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89 APPENDIX B: Trend Tables, 1986-1996 Appendix B includes the following two tables: B- ~ Number of Doctorate Recipients, by Subfield, ~ 986- ~ 996 B-2 Number of Doctorate Recipients, by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Citizenship, 1977, 1981, and 1986-1996 TABLE Bet: Table B-l presents data for the most recent decade by subfield of doctorate. In general, the subf~elds correspond to the fields on the questionnaire's Specialties List located at the back of this report; some, however, do not appear on the current Specialties List because they are no longer included in the survey taxonomy. A dash (-) in a column indicates that the field was not on the Specialties List for that year. Field groupings in this table may differ from those in reports published by federal sponsors of the Survey of Earned Doctorates (SED); see inside the back cover for a description of field groupings as reported in these tables. The "general" field categories for example, "chemistry, general" include individuals who either received the doctorate in the general subject area or did not indicate a particular specialty field. The "other" field categories- for example, "chemistry, other"- include individuals whose specified doctoral discipline was not among the specialty fields. The seven tables in Appendix A present additional information on the most recent cohort of Ph.D.s by field] of doctorate. TABLE B-2: Table B-2 displays, by gender and citizenship, data on the race/ethnicity of doctorate recipients for 1977, 1981, and the past clecade. Table B-2 contains three panels, each displayed on a separate page. The first pane] includes all doctorates; the others disaggregate the data by gender. The reader should note that numbers in Table B-2 have been revised since publication of Summary Report 1995. Because of late questionnaire returns and responses to follow-ups for missing information, data are subject to revision in fheyear after survey closure. New follow-up procedures implemented ir' 1990 and lafer years have increased coverage of several variables, including citizenship arid raceJethnicity. One result has been greater postsurvey adjustment to racial/ethnic data than in earlier years. (Note: The greatest adjustment was to the numbers of black Ph.D.s in 1990 and 1991~n increase of about 7.5 percent each year.) Updates to 1995 racial/ethnic data are shown in Table B-2 in this year 's report. The racial/ethnic question has undergone several revisions over the years. in ~ 977 it was modified to correspond to a standard question format recommended by the Federal Interagency Committee on Education and adopted by the Office of Management ant] Budget

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go (OMB) for use in federally sponsored surveys; an explanation of the effect of these changes is detailed on page 13 of Summary Report 1977. (Note: Changes in the OMB guidelines prompted the moving of persons having origins in the Indian subcontinent from the white category to the Asian category.) In 1980 the item was further revised in two ways: (~) the Hispanic category was subdivided into Puerto Rican, Mexican American, and other Hispanic to provide more detail for users of the racial/ethnic data, and (2) respondents were asked to check only one racial category. (Before 1980 doctorate recipients could check more than one category to indicate their race.) The item was modified again in ~ 982 to separate the questions on race and ethnicity. Since then respondents have been asked to first check one of the four racial group categories (American Indian, Asian, black, or white) and then indicate whether or not they are Hispanic. In Table B-2, Ph.D.s who reported Hispanic heritage, regardless of racial designation, are counted as Hispanic. The remaining survey respondents are then counted in their respective racial groups. (Note: Doctorate recipients who checked the category "American Indian or Alaskan Native" are identified as American Indian in this report.) Tables A-2 and A-4 in Appendix A present additional information on the most recent cohort of Ph.D.s by race/ethnicity.

