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Appendix 12 Machine-Aided Translation at the Federal Armed Forces Translation Agency, Mannheim, Germany SEM I AUTOMATIC TRANSLATION AID SYSTEM (STAGE 1) Translated from German by the Federal Armed Forces Trans- lation Agency, Annex to Report MUV - Az.: 55-05 (30) dated, February 18, 1965. Report on Sixth Test Run On TR4 Computer Facility I. GENERAL During the week of February 8 to 12, 1965, a second improved model test run was conducted using the TR4 computer facility of the Telefunken Company, Konstanz. The test run was designed to test as an integral system all routines and subroutines developed so far. The test, which represents the culmination of the develop- ment work done in Stage I of the semiautomatic translation aid system, can be regarded as quite successful: it confirmed the soundness of the approach. Practical application of the procedure (Stage I) now depends on when the Federal Armed Forces Com- puter Center is operational so that the entire body of linguistic information now stored on punched cards can be transferred to magnetic tape. Optimization of the program will be effected on the basis of practical experience. II. DE SCRIPTION OF TE ST RUN The testing material consisted of three English-language texts (so- called partial interrogation batches). The texts bore different job numbers and were assigned to different translators who under- scored in the text those terms with which the machine was to be presented. Double or triple underscorings of compounds meant that in addition to the translation of the compound itself the 79

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translation of one or more of its elements was desired in order to utilize optimally the information stored in the machine diction- ary. Where appropriate, the underscored expressions were reduced to the reference form (nominative singular, infinitive, etch. The terms were then punched on cards and read into the com- puter in the sequence of their occurrence in the text. Read-in of the three partial interrogation batches was in the sequence of ascending job numbers. The dictionary used in this text did not contain the entire A-to- Z stock of vocabulary but was a micro- glossary specially compiled for the purposes of this test. This fact already points to the model character of the test. The output units were printed out by an OFF-LINE high-speed printer. This second model test run differed from the first model test run tcf. .. .. Report UDBw - MUV - Az.: 55-05 (30) did 14 Oct. 1964] in that it presupposed large quantities of data. While in the first test sorting had been circumvented, the second test included a sorting (SORT-2) program using four magnetic tapes. Since the sorting procedure has already been discussed in Report UDBw - MUST - Az.: 55-05 (30) of 10 Dec. 1964, it need not be described here. III. FORMAT OF OUTPUT LISTS What has been said about the format of the output lists in Reports UDBw - MUV - Az.: 55-05 (30) of 14 Oct. and 10 Dec. 1964 is true also for the output lists produced in the present test with the exceptions that in the present test the lists have a title line and each partial interrogation batch begins on a new page. Print-out of more than one partial batch is in the sequence of the alphabetical order of the abbreviated names of the translators. IV. INTERPRETATION OF SOME "MISSING" NOTATIONS elements 1. The missing notations, some of which were introduced in- tentionally for reasons of illustration, are attributable to the following causes: a. Interrogation of compounds with variable context-related Examples: freak midget craft (GRE 8969 034) midget-type submarine (GRE 8969 043) cyclic control system (HER 8970 029) low-power gain recovery (MUL 8968 038) In some cases interrogation without the variable elements was successful b. Interrogation of words and word compounds which occur as "quasi-technical terms" in certain contexts and which because of their elusive character are not contained in the dictionary. 80

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Examples: ASW package (GRE 8969 025) oscillatory mode (HER 8970 005) hydraulically boosted (HER 8970 037) distributed fashion (MUL 8 9 68 0 30) c. Spelling variants Examples: antisubmarine air barrier travelling-wave maser (GRE 8969 047) (MUL 8968 012) Interrogation of the alternative spellings (anti-submarine air barrier; traveling-wave maser) was successful. d. Interrogation of expressions which, strictly speaking, cannot be regarded as technical terms Examples: porpoise ocean passage stocking e. Uncorrected punching errors Examples: artifical feedback artifical feel (GRE 8969 036) (GRE 8969 049) (HER 8970 024) (HER 8970 040) (HER 8970 042) f. Accuracies in the original text Intext64/18968,1ine23,theletters"bL"wereinterpretedas an abbreviation. However, they are not an abbreviation but the pro- duct of the two quantities "b" and "L." For the salve of clarity the product should have been written "b x L." g. All other "missing " notations may be interpreted as blanks in the dictionary Examples: advance radar picket missile-launcher stability augmentation artificial feedback feel (GRE 8969 019) (GRE 8969 045) (HER 8970 002) (HER 8970 039) (MUL 8968 013) gain recovery (MUL 8968 039) many cases, however, the missing equivalents could have been derived from the information actually printed out. maser line 2. The justification of the warning to the translator not to accept blindly everything printed out by the machine is demonstrated by the following examples: a. Text 64/189 69, line 12: "weather beacon. " The German equivalents 'Wetterboje" and 'Wetterbake" (GRE 8969 021) printed out by the nachine are not very meaningful in this particular con- text. ~ destroyer may rather serve as a 'Wetterstation (weather station) " or 'Wetterschiff (weather ship) . " b. Text 64/18970, line 18: "loop." What is meant here is a "servo loop" ('~egelkreis"~; the word "loop" without a qualifying addition is not specific enough. The equivalents under "loop" (HER 8970 028), therefore, are not applicable. 81

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c. Text 64/18970, line 28: "displacement." The equivalents printed out under HER 8970 038 are wrong in this context. The weaknesses pointed up above are not to be blamed on the machine or the procedure but are inherent in the language. V. OUTLOOK Practical application of the procedure developed so far, a procedure proven in a second successful model test run, now depends on when the Federal Armed Forces computer can be used in order to trans- fer the entire punch-card information onto magnetic tape. Organiza- tional and programming preparatory work for this significant step are already under way. In addition, work on the new complex "pro- cessing of vocabulary passed by the terminology boards" has been initiated. TEXT- RELATED GLOSSARIES AND MACHINE-PRODUCED ENGLISH-LANGUAGE TECHNICAL TEXTS (1) One common practice is to credit any ship with a hull number starting with D as being per se an ASW ship. To be sure, destroyers (DD), escorts (DE), and frigates (DL) all have ASW capabilities. So do all other types of ships. The bow of (5) an ocean liner, if it rammed a submarine, would be a mighty ASW weapon. This does not make merchant ships into an ASW force. Is a guided missile destroyer (DDG), or a radar escort picket (DER), any more an ASW craft? Ships are inherently multi-purpose, even when efforts are made (10) to specialize their functions. The versatile destroyer, our traditional ASW surface craft, can and does serve as anti-air screen, advance radar picket, torpedo boat, weather beacon, - and even as an emergency power plant for a good-sized city. It even makes an effective transport and cargo ship. (15) Into the "ASW package" (lately broadened into something called undersea warfare, or USW) have gone a hodge-podge of ships. And a potpourri of projects have been labelled ASW, including such things as mines and mine detectors, noisemakers and deception devices, submarine machinery, test barges and (2 0) calibration ranges, hydrographic and oceanographic surveys, long-range basic programs . . ., bathyscaphe, freak midget craft, and studies of the vocabulary of porpoises. War will demand several rather different ASW missions. The tactics of convoy protection differ from those of a hunter-killer (25) group free to pursue subs wherever they may be found. The problem of guarding an amphibious landing perimeter against coastal or midget-type submarines has little in common with the hunting down of silent missile-launchers hovering deep in unfrequented waters. Maintaining an antisubmarine air barrier across critical (30) ocean passages differs markedly from all these. 82

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