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CHASER THREE CASE STUDIES OF SELECTED APPROACHES TO SERVING SUBURB-TO-SUBURB TRAVEL The survey responses discussed in Chapter 2 provided the basis for selecting the four case studies outlined in this chap ten The selected agencies represent the wide diversity of sub- urb-to-suburb transit services being provided in both the United States and Canada. The agencies and their services differ in nature, focus, and size, and are not meant to be com- pared with one another. Rather, the case studies represent various ways transit agencies are meeting the suburb-to- suburb travel needs of the communities that they serve. The four case studies are PACE, the suburban bus division of the Regional Transportation Authority (RTA) in Chicago, a suburban agency in which 48 percent of all trips are suburb-to-suburb; New Jersey Transit (NJ Transit), a statewide transit agency with a new suburban employment initiative; Grand Rapids Area Transit Authority (GRATA), a mid- size transit agency in Michigan, which is reinventing itself to meet future mobility needs including those of suburb-to- suburb commuters; and Ottawa-Carleton Regional Transit Commission (OC Transpo) in Ottawa, Ontario, which considers suburb-to- suburb trips to be an integral part of its regional transit service and which has a regional policy in place to focus development in areas well served by transit. PACE, ARLINGTON HEIGHTS, ILLINOIS PACE was created in 1984 following a reorganization of the RTA into three service boards: the Chicago Transit Authority (CTA); Metra, the commuter rail division; and PACE, the suburban bus division. PACE is charged with ad- ministering and providing all non-rail mass transit service in suburban Cook, Dupage, Kane, Lake, McElenry, and Will counties in Illinois (with the exception of the CTA's suburban bus services in Cook County). The PACE service area measures 8,925 km2 (3,446 mi2) (nearly the size of the State of Connecticut), and includes six counties, which incorporate 264 municipalities. Transportation needs within this broad area are as unique as the individual communities that comprise it. The suburb-to-suburb commute trip has now become the dominant travel market in the region and is primarily served by the automobile. Services Provided The following types of services are provided by PACE. Fixed Route PACE operates fixed route service over 140 regular routes, 79 feeder routes, 9 subscription routes, and 2 seasonal routes. These routes serve 200 communities and carry nearly 3.0 mil- lion riders per month using 558 vehicles during peak periods. Approximately 48 percent of PACE's customers on the fixed route service are making suburb-to-suburb trips. Dial-a-Ride/Parc~iransit Dial-a-ride service is available throughout the six-county PACE service area. PACE uses 192 lift-equipped vehicles to provide door-to-door service to approximately 102,800 riders each month, the majority of whom are elderly and/or have dis- abilities. PACE also uses 124 lift-equipped vehicles to provide door-to-door paratransit service to approximately 21,250 riders each month who are unable to use PACE's regular fixed route service. Together, these paratransit services carry an average daily ridership of 5,867 individuals. All trips made on these paratransit services are suburb-to-suburb trips. Vanpool Incentive Program PACE established a vanpool incentive program (VIP) to serve the commuting needs of small groups of individuals in a changing market. The VIP service provides passenger vans to small groups (S to 15 people), allowing them to commute to and from work together. The program continues to be well re- ceived, with 172 vans currently in use (90 percent of which serve suburb-to-suburb trips). PACE plans to increase this number to 215 by the end of 1995. The vanpool program has been recently expanded to in- clude the ADvAntage element, which provides an alternative service for those unable to use the regular paratra~sit service or to those living outside the 1.21-km (0.75-mi) service area. ADvAntage is intended to provide a transit alternative to in- dividuals with disabilities who commute on a regular basis to worI; sites or rehabilitative workshops. About 20 ADvAntage vans are currently in use. Fares for the vanpool services are based on round trip mile- age and the number of passengers in each van. The vanpool services recover more than 100 percent of their operating costs. Subsc'iption Service The nine subscription bus routes operated for Sears em- ployees by private contractors are adding nearly 200,000 an- nual riders to PACE. Fares are set to equal 60 percent of the cost of service. A minimum of 30 passengers is required for each bus, and the service is open to the general public. Operating Environment The following information describes the unique operating environment in which PACE operates

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9 Population and Employment The suburban area has a 1990 population of 4,454,317 and employment of 2,163.600. The suburban area exceeds the City of Chicago in terms of absolute population and employ- ment, and continues to grow while population and em- ployment in Chicago have been declining since 1970, as shown in Figure 1. 3 2 more effective service. Reviews are advisory and are done a no cost to the submitter. PACE has published PACE Devel- opment Guidelines to assist developers in evaluating their projects. Highway Traffic Congestion The substantial growth in suburban population, employ- ment, households. and office space has increased traffic con- gestion on the Chicago regions highways. Between 1980 and 1990, traffic volumes increased 33 percent, while highway miles increased by only 5 percent. The situation is likely to worsen considerably by the year 2010 unless new funding is provided for both highway and transit improvements. Journey to Work Market Nearly 80 percent of PACE passengers use the service to get to work. The total of one-way work trips in the region reached 3.3 million in 1990, up more than 9 percent from 1980. At the same time, total ridership for the region's mass transit providers fell by 16.7 percent, a loss of more than 137 million annual trips. The region's work commute market can be divided into four major segments (Figure 2), which illus ' Clip -~'rop,,/q bate the effect that population and employment shifts have on 19~o ~ wagon traveland transit demand. FIGURE 1 PACE service area population and employment. Between 1980 and 1990, Chicago's population and em ployment base declined by 7.3 percent and 6.2 percent, re spectively. Growth in suburban population at 9.3 percent and employment at 24.7 percent offset losses in the city s popula- Cityto Suburb (.3) lion and employment for net region-wide population, and em ployment gains of 2.2 percent and 10.6 percent, respectively. Suburban Office Space Forty percent of the Chicago region's office space is outside the city limits. Since 1975, more than 55 million ft2 of office space has been built in the suburbs, the majority of which is poorly accessible to transit patrons. Large building set-backs and a lack of sidewalks and pedestrian crossings are typi cal of the suburban environment. To ensure that future de velopment is transit accessible, PACE is working closely with interested municipalities and developers to provide assistance in incorporating transit planning into their proj ects. By becoming part of the plan review process' transit amenities can be incorporated into development plans at the outset. In 1993, PACE provided technical advice on 26 proposed development plans and 28 Illinois Department of Transporta tion (IDOT) roadway improvement projects. By cooperatively working with IDOT, PACE has been able to incorporat transit needs such as bus turnouts, shelters, turn lanes, and signal modifications into road improvements to provide faster, Suburb to City: ``Suburb to Suburb (1.6) FIGURE 2 PACE journey to work travel market segments, in millions (based on 1990 Census Transportation Planning Package data). Of these major market segments, the suburb-to-suburb commute market is by far the largest and is approximately equal to the other three markets combined. Also, between 1980 and 1990. this market segment grew by more than 300,000 a.m. trips, making it the fastest growing of the major commute markets. As represented in Figure 3, city-related travel markets (both city-to-city and suburb-to-city) experi- enced minor declines and could best be described as stable, while the suburb-to-suburb trip market grew by 22 percent and the much smaller city-to-suburb market grew by nearly 33 percent. The primary factors underlying the changes in travel market volumes have been the shifts in regional population and employment, both of which were discussed earlier. The Chicago region's strongest transit markets have tradi- tionally been the city-to-city and suburb-to-city commute