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91 APPENDIX TABLE B-1 Number of Doctorate Recipients, by Subfield, 1986-1996 ~. Year of Doctorate 19861987198819891990199119921993199419951996 TOTAL ALL FIELDS31,90232~37033:S0034.32736~06737:S3438.89039~80141,03441,74342,415 PHYSICALSCENCES4.8075.0305.3095,4555 8596.2806.5026.4966,8226.8086,675 - MATHEMATICS7297407498598921,0391,0581,1461,1181,1901,122 Applied Mathematics135131142158185193213188206211230 Algebra4657545039726984788278 Analysis and Functional Analysis81867610390I3210510510799100 Geometry3830444742664544354572 Logic2318201219232819293516 Number Theory2015262326302542373542 Mathematical Statistics141143152167157206217228205205178 Topology3441273750575854385155 Computing Theory and Practice1014121212191218161418 Operations Research2922292229162237263621 Mathematics General125137134177191180209276269305233 Mathematics Other4746335152455551727279 COMPUTER SCIENCE399450sis612705800869880903997921 Computer Science355384442519612720791825833913837 Information Sciences and Systems4466739393807855708484 PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY1,1871,2371,3021,2741,3931,4111,5371,5441,6921,6521,677 Astronomy5246664952505576668984 Astrophysics57546464767579697884108 Acoustics1517161521131827201819 Chemical and Atomic/Molecular7079777487768595140110129 Electron262421 Elementary Particles147159174135163182153170176183175 Fluids621171417141719121821 Nuclear8974888173668682909187 Optics585065787685949610498129 PIasma and High-Temperature6172656142586562794648 Polymer111520711171729292333 Solid State and Low-Temperature280287252296306372408336388371364 Physics, General222238271269323247297340343355324 Physics, Over117119125127144155163143167166156 CHEMISTRY1,9031,9752,0151,9702,1002,1942,2142,1372,2572,1622,148 Analytical257314301289293304304286334317346 Inoreanic260240250256242260268237262258249 Nuckear1813761314781055 Organic511511531511452538512518544483506 Medicinal/Pharmaceutical58657364488369991029696 Physical293302318310325364398336334338300 Polymer729681788111183107117116121 Theoretical4146504655455953524057 Chemistry, General289297310312524400449431447458396 Chemistry, Other10491949867756562555172 EARTH, ATMOS., & MARINE SCI.589628728740769836824789852807807 Atmospheric Physics and Chemistry2124191518203613272722 Atmospheric Dynamics1617251620212323271621 Meteorology2717352720312834322535 Atmos. Sc~./Meteorology, General716141423262722374433 Atmos. Sci./Meteorology, Other71310152106761814 Geology118114144165166192166197194186162 Geochemistry3731463956646250594249 Geophysics and Seismology897583879111710810110693101 Paleontology1621241721242521172014 Mineralogy, Petrology172419362636299211923 Stratigrap~y, Sedimentation1422302425292328271612 Geomo~phology and Glacial Geology111891014181216131111 Applied Geology457661----- Geological & Related Sci., General121881931301815182127 Geological & Related Sci., Other1229312828333117242222 Environmental Science3529586850355768618183 Hydrology and Water Resources1618242413162925302431 Oceanoeraphy78738187898582989183107 Marine~c~ences2238282639273227343227 Misc. Physical Sciences, Over3026331731213018282713 ENGINEERING3.3763.7124.1874.5434.8945,2145.4385.6985.8226.0086.305 Aerospace, Aeronautic. & Astronautic.118142150178192207234228230252287 Agricultural5274701021018384868973104 Bloengineering and Biomedical6775114115129149147171173189220 Ceramic Sciences2542303543584242393941 Chemical476S27624625561621607624630602681 Civil387441488498505509540563602572599 Communications2326242535213022332932 Computer7762100117131178175167202189208 Electrical, Electronics7066918869951,1101,2061,2781,3541,4381,5131,500 Engineering Mechanics94113105110111113132128132108105 Engineering Physics131391616232521171737 Engineenng Science3026322737425155465652 NOTE: Dash (-) indicates that the field was not on the questionnaire's Specialties List that year. Field groupings may differ from those in reports published by federal sponsors of the Survey of Earned Doctorates. See inside the back cover for a description of fields as reported in this table. Refer also to the explanatory note about this table in front of Appendix B.

