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236 Genetic Efeas of Atomic Bombs Watson, R. R. 1951. Report on nuclear radia- tion at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, submitted to the Committee on Atomic Casualties of the National Research Council. WISHART, I. 1950. Field Trials 11. Th e A dialysis of Covariar~ce. Technical Communication No. 15. Commonwealth Bureau of Plant Breeding and Genetics. Cambridge (see p. 35~. WOODBURY, L. A. 1953. Analysis of the rela- tionship of shielding and distance factors to radiation cataracts. ABCC Semi-Ar'nual Report, January 1, 1953-June 30, 1953, Part 1, Appendix 15. Woo~EY, W. A. 1881. Historical notes on Nagasaki. Asiatic Soc. of Impart, Transac- tions. 9:125-151. WORCESTER, I., STEVENSON, S. S., and RICE, R. G. 1950. 677 congenitally malformed infants and associated gestational charac- teristics. II. Parental factors. Pediatrics 6: 208-222. WRIGHT, S. 1949. Estimates of the amounts of melanin in the hair of diverse genotypes of the guinea pig, from transformation of empirical grades. Genetics 34:245-271. WRIGHT, S. 1 950. Discussion on population genetics and radiation. J. Cell. and Comp. Physiol., 35, Suppl. 1, pp. 187-204. WRIGHT, S. W., et al. 1952. A study of the incidence of congenital syphilis among liv- ing Japanese infants. ABCC Semi-Ar~nual Report, January 1, 1952-June 30, 1952. YATES, F. 1934. The analysis of multiple classi- fications with unequal numbers in the different classes. .7. Am. Stat. Assoc. 29:51- 66. YERUSHALMY, J. 1938. Neonatal mortality by order of birth and age of parents. Am. I. Hyg. 2~3 :2444270. YERUSHALMY, I. 1945. On the internal between successive births and its effect on survival of infant. I. An indirect method of study. Ham. Biol. 17:65-106.

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SUBJECT INDEX Abortions, reporting of, 9 spontaneous, 18 therapeutic (induced) , 19, 61, 76 Acetabulum, dysplasia of, 15, 102, 104 "Accumulation factor," in man, 212 Age, maternal allowance for, in analysis, 76 differences in irradiation subclasses, 55 Age effects, maternal onbirthweight, 132, 148 on death during first 9 months, 152 on growth and development, 165 on malformation frequency, 105, 189 on sex ratio, 89 on stillbirth frequency, 119 Ainu, 21 Americans, in Nagasaki, 23 Analytic methods, general attribute data "interactions," 78, 162 "main eRects," 78, 162 measurement data, 83, 84 Analytic methods, specific analysis of dispersion, 168 Bartlett's test, 137, 175, 179 concomitant variation, approach to, 73 confidence limits, 197 covariance analysis, 75, 133, 137 determinants of matrices, 168 F test, 179 heterogeneity, within-cell, 85, 133, 137, 168, 175, 179 index of absolute difference, 105, 185 L statistic, 148, 170 means, multivariate, 164, 165, 168, 170, 175, 179 "omnibus" tests, 84 "portmanteau" tests, 84 power curves, 197, 198 pyramidal handling of data, 73 regression, 82, 132, 133, 148 significance test, one-tailed, 89, 198 variance, generalized, 164, 168, 175, 179 variance analysis, 82, 86, 133, 137, 150, 157, 175 Wilks' test, 168 Anamnestic data, reliability of, 14 Anthropometric studies genetic component in, 164 measurements obtained, 164 variation, effect of maternal age on, 165 parity, 1 65 radiation, 165, 196 Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 47 Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, 2 Atomic bombs, mortality from, 28 radiation from, 33 Austrians, in Nagasaki, 23 Autopsy program, 9 description of, 184 of Hayashi, 189 237 randomness of autopsies, 184 type of data, 187 Biases, of sampling, 191 see also "comparability of irradiation subclasses" Birth injury death during first 9 months, 152 effect on stillbirth rate, 119 Birth rates, Japanese, 19 Birthweight accuracy of, 131 effect on, of maternal age, 132, 148 economic status, 131, 148 nutrition, 131 parental radiation, 132, 196 parity, 132, 148 year of birth, 148 genetic component in, 131 "Black market," 4, 132 