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10 markets, and, as shown in Figure 3, they have either declined or remained constant from 1980 to 1990. In contrast, the sub- urb-to-suburb and city-to-suburb (reverse commute) markets have grown dramatically from 1980 to 1990. 0.8 0.4 1 980 1990 Suburb to Suburb City to City Suburb to City City to Suburb FIGURE 3 PACE journey to work trip volume by major market, 1980 vS.1990. PACE routes that primarily serve suburb-to-city trips expe- rienced a decline in ridership of 6.6 percent over the 5-year period between 1989 and 1993. During that same period, routes serving suburb-to-suburb trips increased by 1.3 percent and city-to-suburb trips increased by 7.3 percent. The rela- tively constant performance in the suburb-to-suburb market, where most of the regional travel growth has taken place, is of concern to PACE. Clean Air Act Amendments/Employee Commute Options Act Significant legislation at both the federal and state level has been passed to prevent the further deterioration of air quality and to bring air quality up to standard in regions where it cur- rently does not meet minimum standards established in the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The northeast portion of Illinois is considered a severe nonattainment area for national air quality standards. Given this status, Illinois is required to take corrective actions within a specific time frame to attain national air quality standards under the CAAA of 1990. As part of this effort, the Illinois Legislature enacted the Employee Commute Options (ECO) Act, which, in part, re- quires suburban employers with more than 100 employees to increase the average passenger occupancy (APO) of autos ar- riving at the employment site (during peak periods) to 1.36 by July 1998. To achieve this, employees will need to work flexible schedules, carpool, or more importantly for PACE, form vanpools and use PACE fixed route services. Under the Act, employers will be required to survey employees to de- termine current APO and to develop a compliance plan that demonstrates an APO of 1.36 will be achieved. PACE anticipated that compliance efforts would create significant demand for services. To assist employers, PACE recently implemented its ECO-System survey support effort. PACE can now offer employers a fast and efficient survey mechanism for a nominal fee. The data collected by the survey allow employers to determine their APO by site and provide PACE with valuable trip information for service planning. In March 1995, the Governor of Illinois suspended the compliance requirement of the ECO Act for budgetary pur- poses. As a result, suburban employer interest in pursuing the survey has waned. However, PACE still finds a great deal of interest by suburban employers in dealing with transportation issues that impact them directly, such as access to labor mar- kets, congestion, and relocation-related employment issues. Operating Strategy The operations of PACE are guided by a strategic plan, which stems from a general strategy of simultaneously in- creasing ridership and the farebox recovery ratio. PACE has taken numerous actions to fulfill this objective including es- tablishing consistent criteria to determine when service should be expanded or reduced; implementing cost containment pros grams such as self-insurance, decentralized purchasing, dial- a-ride cost ceilings, and competitive bidding for privately ok crated services: and implementing new services such as the PACE VIP, which has a high recovery rate (more than 100 percent) and provides effective service in low density markets. PACE has established minimum performance standards for all of its services (see Table 11. For the fixed route services, evaluation criteria are geographically based. It is significant to note that all suburban services are permitted to operate at one- half of the recovery rate of 35 percent required by the RTA of PACE for other services. The Future In 1992, PACE developed a long-range comprehensive ok crating plan (COP), which established a vision for the subur- ban transit agency to the year 2010. The COP provides a direct link between the region's 2010 transportation system devel- opment plan and PACE's 5-year capital plan and annual ok crating and capital budget elements. Specific efforts to be pur- sued in the development of a comprehensive suburban public transportation plan include the following: Doubling the level of fixed route services offered by the year 2010. Over a dozen corridors were identified to provide high-speed linkages to major suburban, employment centers. Expanding dial-a-ride services throughout the service area to provide vital transportation service to low density areas not efficiently served by fixed routes. Expanding the VIP and subscription bus program to meet the 2010 goal of 500 vans. These services have high re- covery rates (100 percent vanpool, 60 percent subscription bus) and are consistent with PACE's general strategy. Expanding the total vehicle fleet from approximate! 1,000 now to 3,200 by 2010. Additional vehicles will be re- quired for vanpools, express bus routes, fixed routes, para- transit, and dial-a-ride expansion. PACE will also experiment with other vehicle designs to meet market conditions such as more comfortable seating configurations for long distance ex- press bus routes.

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11 TABLE 1 PACE SERVICE CR1lERIA Fixed Routes (Minimum Performance Standards) Inner Satellite Suburban City Outer Rush Subsc~p. Suburban Hour Only Bus Performance (Pass. per revenue hour) Finance 18.7 14.6 10.2 11.3 N/A (Recovery Ratio) 17% 17% 17% 17% 60% Riders (Minimum) 40 per day* 30 per trip * Rail feeders Note: The 17 percent recovery rate represents one-half of the recovery rate (35 percent) required by RTA of Pace. Note: The passenger performance criteria represents one-half of the average performance for the route classification. Paratransit: PACE requires local governments and other organizations to subsidize the service. PACE limits its financial contribution to $2.50 per trip or 75 percent of the deficit whichever is less. Vanpool: The program is structured to achieve a minimum 80 percent recovery ratio but has typically achieved over 100 percent recovery rate. Expanding present garage facilities as necessary to ac- commodate growing service levels. PACE is currently in the final stage of construction to renovate and replace the eight ga- rages it operates. The need for three additional garages has been identified. Constructing 96 park-and-ride facilities by 2010 to maximize access to limited access highways and reduce bus circulation through residential communities A large percent- age of park-and-rides are planned near expressways and toll- ways. These facilities will improve auto-bus connections for customers who prefer or need to drive to get to a transit facility. Implementing eight additional transportation centers and 74 new transfer facilities by 2010. Transit centers will be implemented in major development areas to facilitate the in- terchange of express and local routes. Smaller transfer facili- ties will be integrated into small developments such as show ping centers. Both facilities may be constructed in conjunction with park-and-ride lots. Implementing, 158 restricted use facilities along the major highways in the region. A restricted use facility would allow buses and other high-occupancy vehicles (HOVs) to by- pass high congestion areas such as interchanges. Also, exclu- sive toll bypass ladles and bus only exitlentrance ramps are proposed at several locations. Identifying 75 corridors that would benefit from signal preemption for transit vehicles. The PACE 1995 capital pro- gram contains funds for the first phase of this agency's devel- opment. The on-time performance and operating speed of PACE vehicles can be significantly enhanced through the use of signal preemption systems, which can determine whether or not a bus is on schedule and adjust oncoming traffic signals to speed its movement through all area. Conducting an effective employer outreach program and offering multiple service options; in Pace's experience, these are the most critical elements in the marketing of suburb-to- suburb services. PACE's field representatives make direct contact with suburban employers and are able to determine what. if any? transportation related issues the employer has. Based on this input, the representative can then offer appro- priate solutions. Typical employer interests have included con- ducting awareness events to inform their employees of avail- able transit connections; surveying employees to determine trip origins and interests in transit services (fixed route, van- pool, subscription bus, rail-feeder connections); sued becoming an on-site sales agent for PACE s monthly pass and/or partici- pating in the regional Transit Check program. PACE has found that working with employers relocating from the city to the suburbs, or front an inner suburb to a fur- ther outlying suburban area, has yielded the most significant level of employer interest and success. PACE's most noteworthy accomplishment in this area has been with the Sears relocation from Sears Tower in downtown Chicago to suburban Hoffman Estates (approximately 56.4 km (35 mi) northwest of Chicago's central business district (CBD)~. Through extensive pre-relocation planning and inter- action with employees via group meetings and surveys, PACE was able ~ capture approximately 25 percent of the 5~000