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92 APPENDIX TABLE B-1 (Continued) Year of Doctorate 19861987198819891990199119921993199419951996 Environmental Health Engineering4236434048665461828498 Industnal/Manufacturing101120127162151165196236228284258 Materials Science187238252257307361365416433476470 Mechanical442544610650773762855902883917947 Metallurgical93112928890707877677361 Mining and Mineral2227173339382624231931 Naval Architecture, Marine Eng.979985----- Nuclear98841048611410712010885105113 Ocean1424212017212124292126 Operations Research5451446846765656474874 Petroleum1823332949285452424852 Polymer/Plastics3734285848426461535865 Systems3347443051483757514747 Engineering, General5554496175786447396060 Engineering, Other1037982109107137103116129129137 LIFE SCIENCES5~7345 7546.1646.3426.6056.9337.1157.3957.7397.9188,255 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES3,8073,8394,1114,1164,3284,6504,7995,0925,2035,3765,723 Biochemistry576573612669678765715846804824794 Biomedical Sciences---------93140 Biophysics72869787103100125103123155142 Biotechnology Research-------81446 Bacteriology121371115111314181316 Plant Genetics2026261831233341303541 Plant Pathology2833302237503241403238 Plant PhYsiology5262744751656848705573 Botany, Other121106112117104105107105117102105 Anatomy8692888070777576666447 Biometrics and Biostatistics3037474647596374726781 Cell Biology130127118133145149188231237236233 Ecology183158155161166189180177201203245 Developmental Biology/Embryology9671022374857626496 Endocrinology1719212124332716262024 Entomology170123133139147138139114123121136 BiologicafImmunology146136179152153177181169161190238 Molecular Biology298303364413413481527582598617651 Microbiology326301333340335372377433423426444 Neuroscience120153163181192238238276284309404 Nutritional Sciences122141127128118106132134147136142 Parasitology2516202013201717221422 Toxicology1041151081119186105100120126138 Human and Ailing Genetics91113118112153160142172203202212 Human and Animal Pathology91127112105101122114130128109135 Human and Animal Pharmacology245234252242244266279274259278316 Human and Animal Physiology240248225272278272266271289262275 Zoology, Over155139167132122125134114117145100 Biolog~calSeiences,General213229256231333278315305288348291 Biological Sciences, Other125123160116142146159164161126138 HEALTH SCIENCES7708008829749561,0411,1121,1971,2961,3301,324 Sneech-Lang. Pathology & Audiology821079391939082989510694 Environmental Health3929523538384438515158 Health Svstems/Services Admin.-------35536260 Public Wealth10396121129123132157153142152156 Epidemiology808697107102115108120168153149 Exercise Physiology/Sci., Kinesiology--------87118105 Nursing216218247308261325338373336354354 Pharmacy10413395111116115160146148144145 Rehabilitation/Therapeutic Services-----172536432026 Veterinary Medicine4131484870566361565565 Health Sciences, General2712291936283038413522 Health Sciences, Other788810012611712510599768090 AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES1,1571,1151,1711,2521,3211,2421,2041,1061,2401,2121,208 Agricultural Economics160139156164145168141137162173169 Agricultural Business & Management--022101032 Animal Breeding and Genetics2523272322182318171912 Animal Nutrition6582546754574152585054 Dairy Science--12162019141111149 Poultry Science--101117132216211112 Fisheries Science and Management3132423442392638484946 Animal Sciences, Other9176869590929774868590 Agronomy and Crop Science159143141140143117123104143114110 PEant Breeding and Genetics7870836487698268817263 Plant Pathology8576466364906358555290 Plant Protection-Pest Management--1642 Plant Sciences, Other2220231523172928243021 Food Sciences121131161 Food Distribution--0000001 Food En,gineerine--61110121491677 Food Sciences, (other--119147141137151141152135142 Soil Sciences1037418 Soil Chemistry/Microbiology--332827242426212729 Soil Sciences, Over--627591786359697278 Horticulture Science60716175101786562656773 NOTE: Dash (-) indicates that the field was not on the questionnaire's Specialties List that year. Field groupings may differ from those in reports published by federal sponsors of the Survey of Earned Doctorates. See inside the back cover for a description of fields as reported in this table. Refer also to the explanatory note about this table in front of Appendix B.

