 61.7 Foreign Location 1976 DO 50.09.3 66.0 1981 DO 47.68.1 59.5 1986 NO 43.116.8 49.3 1991 NO 37.413.9 41.9 1996 NO 29.88.0 38.3 NOTE: Only non-U.S. citizen Ph.D.s with definite commitments are included. "All Definite Commitments" includes recipients who reported definite commitments but not location (U.S. or foreign). Percentages are based on the number of Ph.D.s who reported a definite commitment and a location. See technical notes in Appendix C for rates of nonresponse to the applicable survey questions and for furler explanation of postgraduation plans. SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Earned Doctorates.

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56 TABLE 25 Postdoctoral Location of Non-U.S. Citizen Doctorate Recipients win Post~aduation Commitments, by Major Field arid Visa Status, 1996 Postdoctoral Location Permanent Visas Temporary Visas Resp. to Resp. to Location/ U.S. Foreign LocationJ U.S. Foreign Type of Location Location Type of Location Location Field ofDoctorate Plans Empl. Study Empl.Study Plans Empl. Study Empl. Study (responses only) (A) (DO) (DO)(DO) (DO) (N) (%) (%) (%) (%) All Fields 2,105 53.5 38.56.0 2.0 5,421 29.8 32.0 31.0 7.3 Physical Sciences 453 53.6 41.52.2 2.6 1,274 27.4 46.8 14.7 11.1 Physics/Ashonomy 107 45.8 46.70.9 6.5 307 14.3 58.3 9.8 17.6 Chemistry 155 44.5 54.20.6 0.6 389 17.7 66.6 8.7 6.9 Earn, Ahnos., Marine 49 32.7 59.26.1 2.0 115 15.7 41.7 27.8 14.8 Mathematics 74 64.9 27.04.1 4.1 236 37.7 31.8 17.4 13.1 Computer Sciences 68 89.7 7.42.9 0.0 227 56.8 15.4 22.0 5.7 Engineering 442 76.0 18.34.5 1.1 1,429 47.9 23.5 24.8 3.8 Life Sciences 622 17.5 77.72.6 2.3 1,232 8.4 56.7 25.8 9.2 Biological Sciences 531 11.9 84.61.3 2.3 785 4.7 73.1 12.9 9.3 Heal Sciences 49 55.1 36.78.2 0.0 158 20.9 28.5 43.7 7.0 Agricultural Sciences 42 45.2 38.111.9 4.8 289 11.4 27.3 51.2 10.0 Social Sciences* 206 64.6 18.015.5 1.9 566 30.7 9.9 52.5 6.9 Psychology 49 49.0 46.92.0 2.0 87 23.0 32.2 40.2 4.6 Economics 59 71.2 6.822.0 0.0 275 35.3 2.5 55.3 6.9 Poll. Sci./Int'l. Relat. 24 62.5 4.225.0 8.3 47 38.3 8.5 46.8 6.4 Sociology 30 73.3 13.310.0 3.3 41 17.1 2.4 75.6 4.9 Humanities 196 83.7 5.68.7 2.0 332 36.7 8.1 48.5 6.6 Education 105 80.0 4.812.4 2.9 251 18.3 4.0 72.9 4.8 ProfessionallOther* 81 71.6 6.222.2 0.0 337 40.7 3.0 52.8 3.6 Business & Mgmt. 50 78.0 6.016.0 0.0 207 51.2 1.4 44.9 2.4 NOTE: Only Ph.D.s with definite commitments are included; see Table 24 for numbers of non-U.S. citizens with commitments. Numbers in this table represent those Ph.D.s who responded to survey questions about both postdoctoral location and type of plans; percentages are based on these numbers. See technical notes in Appendix C for rates of nonresponse to these survey questions and for further explanation of postgraduation plans. *Totals include other fields not shown. SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Earned Doctorates.