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12 member work force on transit. The employees using PACE are split approximately among vanpools (45~. subscription routes (9), and fixed routes (2), each carrying about 800 riders per day. Roughly one-third of the employees reverse commute front the city, while the remainder make a suburb-to-suburb commute. Interestingly, a majority of the subscription bus rid- ers drive their autos to the route origin point and pay an $88/month subscription bus fare for the commute trip, which averages about 75.7 km (47 mi) one way. From the Sears experience and by working with other sub- urban employers, PACE has identified the following factors that are important to the success of suburb-to-suburb transit services: Direct marketing via representative personal contact with employers is essential. Working with relocating employers prior to relocation to en- sure service is in place on the first day of the relocation is critical. Having more than ogle service option to offer to meet as many trip needs as possible will maximize transit share. Guaranteed ride home programs are important to em- ployees at locations that are not well served during off-peak periods, especially for va~pool and subscription bus patrons. Providing opportunities for park-and-rides for long ex- press commute trips is important. Providing as many sheltered bus stops as possible is important. In suburban Chicago, unsheltered and 'pedestrian hostile" waiting conditions are common and believed to be a major deterrent to system use. Creating opportunities for off-street transfer activities to take place is important. PACE has a significant level of transfer activity taking place at suburban shopping centers where allowed. Distributing widely route and schedule information to counter (though not fully make up for) the poor visibility of service in low-density markets served with low-frequency service (half-hour to one-hour headways). Measuring implemented services, which primarily benefit a single employer, against specific service criteria that objectively determine their status in the future absence of em- ployer subsidies, because employers are usually reluctant to subsidize service for more than a buffer period (of 3 months to 1 year) after relocations. NEW NIELSEN TRANSIT (Nd TRANSIT), NEWARK, NEW JERSEY NJ Transit, a public corporation. is the nation's third larg- est provider of bus, rail, and light rail transit, covering 13,791.8 km2 (5,325 mi2) and linking major points in New Jersey, New York, and Philadelphia. Operating 1,856 buses on 170 routes and 582 trains on 12 rail lines statewide, NJ Transit serves more than 290,700 customers daily. The agency's fleet provides 166 million passenger trips each year, and travels more than 1 billion miles annually. N.] Transit's services include urban, suburban, intra-state, inter-state, and shuttle routes, many of which provide some suburb-to-suburb travel options, and are continually being evaluated and modified to match changing market demands. However, it is impossible in most cases to separate the suburb- to-suburb features of any particular route from the overall context of the route. This case study focuses on NJ Trm~sit's new suburb-to-suburb services, which were the result of the agency's suburban transit initiatives program. Suburban Transit Initadves Program There is a great need for improved public transit in New Jersey. A 1993 Rutgers University study reported that between 1982 and 1990, 80 percent of the new jobs created in New Jersey were in the suburbs. In August 1992, NJ Transit began to study how it could expand its reach into suburban areas by identifying new suburban travel markets and developing inno- vative transit services to best meet the needs of suburban travelers. To accomplish this, the agency arid its consultants worked with seven TMAs, as well as local Chambers of Commerce and county officials across the state, to help iden- tify new suburban travel markets. The program, initially known as the suburban transit initiatives program, identified three ways in which NJ Transit could market services to sub- urban residents: modifications to the fixed route concept, new employment-based transportation services. and new commu- nity-based transportation services. As a result of this study, a list of 90 suburban service pros posals was developed. The study also stimulated the idea for the WHEELS services, which are discussed next. NJ Transit has implemented a $7.0 million project sum ported by federal-aid highway program funds to improve transit access to employment sites. The project, WHEELS, has three components: fixed route bus, rail, and suburban em- ployment. The WHEELS services are marketed as a "whole new generation of commuting." The suburban employment component is a new mode for NJ Transit, and the new suburban routes are different for sev- eral reasons. First, they were designed solely for the suburban employment market. Second, they were designed in conjunc- tion with major employers and TMAs. Third, they are oper- ated with minibuses (see Figure 4~. Fourth. they are marketed differently. And lastly, they use a different or nontraditional method of operation, such as flex routes, a new concept pin neered by NJ Transit that combines features of fixed, demand- responsive, and route deviation operating methods. Nontradi- tional options such as flex routes allow customers to reserve a ride in advance; circulator routes provide greater access to downtown retail areas; and additional park-and-ride and train station shuttle services further improve the convenience of public transit. The suburban employment services are classified into four distinct categories: transit connection, park-and-ride, flex routes, and circulator services. By early 1993, NJ Transit had plans for 15 separate services. The first service was initiated in November 1993, while the majority were initiated during the summer of 1994. NJ Transit has contracts with private opera- tors for the operation of all WHEELS routes. Examples of each service type are provided in Tables 2, 3, and 4. Ridership Monthly ridership on the WHEELS services has steadily increased from 258 passengers, with just one route operating