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93 APPENDIX TABLE B-1 (Continued) Year of Doctorate 1986198719881989199019911992199319941 ~s1 oo ~ v Wildlife Management20233-------- Forest~y Science8810015 Forest Biology--212227172918202419 Forest Engineering--312223040 Forest Management--182114221617172022 Wood Sci. & Pulp/Paper Tech.--71616162120262618 Conservation/Renewable Nat. Res.--7121619913212413 Forestry and Related Sci., Other--355762456255597156 Wildlife/Range Management--365258595554525064 Agricultural Sciences, General459753910465 Agricultural Sciences, Other45502127382823141174 SOCIAL SCIENCES (INCL. PSYCH.)5~8935.7905.7815.9616.0936.1526,2166.5456,6136.6356.814 Anthropology381352325325324341320342384375396 Area Studies2817161722243336342728 Criminology2429433242353739414460 DemographylPopulation Studies1526192220281722231511 Economics834796825872836861885906913952979 Econometrics2525272626242524262729 Geography120111129105131108111137146150165 Human/Individual & Funnily Develop.--------129150151 International Relations/Affairs768277949788761021127399 Political Science and Government414404392430462434513507589600621 Public Policy Analysis8183737987111107989493104 Sociology491423449436428465495513525540516 Statistics6549476969312948464848 Urban Affairs/Studies50728662679086123132103106 Social Sciences, General3630282623363332213526 Social Sciences, Other127118171158178226186196148124135 PSYCHOLOGY3,1263,1733,0743,2083,2813,2503,2633,4203,2503,2793,340 Clinical1,1731,2141,0951,2591,3371,3051,3091,3731,2851,2911,325 Cognitive and Psycholinguistics708083797694101104129104128 Comparative149788725843 Counseling449486482501466497507488497470464 Developmental and Child184200176148159155170202179152188 Experimental147146135146143142154143139151128 Educational10689103105981109191697492 Family and Mamage Counseling---------5752 Industrial and Organizational110107118104126142138159137155162 Personality1625182820131722191624 Physiolog~cal/Psychobiology7369856246455585939280 Psychometrics119116895951011 Quantitative231312111571016171319 School1169311510782828895849182 Social141133140128145147139125153155170 Psychology, General309343368364371324295306280306279 Psychology, Other184157126152181171182197156138133 HUMANITIES3~4613.5003.5553,5523.8224.0994,4444.4824~7445,0615.116 History, American197198209206211251277269310344355 History, Asian ~-----4354 History, European121121127107151127176162180185187 History/Philosophy of Sci. & Tech.2425222026272837274137 History, General839410385111121102116140148101 History, Other138148142120113137141142144128123 Classics5155565158555861846272 Comparative Literature10112113910397150163153163191164 Linguistics189199166188167227266214221201230 Speech and Rhetorical Studies30373735388698111142139155 Letters, General1925161319171818224328 Letters, Other3739436052443837253461 American Studies687570767292811018894115 Archeology2831232622333338343521 Art History/Criticism/Conservation126143134145135125154158182181176 Music476499504521572587641613685713699 Philosophy248233222270243285279274302298369 Religion182182217215219187231257252248317 Drama/Theater Arts8882927910691959110280103 LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE1,1641,1121,1471,1521,3081,3501,4651,5241,5371,7181,618 American215190186192229253291293296327314 English504478531528567599612655647752699 French102103101106123100124137129151142 German79777673787196105679388 Italian1521142025322019323524 Spanish122133137134173173179179212209196 Russian2819131319252828382837 Slavic85577141513101611 Chinese131312916192021252029 Japanese9961397121112710 Hebrew1113121014112015101112 Arabic98146741210486 Other Language and Literature4943404141423638556150 Humanities, General2323251928292130322539 Humanities, Other68586161747879767211092

