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Appendix 17 Computerized Publishing In the past 3 years, since the first, and unsuccessful, attempt to use computerized typesetting in newspaper production, the advan- ces in this technology have been such that about 200 computers are now in use in or on order by the printing business throughout the world. Nearly all the major U.S. computer manufacturers have entered this field, and competition for the market is keen. Although newspapers have been the primary practitioners of computerized printing, book manufacturers and government agencies have also begun computerized operations. In its news- paper application, a typical system would consist of the following operations: 1. The reporter types his copy in the customary way except that in certain systems the output consists of a punched paper tape in addition to the usual hard copy. 2. The editor indicates on the hard copy what changes he desires to be made. 3. ~ the reporter's output was a punched tape, only the neces- sary corrections are punched up. If only the hard copy exists, it is punched up incorporating the editor's corrections. 4. The edited punched paper tape is fed into the computer, where words are hyphenated and lines are justified automatically. 5. The punched tape (sometimes magnetic tape) output from the computer is then used to operate linecasting or photocomposi- tion machines. 6. Subsequent operations are essentially no different from those in the conventional printing process. LINE JUSTIFICATION The computer is well adapted for the type of computation needed for the justification of printed lines. By simply adding the width of the characters and spaces in each line and comparing the sum with the column width, the computer is able to apply the 113

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proper spacing techniques (e.g., insertion of thin spaces, ens, ems, or hyphenation) for justification. WORD DIVISION Word division still poses a problem in that the two most widely used methods ("logic" and "dictionary look-up") each have certain disadvantages. The logical method, owing to the completely arbitrary nature of English syllabification rules, cannot attain 100 percent accuracy. The dictionary look-up method requires a much larger computer memory than the logical method. Since it is unlikely that the disadvantages of either method can be com- pletely overcome, an entirely different approach has gained the favor of some. This system, to be in operation next year at the CLA's Printing Services Division, justifies without word division hyphena- tion by using a photocomposer to vary the set size of the type. Exhibit 1 shows an 80 percent reduction of the standard Govern- ment Printing Office format, which in its original form is 20 picas wide and set in 10 point Modern at 10 1/2 set. It contains 15 hyphens. Exhibit 2 is the same job reset using a choice of set sizes. No word division hyphenation has been necessary. Exhibi 3 is the same as Exhibit 2 with bullets next to the lines where alternate set sizes were used. ADVANTAGES OF COMPUTERIZED PRINTING Some of the advantages that have been mentioned by the users of this method of printing are: 1. improved output by typists resulting from elimination of the spacing and hyphenation decisions, 2. reduction of time needed to train new perforator operators, more efficient use of fine casting machines, 4. the ability to set closer deadlines, and increase in production. PHOTOCOM POSITION In the future, photocomposing machines will have to be used in order to take full advantage of the computer. The fastest line- casting machines are capable of an output of only 15 newspaper lines a minute, whereas the newest photocomposing machines are capable of printing 1,000-2,000 lines a minute. 114

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