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13 FIGURE 4 NJ Transit WHEELS minibus. (Courtesy of NJ Transit) TABLE 2 SERVICE TYPE: TRANSIT CONNECTION IABLE 3 SERVICE TYPE: PARK-AN-DE Service: Description: Reservations: No Ridership during April 1995: Fares: Convent Station Employer Shuttle Service: (966) A shuttle operation between the Convent Station rail station on the Morris & Essex rail line and area businesses. Two separate routes operate to allow frequent and convenient service to and Mom employment sites. Description: Reservations: No R dersh p during 61.7 passenger trips/day April 1995: $.50 per trip Frequency: 5 trips a.m. and 5 trips p.m. on each route Fares: Implementation: Began operation December 13, 1993; operated by Town & Country. Frequency: (November 1993), to 14,843 passengers, with 19 routes on crating (April 19951. Table 5 illustrates monthly ridership by route from November 1993 to April 1995. The WHEELS program is coordinated by the Service Dee velopment and Bus and Rail Service Planning Divisions of NJ Transit. Currendy, 18 out of 21 counties in New Jersey are classi- fied as severe nonaRairunent areas for ozone. The WHEELS Sparta I-80 Diamond Express (967) and Hackettstown I-80 Diamond Express (968) Service to two office parks in eastern Morris County from park- and-ride lots in Sussex and western Morris counties. Uses the State's new HOV (high-occupancy vehicle) "diamond lanes" on I-80. 23.9 passenger trips/day Implementation: From Sparta: $2.55 one way; $23.00 ten trip; $76 monthly pass From Hackettstown: $2.90 one way; $26.00 ten trips; $86 monthly pass One trip each morning and each evening to Morris Corporate Center from each origination point; two trips each morning and each evening to Prudential Business Campus from each origination point. Began operation June 20, 1994; operated by Town & Country.

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14 TABLE 4 SERVICE TYPES: FLEX ROUTE AND CIRCULATOR Service: (flex Marlton/Mt.Laurel East Gate route) Express (992) Mt. Holly/ Mt. Laurel East Gate Express (993) Description: T. . . wo reservation services providing commuter hour trips to the East Gate office/industrial park in Burlington CounW. Reservations: Yes; call Lion Tours at: (609) 267-3156 Ridership during 37 passenger trips/day April 1995: Fares: From Marlton and Ramblewood in Mt. Laurel: $1.00 one way; $37.00 monthly pass From Mt. Holly: $1.70 one way; $15.00 ten trip; $57.00 monthly pass service, and contain schedule, map, and fare information; the brochures also include information on the NJ Transit Business Pass and the TransitChek programs. The Business Pass Program allows companies to sell monthly bus and rail passes to their employees directly at their work site. Businesses can use payroll deductions or direct payment by en~loyees to cover the cost. The TransitChek pro- gram is an easy way to provide a fringe benefit to workers. Employers purchase TransitCheks (good for up to $60 toward the cost of a monthly pass), and provide them to workers as an incentive to commute regularly by public transit. TransitCheks are a tax-deductible expense for employers and cannot be counted as taxable income for employees. The WHEELS brochures also provide telephone numbers for service providers (private contractors) and TMAs in the area. If the TMA has a guaranteed ride home (GRH) program, this information is also included. The seven New Jersey TMAs actively market transit services within their jurisdic- tions under contract to NJ Transit; a NJ Transit representative sits on the Board of Directors of all of the TMAs. To encourage ridership on the new services, all routes had a free fare period ranging from 1 to 3 months. Free ride passes (Figure 5) were distributed at employment sites and were good for unlimited rides for a specified period of time. Frequency: 4 "peak" hour trips each morning and evening; times to be based on demand Service: Circulator portion of above route _ Description: A lunchtime circulator complements - - WHEEL the "peak hour" service, giving East am_ Suburban Transportation Services Gate employees transportation to the Moorestown Mall for lunch and Free Ride Pass errands. Reservations: No This pass is valid for unlimited rides on the following WHEELS service: #962 West Essex Shllftle for the period ending September 30, 1994. Fares: $.50 per trip This pass is valid for use only on the alone WHEELS services and only for the period indicated. This pass has no cash value and may not be refunded or sold. Frequency: Every 20 minutes during lunch hours Implementation: Began operation July 18, 1994; operated by Lion Corporation services will assist employers to meet the requirements of the CAAA of 1990 arid the state's own employer trip reduction (ETR) legislation (Traffic Congestion and Air Pollution Con- trol Act). Under this legislation, employers with more than 100 employees must achieve an average passenger occupancy rate of not less than 25 percent above the average vehicle oc- cupancy rate set for all such trips in the region by November 15, 1996. NJ Transit will work with employers to plan similar services in the future. Marketing Strategies and TMA Involvement To market the suburban employment services, NJ Transit developed a brochure specifically tailored for each service. These attractive user-friendly brochures provide a description of the WHEELS program, tell customers how to use the For more information about WHEEIS, please call Red & Tan Tours at: 1 (201) 420-9292 This WHEELS .ser~ice is brought to you by NJ TRANSIT and Transit Plus, the Transportation Manugernent Association of Essex and Union Counties. ~ WHEEI ~ Suburban Transportation Services TRAHS/T3 TRANSIT P`JS ~ The Way To Go. f SUES ~ UNION COUPES _ FIGURE 5 WHEELS free ride pass, NJ Transit. Service Evaluation WHEELS services are required to meet a 15 percent recov- ery ratio goal by the end of the first year of operation. Throughout its system, NJ Transit operates with a 55 percent farebox recovery ratio. Of the 19 WHEELS services? four routes were meeting the 15 percent recovery ratio goal by