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94 APPENDIX TABLE B-1 (Continued) EDUCATION Curriculum and Instruction Educational Admin. and Supervision Educational Leadership Educ./Instruct. Medial~esign Educ . Stat. /Research Methods Educ. Assess., Test., & Meas. Educational Psychology School Psychology Social/Phil. Found. of Educ. Snecial Education Counseling Educ./Couns. & Guidance Higher Educ./Evaluation & Research Pre-elementary/Early Childhood Elementary Education Junior Hig-h Education Secondary Education Adult and Continuing Education Year of Doctorate . 19861987198819891990199119921993199419951996 6.6496.4546.3626.2816.5106.4546.6776.6896.7086.6496.772 794762815841839807900856819896896 1,6371,6861,7491,6331,6631,4281,2901,3401,2071,0861,170 11001485694783792889989 7968677655736296111121107 5873515959806164686376 4737554240324523281932 330320323301323323346290311297309 92959885879088869771114 12411412211086109101109140130125 273248257259225226260277241254278 316315325264301270259288284268277 612570399373424344381357428457481 8773836342859897917081 941059399110737365716146 011------ 866567535640283324 223203229236211210208233215 807 900 1 428 1,290 '485 694 73 62 80 61 32 45 323 346 90 88 109 101 226 260 270 259 344 381 85 98 73 73 40 28 210 208 24 34 235 210 TEACHING FIELDS1,1421,0659899709229731,008943960924863 Agricultural Education3939323538494354523532 Art Education4352423944284638333941 Business Education5036444034321627252120 English Education7972575152586153566057 Foreign Languages Education3737533331465048546044 Health Education81918610095789883979990 Home Economics Education1717171910211214111513 Technical/IndustnalArts Education2024111717131116201511 Mathematics Education72745669657362697492100 Music Education94109769778969680899691 Nursing Education4036342924182919241823 Physical Education and Coaching210192184176191185167161139104101 Reading Education1349474958210212195978566 Science Education6563674872727373857396 Social Science Education221723131119199101412 Speech Education555151 Technical Education--132815253521302024 Trade and Industrial Education8668674718171124241312 Teacher Ed./Spec. Acad. & Voc., Other4839483340405859406530 Education, General355368358414535428443411484429353 Education, Other299285281403531378332338337355331 PROFESSIONAL/OTHER FIELDS1~9822,1302.1422,1932.2842,4022.4982.4962.5862.6642.478 BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT9029811,0331,0671,0361,1631,2481,2811,2831,3271,276 Accounting157160175186172172180183179168156 Banking/F~nancial Support Services126156148151134172172170134163114 Business Admin. and Management222225265245277204241324319340393 Business/Managenal Economics2826272721192133403738 International Business--------222336 Mgmt. Info. Sys./BusinessDataProc.-----7210310211711194 Marketing Management and Research110113126130120134139166167153153 Business Statistics38615105 Operations Research4664505246586763545964 Organizational Behavior5766749564728173102100108 Business Mgmt./Admin. Serv., General567575577012311287879267 Business Mgmt./Admin. Serv., Other97888710912213213280628153 COMMUNICATIONS258309247306323332330321371380389 Communications Research7990728587724533404060 Journalism1872115217----- Mass Communications-----6885117156121137 Radio and Television13161229176 Communication Theory---- ~-254741455337 Communications, General75102707986707669687781 Communications, Other73947298112847761628974 OTHER PROFESSIONAL FIELDS796778812766858836880867891931774 Architectural Environmental Design2733314341676054675561 Home Economics8867585574295857313128 Law3129332634232029333726 Library Science5748576042525170424749 Parks/Recreation/Leisure/Fitness-------44375429 Public Administration8878929788107108117135128104 Social Work235214241206246240248237272303256 Theology/Reli~ious Education240254251232271273292243262273213 ProfesslonalF~elds, General01203311112 Professional Fields, Other30544747594242151126 OTHER FIELDS2662505467714027412639 NOTE: Dash (-) indicates that the field was not on the questionnaire's Specialties List that year. Field groupings may differ from those in reports published by federal sponsors of the Survey of Earned Doctorates. See inside the back cover for a description of fields as reported in this table. Refer also to the explanatory note about this table in front of Appendix B. SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Earned Doctorates.