Blood group (A-B-O) frequencies, 25 Cataracts, radiation, 33, 69 Chest circumference of child, in relation to parental radiation, 164 Chikuzen type, of Japanese, 171 China, 21 Chinese, in Nagasaki, 22, 28 Chi-square, 82 factorial, 82 in analysis of age and parity effects on malforma- tions, 105 Christianity, ban against, 22, 24 Codes for data, 18 Genetics Long Form, 221 Genetics 9-Months Follow-up, 225 Genetics Short Form, 218 Committee for the Investigation of the Effects of the Atomic Bombs (Japanese), 2, 20 Committee on Atomic Casualties, 1, 19, 87 Comparability of irradiation subclasses age, 55, 73 background, 71, 192 consanguinity, 53, 73 dilatation and curettage of uterus, 61,73 economic status, 59, 73 induced abortions, 61, 73 parental cooperation, 63 parity, 55, 73 positive serological test for syphilis, 61, 73 repeat registrations, 63, 73 sequelae of exposure, 69 year to year changes in proportions, 69 Confidence limits, of attribute data, 196 Congenital defect see "malformation, congenital" Consanguinity allowance for, in analysis, 76 differences, in exposure subgroups, 53, 73 effect of Christianity on, 55 Controls, use of exposed persons as, 86 see also "comparability of irradiation subclasses" Cooperation, of parents, 63

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238 Covariance analysis, 75, 133, 137 Cytogenetic studies, 18 Danes, in Nagasaki, 23 Death, from birth to 9 months of age frequency of, as affected by birth injury, 152 congenital syphilis, 152 maternal age, 152 maternal nutrition, 152 parental radiation, 157, 196 parity, 152, 162 genetic component of, 151 neonatal, definition of, 151 operating characteristic curve of, 198 Degrees of freedom in analysis of attribute data, 81 Deshima, 22, 24 "Disaster effect," vs. "radiation eRect," 33, 150, 192 Distance, in relation to symptoms, 41 Distance-dosage relationship, 36, 46 Drosophila, 199, 203, 204, 208, 209, 212, 213, 216 mutation rate, induced, 211 mutation rate, spontaneous, 206 number of genes in, 212 Dutch, in Nagasaki, 22, 23, 24 Economic status, allowance for, in analysis, 76 effect on birthweight, 131 effect on frequency of autopsy, 186 of control and irradiated, 59 English, in Nagasaki, 22, 23 Errors, clerical, 15 diagnostic, 15 Exposure to radiation, sequelae of cataracts, 33, 69 leukemia, 33, 69 Finland, 21 Formosa, 21 Franciscans, in Nagasaki, 22 French, in Nagasaki, 23 Funnel chest, 102 Gamma rays, importance in dosage, 52 Genes see also "accumulation factor" additive effects of, 213 number in Drosophila, 212 number in man, 212, 217 Genetic damage, indicators of, 3, 5, 72 Genetics Conferences first, 2, 217, 231 second, 19 Genetics Long Form, 9, 14, 61, 93, 221 Genetics 9-Months Follow-up, 15, 225 Genetics Short Form, 5, 9, 44, 53, 61, 218 Guinea pig, 213 radiation of, effect on birthweight, 203 on growth and development, 203 on neonatal death rate, 203 Goa, 21 Government, Japanese, 3 Hawaii, 28, 173 Head circumference of child, in relation to parental radiation, 164 Heart disease, congenital, 15, 102 Hernia, inguinal, 15, 102 Heterogeneity, within exposure cells, 85, 133, 137, 168, 175, 179 Honshu, 21 Sz~bjer~ Index Indonesia, 21 Ishikawa type, of Japanese, 171 Japan Science Council, 34, 189 Japanese, origin of, 21 physical types of, 171 Jesuits, in Nagasaki, 21 Korea, 21, 173 "Korean colony," in Hiroshima, 28 Kyushu, 21 LD50, man, 45 Length of child, in relation to parental radiation, 164 Leucopenia, following irradiation, 46, 50 Leukemia, 33, 69 Macao, 21, 24 Malaysia, 21 Malformation, congenital see also under specific type accuracy of diagnosis, 99 autopsy studies of, 184 definition of major, 99 minor, 99 frequency, in relation to parental radiation, 195 at age 9 months, 115 at birth, 110 specific types, 117 frequency of, as affected by maternal age, 105 nutrition, 110 parity, 105 viral infections, 110 operating characteristic curve of, 198 opportunities for concealment, 63 study of Macht and Lawrence, 202 types