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16 April 1995. NJ Transit has divided the services into three categories: services that are doing well, those in which service or schedule modifications need to be made, and those that are likely not to succeed. The agency has already begun making modifications to several of the services. Each service will be monitored for a 1-year period and then evaluated to determine continuation. TMAs also provide assistance in monitoring and evaluating services operating in their jurisdictions and provide a direct link with employers. NJ Transit provides ridership re- ports to the TMAs on a weekly basis. GRAND RAPIDS AREA TRANSIT AUTHORITY (GRATA), GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN Grand Rapids, Michigan is the state?s second largest city, with a 1993 population of close to 980,000 that is rapidly growing. The Grand Rapids Area Transit Authority (GRATA) is currently expanding and improving its services to meet the needs of this high growth area. Maintaining a fleet of 82 buses, GRATA operates 58 fixed route buses offer a 388.5-km2 (15~mi2) service area during peak times. GRATA's annual ridership including paratransit services totals 3.5 million rides per year. Mobile Metro 2020 To serve the area's growing needs, GRATA is in the proc- ess of "reinventing" itself through its long-term planning process, Mobile Metro 2020. Highway traffic congestion, the growth of businesses and employment opportunities away from the downtown area, and increased air pollution as more motorists travel farther to get to work are among the problems that face the metropolitan area. GRATA believes that im- proved mass transit in Grand Rapids is key to solving these problems. GRATA conducted a 4-month study of transporta- tion needs in the region to address these problems head on. The product of the study is a transportation plan, which will carry Grand Rapids into the first quarter of the next century. In April 1994, GRATA held five public meetings in the Grand Rapids area to share initial findings on Phase I of the transit development study and to obtain feedback from the community. Phase I outlined a system with consistent bus headways of at least 15 or 30 min. suburban circulators in ar- eas previously unserved, longer hours of service on Saturdays, and revised schedules that are easier for riders to understand (see Appendix E;). Phase I was intended to lay a foundation for future expan- sion of the system. The Phase I improvements, exclusive of the circulator services, required no fare increases or additional funding, although some minor service adjustments had to be made. Route segments proposed for elimination had low rider- ship at about 0.6 riders per mile, while the average ridership on all GRATA routes was 1.8 riders per mile. GRATA plans to increase the system-wide average to 2.2 riders per mile. Suburban Circulator Service In March 1995, GRATA's two new suburban circulators began operating in the communities of Kentwood, Grandville, and Wyoming Using 14-passenger minibuses, one of which is shown in Figure 6. These routes provide shoppers. workers, and area residents with convenient, comfortable transportation along West Michigan's busiest roads. These routes also con- nect to each other through other routes in the GRATA system, providing linkages to other parts of the region (see Figure 7~. Both circulator routes have two shuttles, one moving clock- wise and one moving counter clockwise. It takes approxi- mately 1 hour for a bus to complete each loop. FIGURE 6 GRATA minibus. (Courtesy of GRATA) ~:~ ~ ~ . 1 __ 1 :~: _ , . . :: i: :~ .. Route 15 provides service to Kentwood located southeast of the Grand Rapids. The Kentwood circulator provides serv- ice to the fastest growing suburban employment center in the area. The Kentwood area includes an airport, hundreds of employers, a major department store, two shopping malls, Kentwood City Hall, and several office parks. Route 11 serves the suburban communities of Grandville and Wyoming located southwest of Grand Rapids. The Grandville/Wyoming circulator provides service to four major shopping areas, the Wyoming Community Education Build- ing, and the Wyoming Public Library. This route serves a mix of residential and commercial locations including small manufacturers, service businesses, and residential areas. The new circulator routes are supported in part by federal- aid highway program funds, which are available for a 2-year period. By the end of the 2-year programs, GRATA will have worked with both local governments to assess the use of the serv- ice and determine a plan for continuation. The routes are projected to carry 12 passengers per hour. GRATA's other fixed routes are evaluated based on the number of passengers per mile. Since the initiation of service on March 6 through early May 1995. these two routes carried nearly 15~000 one-way trips. Route 11 has been doing quite well, but ridership on Route 15 is building at a quicker pace (see Figure 8~. For the first 10 weeks of service, the average number of passengers per week on Routes 11 and 15 was 894 and 582, respectively. Ridership on Route 15 has nearly doubled since initiation of service, with an average weekly increase of 8.75 percent. Additional Service Improvements As part of the transit development plan, GRATA also in~- proved frequencies on five routes to provide consistent 30-min headways (replacing the previous 43- to 70-min frequencies).

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17 6 Mile 2 In,. I 5 Mlle ~ ~I ..i . i . ~, , ....... 4 Mile ~ , . ~Lam~:aux Dr. ~:: i 4 M ~ ..... . . . i C i i. ... \ Acne ~'/} ~ I: 3 Mile ~/<' /1 3 Mile CD ; ~ ~6 ~ ~ ~ ~ US ~ ~ is l bibs <~h ~AT d 0 ~ Richmond : ~ ~Knapp { art Eli C I;~4~^~,,,,T~>~on~;>~q, Jim -.j'44 ~Y I'm ; ;''"' 1'"~ ~ '' ./' 3'iSwe~et r :~ ~ ~Ch Leonard ~ ~ ~Leonard j~ , (T ~ ~-!~F-~ ~> ~~<~<~< ~rat I Lake Michigan Drive ; ~ a, I, i; ~ ,^~,~ OtBrien ~ ~,,s,,~,, taln~l/ _ ~;; , ,, ~ ~ ' ' ' " ' ' ~ ,6 7~ ~-l;' 1 1 ~ " '-on ~ a/, (1 ) nklin I | 7 ) ; ~ ~~ ~ Im - ' it, . ~ ~ ___. ..... 1 ~1 ~2nc : Prairie A) 36th [1 l l | } i' , ~| , ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 ~ ~5 0 ~ ~ ~;~o ~I ~ ~ 1 ~1 ! ) 44th ~ a t10~ 44th o ~-3~ ~ ~Am in :L ~ 1" ~1 ;' ;~ D) i'' ICL I I 60th ~60th Ad 64th ~ ~ ~ .. ............ ......................... , ............................... i . ~i 68th : ~. 68th ... .. .. . . . .. .......... . ............... - ...... ......... . . i ....... .. -. - 76th (a ^Y>.YA~< FIGURE 7 GRATA system map illustrating suburban circulators and linkage routes.