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95 APPENDIX TABLE B-2 Number of Doctorate Recipients, by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Citizenship, 1977, 1981, and 1986-1996 Total All Doctorates 1977198119861987198819891990199119921993199419951996 TOTAL MEN AND WOMEN31,71631,35631,90232,37033,50034,32736,06737,53438,89039,80141,03441,74342,415 U.S. Citizens26,11925,06023,08622,98423,29023,40124,90525,57326,01026,44927,14727,74027,741 Permanent Visas1,3681,2811,4331,5781,6221,6261,6981,8571,9802,2593,7474,3193,765 Temporary Visas3,4483,9405,2765,6126,1956,6488,0939,3119,9539,9329,4068,8109,610 Unknown Citizenship7811,0752,1072,1962,3932,6521,3717939471,1617348741,299 Total Known Race/Ethnicity29,47629,14928,94629,22930,35430,95533,87835,78037,19338,28439,83440,33040,636 U.S. Citizens25,01924,00922,67422,51422,90723,02524,53125,08525,65726,21726,89327,43727,398 Permanent Visas1,2911,2581,3571,5091,5451,5641,6371,7961,9062,2253,6994,2783,733 Temporary Visas3,0533,7594,8385,1445,8406,2977,5578,7889,5359,6759,1148,5449,363 Unknown Citizenship113123776262691531119516712871142 American Indians7085100116949498132152121146149189 U.S. Citizens658599115949497130149120143149186 Permanent Visas*1000000200001 Temporary Visas*4011001021302 Unknown Citizenship0000000010000 Asians2,0562,7113,7304,1294,7805,1926,2937,5288,2908,6719,3679,7089,821 U.S. Citizens3394655335436146336417898488919501,1401,091 Permanent Visas5716085286256216356657429161,1262,5963,1692,606 Temporary Visas1,1181,5642,6452,9353,5183,9074,9315,9496,5056,6045,7995,3786,093 Unknown Citizenship28742426271756482150222131 Blacks1,4501,4911,2771,2211,2671,2471,3541,4661,4341,6151,6831,8251,837 U.S. Citizens1,1131,0138307718188229011,0109711,1111,1011,3091,315 Permanent Visas7897126139152141149156145169178168142 Temporary Visas247372313305291273291293311322389337364 Unknown Citizenship12986611137713151116 Hispanics7369361,0561,0541,0481,0631,2281,3191,4021,4311,5341,5411,623 U.S. Citizens437466572617595582721731778834884919950 Permanent Visas52631079198112116136131139146142155 Temporary Visas236391372338349363386446482454502472512 Unknown Citizenship1116S866S6114286 Whites25,16423,92622,78322,70923,16523,35924,90525,33525,91526,44627,10427,10727,166 U.S. Citizens23,06521,98020,64020,46820,78620,89422,17122,42522,91123,26123,81523,92023,856 Permanent Visas589490596654674676707760714791779799829 Temporary Visas1,4481,4321,5071,5651,6821,7541,9482,1002,2352,2942,4212,3572,392 Unknown Citizenship622440222335795055100893189 Unknown Race/Ethnicity2,2402,2072,9563,1413,1463,3722,1891,7541,6971,5171,2001,4131,779 U.S. Citizens1,1001,051412470383376374488353232254303343 Permanent Visas77237669776261617434484132 Temporary Visas395181438468355351536523418257292266247 Unknown Citizenship6689522,0302,1342,3312,5831,2186828529946068031,157 NOTE: See explanatory note about this table in front of Appendix B. *In most cases, non-U.S. American Indians are citizens of Canada or Latin America.

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96 APPENDIX TABLE B-2 (Continued) Doctorates: MEN Year of Doctorate 1977198119861987198819891990199119921993199419951996 TOTAL MEN23,85821,46420,59520,93821,68121,81422,96123,66124,45424,67925,21525,32925,470 U.S. Citizens19,15516,35913,63813,S7413,72413,39614,16514,38814,51914,51714,73514,96714,700 Permanent Visas1,1069731,0681,1171,1641,1391,1901,2241,2931,4712,6372,9092,483 Temporary Visas3,0093,3874,4144,7225,1345,,1416,6327,5177,9637,8637,3306,8587,395 Unknown Citizenship5887451,4751,5251,6591,835974532679828513595892 Total Known Race/Ethnicity22,09219,89618,44318,67619,41019,40421,33922,36323,17723,54824,33424,30824,233 U.S. Citizens18,30715,60413,34813,25013,44813,11713,89914,03214,26114,34514,56614,75414,473 Permanent Visas1,0409571,0041,0641,0971,0941,1501,1771,2371,4462,6032,8852,460 Temporary Visas2,6593,2274,0384,3144,8225,1436,1747,0807,6157,6547,1016,6347,205 Unknown Citizenship86108534843501167464103643595 :rican Indians475659635249527482617482103 U.S. Citizens435658625249527482607182102 Permanent Visas*0000000000000 Temporary