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57 TABLE 26 Employment Sector of Doctorate Recipients win Post~aduation Commitments In Me United States, by Broad Field for Selected Years, 1976-1996 ~J.S. citizens and permanent residents) All PhysicalEngi- Life Social Human- Educa- Prof./ Fields Sci.* neer~ng Sci. Sci. ities tion Over All Employment Commitments 1976 N 16,143 1,562 1,256 1981 N 15,262 1,774 1,052 1986 N 13,479 1,445 1,053 1991 N 13,839 1,441 1,300 1996 N 14,605 1,493 1,736 1,453 3,371 2,366 4,983 1,152 1,460 3,222 1,946 4,711 1,097 1,262 2,806 1,613 4,136 1,164 1,305 2,671 1,900 3,941 1,281 1,419 2,561 2,170 4,054 1,172 Employment Commitments win Responses to Sector 1976 N16,059 1,557 1,249 1,443 3,353 2,359 4,949 1,149 1981 N15,166 1,768 1,048 1,457 3,204 1,931 4,661 1,097 1986 N13,349 1,443 1,047 1,257 2,763 1,598 4,082 1,159 1991 N13,699 1,433 1,298 1,294 2,629 1,885 3,889 1,271 1996 N14,517 1,488 1,731 1,410 2,540 2,159 4,025 1,164 Academet 1976 NO60.2 45.7 26.1 59.0 63.3 86.7 54.8 77.5 1981 NO50.9 29.8 26.2 56.2 49.7 78.8 47.5 70.5 1986 NO48.6 30.1 29.4 52.5 44.3 77.2 44.1 70.9 1991 NO52.3 35.7 25.4 52.0 49.9 83.7 46.7 74.8 1996 NO50.8 35.5 17.0 53.1 52.3 81.3 46.5 73.1 Indus~y/Self-Employed 1976 NO11.9 35.6 51.2 16.5 7.1 2.7 2.5 5.3 1981 NO18.7 56.2 57.0 22.3 13.7 6.4 5.4 10.0 1986 NO20.8 57.0 55.1 25.2 19.2 7.2 7.2 11.0 1991 NO19.4 49.3 57.0 24.3 18.6 4.2 5.8 7.8 1996 NO22.3 52.7 66.3 23.0 18.3 5.4 6.2 12.6 Government 1976 NO12.6 16.2 20.1 17.9 17.0 3.1 11.1 6.7 1981 NO12.9 12.5 14.8 15.5 19.7 4.4 11.9 7.7 1986 NO11.5 10.5 13.8 15.9 16.1 3.7 11.2 6.8 1991 NO9.5 12.4 15.2 15.8 13.6 2.5 6.8 4.5 1996 NO8.7 8.7 14.5 16.0 12.1 1.6 6.4 4.7 Overt 1976 NO15.3 2.4 2.6 6.6 12.6 7.5 31.7 10.4 1981 NO17.5 1.5 2.0 6.0 16.9 10.4 35.2 11.9 1986 NO19.1 2.5 1.7 6.4 20.4 12.0 37.5 11.2 1991 NO18.8 2.7 2.4 8.0 18.0 9.7 40.8 12.9 1996 NO18.2 3.1 2.2 7.8 17.4 11.7 40.9 9.5 NOTE: Only Ph.D.s with definite commitments for employment are included. Foreign locations are excluded. "All Employment Commitments" includes recipients whose employment sector is unreported; percentages are based on the number of Ph.D.s who reported employment commitments in a specific sector. See technical notes in Appendix C for rates of nonresponse to this survey question and for further explanation of postgraduation plans. *Includes mathematics and computer sciences. tAcademe includes two- and four-year colleges and universities and medical schools. Elementary and secondary schools are included in "Other." :~"Other" is mainly composed of elementary and secondary schools and nonprofit organizations. SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Earned Doctorates.