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18 1000 800 ._ s <, 600 ~ .= 400 200 - ~- A ~ ~ -_ ~ dE - _ ~ - ~. ~ - .W 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 Week | ~ ROUTE 11 - WYOMING/GRANDVILLE ~ ROUTE 15 - KENTWOOD FIGURE 8 GRATA circulator rouses weekly ridership (March 6-May 12, 1995~. One of these routes. Route 14, provides crosstown suburb-to- suburb service and serves as the connector route between the two suburban circulators. GRATA also implemented an im- proved transfer policy to allow passengers to use a transfer on any route or multiple routes within 1 hour after de-boarding a bus. Lastly, GRATA extended Saturday service hours on all routes. Previously, GRATA had very limited Saturday service on four routes from 6:00 to ll:00 a.m. and stopped service entirely at 6:00 p.m. on Saturdays. Suburban service now op- erates until 9:30 p.m. Regular cash fares on all GRATA services are $1.25. Sub- stantial discounts (up to 52 percent) are available with GRATA's Super Saver program when a 10-ticket book is pur- chased for $7.00. GRATA's $27.00 monthly pass provides un- limited trips during a calendar month. The next phase of the planning process, which has recently begun. is a study of access and travel needs in the immediate downtown area. Although GRATA's route service is currently centered on Grand Rapids' CBD, significant transportation needs remain within the city's core. In the future, GRATA will continue to analyze weekend, evening, and suburb-to-suburb travel patterns to determine if new circulator routes and hours can be added to meet community needs. RIDEFINDER Program Because GRATA views itself as a mobility and transit provider, its services go well beyond traditional bus transporta- tion. Since 1990, GRATA has been involved in promoting and facilitating ridesharing through its RIDEFINDER program. The program provides free assistance to individuals and em- ployers interested in developing shared ride arrangements. A marketing brochure is used to explain the benefits of ridesharing and to provide information on GRATA's bus serv- ices and convenient park-and-ride lot locations (see Appendix F). The brochure contains a mail back ridesharing application so that individuals may receive a free matchlist of persons who live and work near them. After receiving potential matches from GRATA, it is up to the persons to contact one another to form a carpool. Periodic surveys of all individuals in the RIDEFINDER database allow GRATA to stay in touch with carpoolers to provide additional service and to gather participation data. About 20 percent of the surveys are resumed and are used by GRATA to update and purge the database as required. A sample survey is provided as Figure 9. Thirty-six percent of all persons who receive a ~natchlist actually become involved in caspooling. About 400 new car- poolers begin carpooling each year. GRATA's typical carpool has an average vehicle occupancy of three persons, travels 93.4 km (58 mi) per day (round trip), arid operates 4 days per week. RII:)EETINDER works closely with employers to develop and implement ridesharing programs. The employer-oriented programs include distribution of marketing materials, and provision of an information booth and on-site convoluter ride matching services. When bus service is available to a work site, ongoing distribution of bus schedules and sale of tickets and passes is offered. Metropolitan Hospital. Steelcase, Inc., and several temporary employment agencies are among those that promote GRATA services through RIDEFINDER. The RIDEFINDER program also provides assistance in vanpool formation. Vanpool efforts are coordinated with the State of Michigan's MichiVan program. MichiVat1 is a state- wide service provided by VPSI, Inc., and sponsored by the Michigan Department of Transportation. MichiVal, provides groups of 5 to lS people with a luxury passenger van, insur- ance, maintenance, and support services. One member of the

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19 A serria of the Brood Ropids Ares Fronsit Authority RlDEFINDER recently attempted to identify a possible ride match for you. Ride matching is a computenzed service used to find persons you can carpoo! -with. Ride matching also determines whether you could vanpoo! or ride on a transit bus. Please take a minute to complete and mad! the attached, postage-paid survey form. Your responses will provide RIDEFINDER with valuable information on your commuting patterns and assist in improving our service. Your survey responses are completely confidential. ',.. Please mark the one most appropriate response for each question. Your responses are strictly confidential. 1. Did you receive from RIDEFINDER a list of Yes _ 4. How do you usually get to your primary persons who you might share a ride with? No destination? 2. If you received a-list, did you attempt to Yes Carpool contact anyone on the list? No = (List # of persons including yourself _) Have you been able to form a rideshare arrangement? Yes, using the RIDEFINDER list Yes, without RlDEFINDER's help No, rideshare arrangement formed before RlDEFINDER's help No, but still trying to No, do not intend to Vanpool .- {List # of persons including yourself ) Drive Alone Bus Walk Bicycle_ 5. Any additional comments or questions? (j Thank you for taking the time to complete and return this survey. FIGURE 9 GRATA RIOEFINI:)ER survey. vanpool volunteers to drive, and in return rides free and ret ceives unlimited personal use of the van on evenings and weekends. Passengers pay low monthly fares to cover the cost of the vanpools. In a period of 6 months. nine new vanpools were started. GRATA will soon begin reporting vanpool mile" age in its Section 15 operating statistics, which will permit the agency to obtain additional operating assistance. Dunning 1995 and 1996, RIOEF]NDER is conducting an ad- verdsing campaign targeted to suburban commuters to improve shared ride options for both suburb-to-suburb and suburb to cen- tral city commuters. Ibis campaign is targeted to commuters liv- ing outside of GRATA's bus service area. In the very early stages of this campaign, two dozen new carpoolers were registered. OTTAWA-CARLETON REGIONAL TRANSIT COMMISSION (OC TRANSPO), OTTAWA, ONTARIO The Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton (RMOC) is a metropolitan region consisting of 11 municipalities with an overall population of approximately 706,000. About 90 per- cet~t of the population resides in the urban area. Ottawa, the largest municipality, accounts for more than 300,000 of the population. In teens of employment, the region supports about 370,000 jobs of which 22 percent are in the federal public service sector. Ottawa-Carleton is a relatively affluent region and traffic congestion is not a major factor in attracting transit

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20 REGIONAL COUNCIL ALL DECISIONS ~ r M~.C!PAt ~Y--~ Y TRANSPORTATION COMMITTEE AND/OR EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE TRANSPORTATION DEPARTMENT PLANNING, DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION OF TRANSITWAY AND TRANSIT MEASURES ON ARTERIAL ROADS 1- DECISIONS STAFf LIAISON TRANSIT COMMISSION OC TRANSPO SERVICE PLANNING AND OPERATION FlGVllE 10 Local government organization for public transit. (Source: OC Transpo "Strategic Plan for the 1 990s," March 1991) patrons, particularly in the off-peak direction. This mattes it difficult to attract riders in many suburban locations, particu- larly those who have ample free parking. However, the region has a planning structure in place that focuses development on areas well served by transit. This case study focuses more on how transit planning is done at OC Transpo rather than on particular aspects of the suburb-to-suburb transit service pro- vided. Suburb-to-suburb services at OC Transpo are considered to be an integral part of the region-wide transit service and are not treated differently from any other types of transit service. To understand the way in which transit planning is carried out and how it influences land-use and development, it is in~- portant to understand the political organization structure in Ottawa-Carleton. The region is a two-tier system in which the RMOC (upper tier) is responsible for certain region-wide functions while the lower tier, or area municipalities, perform other functions relating to local concerns. The formation of the Ottawa-Carleton regional government in 1969 was a direct response to the rapid suburbanization oc- curring immediately outside the boundaries of the City of Ot- tawa. During the 1950s and 1960s, significant urban devel- opment had begun in the rural townships surrounding Ottawa. The traditional annexation approach failed to control this trend because the flexibility offered by the automobile meant that regulation of new development in one municipality simply shifted the development across the nearest municipal bound- ary. A comprehensive planning approach for an area large enough to encompass the total commuter area appeared to be the correct solution. Thus, a lower-tier government- the RMOC, with specific jurisdiction in the provision of major services and overall planning was formed by the Ontario Government. The RMOC's responsibilities regarding urban transportation include developing and implementing a regional transportation plan covering the arterial road system and, through OC - Transpo, the public transit service. The Regional Council also has some approval powers in the areas of municipal zoning, subdivision plans, and traffic by-laws. Other responsibilities include water and sewer. The relationship between the RMOC and OC Transpo is illustrated in Figure 10. OC Transpo has sole authority to operate public transit services within the urban transit area. With a fleet of more than 830 buses, OC Transpo carries more than 76 million passengers annually, providing about 50 million km (31 mil- lion mi) of service. Transit operations and capital expenditures are subsidized at rates of approximately 17.5 percent and 25 percent, respectively, through a transit levy on local taxpayers. The levy is collected through an equalized assessment of homes within the urban area. The Province of Ontario also exerts considerable influence over the provision of transit in the region through subsidy payments towards operating and capital costs. For operating costs, the province sets a target revenue to cost ratio based on transit property size and pays one-half of the difference between the revenues and costs. For OC Transpo, the target is 65 per- cent and the operating subsidy from the province is 17.5 per- cent. Capital expenditures for buses, garages, and construction costs are subsidized at a rate of 75 percent by the province. On a macroscopic level, the RMOC has included a number of policies favoring transit in its official plan, such as The proportion of all jobs located at Transitway stations will be increased, including the central area. Except for Vanier, all primary employment centers, employing at least 5,000 per- sons, will be located at existing or future Transitway stations. Smaller secondary employment centers are allowed off the Transitway, but must have access to frequent and efficient all-day transit service. It is intended that 40 percent of all jobs in the region will be located at Transitway stations in- cluding downtown. The current figure is about 32 percent.