Visas*4011000001301 Unknown Citizenship0000000000000 ns1,7162,2233,0423,3503,8454,1635,0315,8806,4286,6177,0707,1127,205 U.S. Citizens251315349369414446427483531553591670614 Permanent Visas488499417455.4564594824896057341,8782,1991,784 Temporary Visas9551,3412,2582,5062,9573,2454,0774,8725,2745,2924,5824,2284,783 Unknown Citizenship22681820181345361838191524 Blacks992924709702699685733788771842891881933 U.S. Citizens682499325318317328351421396441411490535 Permanent Visas7080106118126125128131123138142125106 Temporary Visas234339275261251222243232246252330261286 Unknown Citizenship663SS101146118S6 Hispanics580658665677678662760806860875866911931 U.S. Citizens320275302332321307380370410423438460478 Perrr~anent Visas36477150646969887294807986 Temporary Visas214322289288288283309344371357346369363 Unknown Citizenship101437S32471234 Whites18,75716,03513,96813,88414,13613,84514,76314,81515,03615,15315,43315,32215,061 U.S. Citizens17,01114,45912,31412,16912,34411,98712,68912,68412,84212,86813,05513,05212,744 Permanent Visas446331410441451441471469437480503482484 Temporary Visas1,2521,2251,2151,2581,3261,3931,5451,6321,7241,7521,8401,7761,772 Unknown Citizenship48202916152458303353351261 Unknown Race/Ethnicity1,7661,5682,1522,2622,2712,4101,6221,2981,2771,1318811,0211,237 U.S. Citizens848755290324276279266356258172169213227 Permanent Visas66166453674540475625342423 Temporary Visas350160376408312301458437348209229224190 Unknown Citizenship5026371,4221,4771,6161,785858458615725449560797 NOTE: See explanatory note about this table in front of Appendix B. *In most cases, non-U.S. American Indians are citizens of Canada or Latin America.

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97 APPENDIX TABLE B-2 (Continued) Doctorates: WOMEN 1977198119861987198819891990199119921993199419951996 TOTAL WOMEN7,8589,89211,30711,43211,81912,51313,10613,87314,43615,12215,81916,41416,945 U.S. Citizens6,9648,7019,4489,4109,56610,00510,74011,18511,49111,93212,41212,77313,041 Permanent Visas2623083654614584875086336877881,1101,4101,282 Temporary Visas4395538628901,0611,2041,4611,7941,9902,0692,0761,9522,215 Unknown Citizenship193330632671734817397261268333221279407 Total Known RacelEthnicity7,3849,25310,50310,55310,94411,55112,53913,41714,01614,73615,50016,02216,403 U.S. Citizens6,7128,4059,3269,2649,4599,90810,63211,05311,39611,87212,32712,68312,925 Permanent Visas2513013534454484704876196697791,0961,3931,273 Temporary Visas3945328008301,0181,1541,3831,7081,9202,0212,0131,9102,158 Unknown Citizenship27152414191937373164643647 American Indians23294153424546587060726786 U.S. Citizens22294153424545566760726784 Permanent Visas*1000000200001 Temporary Visas*0000001020001 Unknown Citizenship0000000010000 Asians3404886887799351,0291,2621,6481,8622,0542,2972,5962,616 U.S. Citizens88150184174200187214306317338359470477 Permanent Visas83109111170165176183253311392718970822 Temporary Visas1632233874295616628541,0771,2311,3121,2171,1501,310 Unknown Citizenship6666941112312367 Blacks458567.568519568562621678663773792944904 U.S. Citizens431514505453501494550589575670690819780 Permanent Visas8172021261621252231364336 Temporary Visas13333844405148616570597678 Unknown Citizenship63511123127610 Hispanics156278391377370401468513542556668630692 U.S. Citizens117191270285274275341361368411446459472 Permanent Visas16163641344347485945666369 Temporary Visas2269835061807710211197156103149 Unknown Citizenship1221133243052 Whites6,4077,8918,8158,8259,0299,51410,14210,52010,87911,29311,67111,78512,105 U.S. Citizens6,0547,5218,3268,2998,4428,9079,4829,74110,06910,39310,76010,86811,112 Permanent Visas143159186213223235236291277311276317345 Temporary Visas196207292307356361403468511542581581620 Unknown Citizenship14411681121202247541928 Unknown Race/Ethnici~474639804879875962567456420386319392542 U.S. Citizens2522961221461079710813295608590116 Permanent Visas11712161017211418914179 Temporary Visas45216260435078867048634257 Unknown Citizenship166315608657715798360224237269157243360 SOURCE: National Research Council, Survey of Earned Doctorates.

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