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58 TABLE 27 Employment Sector of Doctorate Recipients win Postgraduation Commitments In the United States, by Demographic Group for Selected Years, 1976-1996 U.S. Citizens & Permanent Residents* All His- Amer. Ph.D.s Men Women Asians Blacks panics Indians Whites U.S. Perm. Temp. cits. visas visas All Employment Commitments 1976 N 16,143 12,379 3,764 387 708 2361914,40415,564 579366 1981 N 15,262 10,227 5,035 513 705 3125613,21814,666 596597 1986 N 13,479 8,017 5,462 405 544 3454411,94212,973 506804 1991 N 13,839 7,572 6,267 519 605 4096412,09313,258 5811,541 1996 N 14,605 7,716 6,889 1,100 737 5409912,03213,477 1,1281,615 Employment Commitments win Responses to Sector 1976 N 16,059 12,319 3,740 384 701 2361914,33615,485 574366 1981 N 15,166 10,180 4,986 507 694 3085513,15014,577 589597 1986 N 13,349 7,964 5,385 400 527 3404311,84612,847 502804 1991 N 13,699 7,513 6,186 514 598 4066411,97113,122 5771,532 1996 N 14,517 7,685 6,832 1,089 731 5389911,96413,397 1,1201,609 Academet 1976 NO 60.2 57.0 70.5 40.9 68.0 71.273.760.160.4 52.456.0 1981 DO 50.9 47.6 57.7 32.3 55.2 64.643.651.151.2 43.347.7 1986 DO 48.6 45.2 53.5 34.5 51.2 58.262.848.648.5 50.464.4 1991 NO 52.3 48.1 57.4 37.9 59.2 63.353.152.252.3 53.055.0 1996 NO 50.8 46.0 56.2 28.2 53.4 60.454.552.351.9 38.534.4 In dus~crv/S elf -Emoloved ~- 1976 NO 11.9 14.1 5.0 44.3 2.9 4.70.011.511.0 36.828.4 1981 NO 18.7 22.8 10.5 54.0 8.5 9.114.517.917.6 46.542.0 1986 NO 20.8 25.4 14.1 48.5 7.6 12.14.720.720.1 38.630.8 1991 NO 19.4 24.6 13.0 47.3 8.0 13.514.118.918.6 36.738.7 1996 NO 22.3 29.5 14.2 59.2 10.4 15.612.120.019.9 51.259.5 Government 1976 NO 12.6 14.0 8.1 10.4 11.6 10.20.012.812.9 4.45.5 1981 NO 12.9 13.8 11.1 7.7 13.1 13.616.413.213.3 3.22.5 1986 NO 11.5 12.7 9.8 8.5 15.2 13.216.311.411.8 5.61.4 1991 NO 9.5 10.8 7.9 8.9 9.0 7.69.49.69.7 4.01.6 1996 NO 8.7 10.0 7.2 6.2 10.4 8.615.28.79.0 4.41.6 Overt 1976 NO 15.3 14.9 16.4 4.4 17.5 14.026.315.615.6 6.410.1 1981 NO 17.5 15.8 20.8 5.9 23.2 12.725.517.817.9 7.07.7 1986 NO 19.1 16.7 22.6 8.5 26.0 16.516.319.319.6 5.43.4 1991 NO 18.8 16.4 21.7 5.8 23.7 15.523.419.319.3 6.24.7 1996 NO 18.2 14.5 22.3 6.4 25.9 15.418.219.019.2 6.04.5 NOTE: Only doctorates with definite commitments for employment are included. Foreign locations are excluded. "All Employment Commitments" includes recipients whose employment sector is unreported. Percentages are based on the number of Ph.D.s who reported employment commitments in a specific sector. See technical notes in Appendix C for rates of nonresponse to this survey question and for further explanation of postgraduation plans. *"Asians" includes Pacific Islanders, "American Indians" includes Alaskan Natives. tAcademe includes two- and four-year colleges and universities and medical schools. Elementary and secondary schools are included in "Other." ""Other" is mainly composed of elementary and secondary schools and nonprofit organizations. SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Earned Doctorates.