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21 Large regional shopping centers with snore than 375,000 ft2 of gross leasable space must be on the Transitway or future extensions thereof' except for Carlingwood, which is exempt for historic and geographic reasons. New developments are to be contiguous with existing areas, avoiding pockets of isolated development that are inef- ficient to serve. New developments are to be designed to be transit friendly (see Appendix G. Subdivision Transit Guidelines). Policy guideline modal splits (PGMS) have been estab- lished for fourteen major screenlines ranging Dom 20 to 45 per- cent, with one central area screenline set at 70 percent. The Re- gional Council must consider the PGMS in setting priorities among road and transit projects in each corridor. Subdivision de- sign, Transitway extensions, and preferential treatment for transit on regional roads are all methods to help achieve the PGMS. Additional items examined as part of the design of new subdivisions include Transportation in general, and transit specifically, is viewed as an essential service along with such things as water, sewer, and other utilities. Issues such as capacity and staging must be addressed for all services. Collector roads are designed first to meet transit require- ments. Any additional requirements for auto access to a commu- nity are added later. Bus-only links may be required in some areas. Collector roads must have adequate geometries (e.g., width, curves) and construction standards (e.g., pavement depth) to accommodate buses. A sidewalk on at least one side of each collector nest be designated for transit use. Low-density residential subdivisions are typically served by transit on their internal collector roads rather than from the adjacent arterial roads. This is because it can be very difficult for pedestrians to cross busy arterials without the aid of traffic signals, which in turn increases walking distances unless signals are very closely spaced. TUNNEY'S ~ Albert WESTBORO PASTURE LEBRETON __= + ~ _~~`i'e - - - - - - - e ~ - - - ears_ ~ ~ ^~_~.s ~;~w _ . ~3a;_~^ _ _ _ >~_ ego ~ee~_~ee-eeeeeee_ee-e-~eeee~_ee~,~ ~- ~HAS Slater I me,,_ C} ; ~, 6 e'} _~~ ABBEY _~;.~ SMYTH ~e,'> - RIVERSIDE ~ !- PLEASANT PARK (1996) `'V BILLINGS BRIDGE t HERON WALKLEY SOUTH KEYS HUNT CLUB AIRPORT/ AEROPORT LINCOLN FIELDS ~ ~. _ ~ . REV _"" hi'=! KANATA BAYSHORE QUEENSWAY- IRIS- BASELINE ~ CARLINGWOOD FIGURE 11 OC Transpo Transitway system map. Land use within communities is arranged so that the highest density uses (e.g.. senior citizens' residences) are placed closest to transit lines and major roads while the lowest densi- ties (e.g., single family residential, parks) are the farthest. Building orientation is important, especially for com- mercial buildings. Ideally, major buildings (also other struc- tures such as townhouse complexes) should be close to the street with a major entrance close to the bus stop, and with parking at the rear. The RMOC is encouraging mixed-use de- velopment at secondary employment centers so that office workers do not have to leave the site to go to places such as banks and restaurants. Proper staging of new developments is very important. New developments should be contiguous with existing devel- opment and should be staged in ways that efficient and effec- tive transit service can be provided at all times. Temporary bus turnarounds or temporary roads for bus use may be required. Bus shelters and pads (paved waiting areas at stops) may be required from the developer. Based on this strategic direction of the Regional Council, a two-phase approach to meeting future transit needs has been adopted. First, every effort has been made to maxi- mize the efficiency and use of the existing bus-based transit system Second, an appropriate rapid transit strategy for Ottawa- Carleton's Transitway has been investigated and adopted. The Transitway The Transitway is the region's largest ever transportation project. The Transitway's dedicated system of bus-only road- ways provides an exclusive rapid transit link for more than 200,000 passengers daily across much of the region's urban area, and particularly the downtown business and retail core. Operated by OC Transpo, 25 km (15.5 mi) and 18 stations currently provide rapid transit service throughout the region's urban area (see Figure 11~. ,17~

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22 Weekday passenger volume on the Transitway is about 200,000. Approximately 190 buses operate in the peak hour in each direction. Transitway route 95 stops at all stations in the southwest and east corridors, while routes 96 and 97 serve the west and southeast corridors. Route 95 operates every 3 min during peak hours, every 5 min during the day, and every 10 to 15 min in the evenings. Fifty express routes provide peak- period service? to and from the suburbs and downtown, via the Transitway. Forty local routes provide timed transfers at Transitway stations, and 6 other trunk routes also use various parts of the Transitway. Without the Transitway, 145 more buses would be required in OC Transpo's fleet to carry the same number of passengers at a capital cost of $45 million (CAN), and annual operating costs of $25 million (CAN). The initial 31 km (19.3 mi) of Transitway approved in 1978 will be completed by the end of 1996 at an estimated cost of $450 million (CAN). An examination of available land in the proximity of Transitway stations has shown that by the turn of the cen- tury, 40 percent of the region's employment could be within walking distance of the Transitway. For example, a Transitway station serves Tunney's Pasture. a major fed- eral government office complex that houses 9,500 employ- ees (Figure 121. The majority of users walk to the station; however, bus service to and from the station is provided throughout the complex, particularly for staff in buildings that are located farther away. FIGURE 12 Tunney's Pasture Transitway station with the Tunney's Pasture office complex in the background. (Courtesy of OC Transpo) Currently, about 34 percent of the region's employment is within walking distance of the Transitway. Approximately 82,300 jobs are located in the CBD of Ottawa amounting to about 21 percent of total regional employment. Another 4 per- cent, or about 13,600, of the region's jobs are located along the Transitway. The remaining jobs are located in other urban areas (62 percent) or in rural areas of the region (4 percent). It is estimated that close to $1 billion (CAN) of investment in new development has occurred or is committed close to the Transitway. A key component of the Regional Council's strategy to promote transit usage is to develop a rapid transit system in the Transitway. In the region's recently updated official plan, conceptual links to three suburban centers Kanata Town Centre in the west, Orleans in the east, and Bar- rhaven in the south" have been identified. The clear de- lineation of the Transitway in the official plan for the next 20 to 30 years enables municipalities to plan to take ad- vantage of it. A good example of this is Orleans, a community of about 80,000, which straddles two area municipalities in the eastern portion of the region. The Transitway is unlikely to reach Or- leans until the end of the century, but development in the community's center has already begun in anticipation of the Transitway. The Regional Council hired a consultant to work with a committee consisting of its own staff, OC Transpo, two municipalities, two major developers, electrical utility com- panies, and the Ontario freeway and transit agencies to de- termine the best location for a Transitway station. The process was difficult, because so many interests were represented. The Transitway station in Orleans opened in 1994, well ahead of the extension of the Transitway, ensuring a high profile for transit as the community develops. This process is now being repeated in Kanata Town Centre and B arrhaven. Bus Service Description OC Transpo operates two different types of route networks. Regular, all-day service operates on a feeder-line-haul system similar to the airlines. Local feeder routes serve individual communities, and terminate at major stations where transfers can be made to other feeder routes, mainline routes along higher density major arterials, and Transitway routes that provide frequent cross-regional rapid transit service. Most major stations are Transitway stations. A timed transfer sys- tem is operated at several stations. Many regular routes also intersect other regular routes at street corners that are not stations. In peak periods, a radial system of express routes is super- imposed on the all-day network. The express routes pick up within individual communities and operate via the Transitway to downtown in the morning, and then return in the afternoon. Suburb-to-suburb commutes are considered to be an integral component of the entire route network. Suburban Employment Centers Some major suburban employment centers, including Or- leans, Kanata' and Barrhaven, are located on or near Transit- way stations, where frequent cross-regional rapid transit serv- ice is always available. These centers have a high level of accessibility from most parts of the region due to the fast and frequent service provided along the Transitway. For example, the Place d'Orleans Transitway station (see Figure 13) is physically separate from the rest of the Transitway, but enjoys a rapid transit frequency and speed of service due to a shoul- der bus lane on the freeway. An overhead walkway connects the Place d?Orleans station with the Place d'Orleans, a major regional suburban shopping center. The walkway also extends across the highway to a park-and-ride lot. Bus service to Orleans is provided as frequently as every 6 min during the peals hour.

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23 FIGURE 13 The Place d'Orleans Transitway station with the Place d'Orleans, a major regional suburban shopping center, in the background. (Courtesy of OC Transpo) For employment centers located away from the Transitway, it becomes increasingly difficult to achieve the critical mass of riders required to operate a high frequency of service from multiple corridors, and travel time quickly becomes uncom- petitive with the private automobile. The availability of exten- sive free parking at many of these sites, combined with the various income tax regulations on employer-subsidized park- ing versus employer-subsidized transit passes, means that there is little incentive to use transit. Suburban employment centers located away from the Transitway are generally served by one or both of the follow- ing types of service: all-day service on a regular route (either mainline or local feeder route), or peal`-period only on coun- terpeak direction routes that travel from Transitway stations to the employment center in the morning, and are reversed at night. Some of these routes travel only to the nearest major station while others travel along the Transitway to the edge of downtown Ottawa. For suburban employment centers. all routes (both regular and counterpeak) serve a dual function of accommo- dating both reverse and suburb-to-suburb commuters. Any com- bination of different route types may be used to retake a trip de- pending on the individual origin and destination pairs. Some typical suburb-to-suburb commute trips include using a com- bination of local feeder routes and/or mainline arterial routes and/or Transitway routes, as required, entirely on the regular (all-day) route network; on the counterpeak routes, using a local or mainline route to a nearby Transitway station, then transferring to the counterpeak route; or using a Transitway route (perhaps after transferring from another local or mainline route) or an express route to a more distant station, where a transfer can be made to a counterpeak route. Some passengers are fortunate enough to have direct service from home to des- tination without transferring, using any of the different route types. All transfers between routes are free. The routes serving outlying employment centers form part of the regular route network and serve many other functions as well. Therefore, it is difficult to determine the number of buses or riders using these services specifically for suburb-to-suburb trips. Modal splits for non-CBD employment centers range from up to 40 percent at Transitway stations to between 5 and 10 percent for some outlying areas. A 1986 OC Transpo sur- vey determined mode splits for several locations (Table 6~. As shown in the table, the Confederation Heights station had significantly lower modal splits then did Tunney's Pasture . . . station. Confederation Heights is located somewhat farther from downtown than Tunnels Pasture, and road access to Tunney's Pasture is more restricted relative to transit. The fact that Confederation Heights is not served directly by a Transit- way station plays a role in the lower modal split due to the ex- tra inconvenience associated with travel to this station. Algon- quin College station, located in the west end beside Baseline Station, had higher modal splits than Carleton University, which is more centrally located but is farther from the Tran- sitway. The University of Ottawa modal splits are similar to other downtown locations. TABLE 6 OC TRANSPO: TRANSIT MODAL SPLITS FOR SELECTED LOCATIONS Destination Origin 6:00 to 9:00 All UTA Tunney's Pasture 41 47 Confederation Heights 25 29 University of Ottawa 53 68 Carleton University 31 38 Algonquin (Woodroffe) 45 51 5:00 to 8:00 All UTA 43 49 27 31 45 50 35 40 35 44 Modal split = transit users/car + transit users. All trips = all trips within the survey area (urban and rural parts of the RMOC in Ontario and the Communaute Regionale de l'Outaouais in Quebec). UTA trips = trips with the urban transit area (UTA) of RMOC and the central part of Hull, where a trip by OC Transpo is a reasonable alternative.

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24 Despite the region's best efforts, the number of jobs located at outlying locations is continuing to increase. The nature of the interline scheduling used on the express bus network makes it relatively inexpensive to implement new counterpeak routes from T.ransi.tway stations to outlying employment ce~.~- ters. Much of the revenue time for the counterpeak routes would have been deadhead (non-revenue) tinge between ex- press trips, so the marginal cost to implement new counter- peak routes is often much lower than for other types of routes. Generally, OC Transpo tends to use average seated loads dur- ing the peak hour rather than marginal costs to conduct route evaluations.