encountered, in ABCC study, 100 comparison, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 102 in other studies on Japanese, 101 Manchuria, 21, 172 Marshall Islands, 49 Meiji era, 22 Mental defect, severe, 102, 104 Midwives, 4, 5, 9 Midwives Association, 5 Ministry of Welfare, Japanese, 2 Miscarriages, reporting of, 9 Mongolism, 110 Mouse radiation of, effect on malformation frequency, 201 on neonatal death rate, 203 on sex ratio, 200 on stillbirth frequency, 202 sterility following irradiation, 200 Mutation rates, induced by radiation, 3 in Drosophila, 211 in man, 211, 217 in the mouse, 210 Mutation rates, spontaneous, 3, 205 in Drosophila, 208 in man, 209 in the mouse, 209 Mutations, types of "detrimentals," 164 "invisibles," 131 lethal, 88,118,204,205 ratio of types, 206, 207 sex-linked, 88, 203 "visibles," 104,204,205

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Subject Index Nagasaki Medical School, 29, 102, 184, 188, 189 National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council (U.S.), 1, 3, 19, 20 National Institute of Health, Japanese, 2, 5, 20 National Research Council, Japanese, 2 Neonatal death see "death, neonatal" Neutrons, importance in dosage, 51, 52 "Nine-months program," description of, 14 Non-orthogonality, 86, 157 Nutrition, maternal, effect on birthweight, 132 death during first 9 months, 152 malformation frequency, 105 size of adult, 172 stillbirth frequency, 119 Okayama type, of Japanese, 171 Operating characteristic curves, 198 Parity allowance for, in analysis, 76 differences, in irradiation subclasses, 55 Parity effects on birthweight, 132, 148 on death during first 9 months, 152 on growth and development, 165 on malformation frequency, 105 on sex ratio, 89 on stillbirth frequency, 120 Plutonium-239, 28 Polynesia, 21 Portuguese, in Japan, 21, 24 Prefecture, definition of, 23 Pregnancy registration, Japanese, 5 completeness of, 7 repeat, 63, 77 Radiation, indicators of genetic effects of, 3, 5, 72 Radiation, residual, 33, 189 Radiation, symptoms of diarrhea, 36 epilation, 29, 36, 47 oropharyngeal lesions, 29, 36, 47 petechiae, 29, 36, 47 Radiation categories definition of by ABCC, 44 by Hayashi, 189 dosage in, 45, 50 Radiation Census, 44 Radiation history, 5, 9, 38 validity of, 44 Radiation sickness, syndrome of, 34 Ration system, 4 Registration, of pregnancy see "pregnancy registra tion" Rejected observations, justification, 77 Rockefeller Foundation, 20 Roentgen, 45 Roentgen equivalent physical, 45, 46, 51, 203 Russia, 21 Russians, in Nagasaki, 23, 25 Ryukyu Islands, 21 239 Sampling, balanced, 75 Satsuma type, of Japanese, 171 Selection, natural, in man, 213 Sequelae, late, of exposure to bombs, 69 Sex differences, in anthropometrics, 170 in birthweight, 135 in indicator values, 192 in malformation frequency (absent), 110 in neonatal death rate, 157 in stillbirth frequency (absent), 124 Sex ratio effect of concomitant variation on, 89 effect of irradiation of parents on, 89, 194 genetic control of, 88 operating characteristic curves of, 198 study of Macht and Lawrence, 201 Shielding, 36, 50 in relation to symptoms, 41, 42 Siberia, 21 Sinus, pilonidal, 15, 104 Spanish, 22 Sterility, in mouse following radiation, 200 Stillbirth definition of, 118 frequency of, as affected by birth injury, 119 congenital syphilis, 119 maternal age, 120 nutrition, 119 parental radiation, 124, 196 parity, 1 20 paternal age, 120 genetic component in, 118 operating characteristic curve of, 198 study of Macht and Lawrence, 203 Sweden, 21 Syphilis, maternal, 9 allowance for, in analysis, 76 different rates, in irradiation subclasses, 61 effect on death during first 9 months, 152 effect on stillbirth frequency, 119 relation to frequency of autopsy, 187 "Ten-per cent sample," 9 Tokugawa Shogunate, 22, 24 U.S. Army of Occupation, 3 U.S. Army-Navy Joint Commission, 2, 47, 49 U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, 1, 3, 19, 87 "Unregistered Series," 7 Uranium-235, 28 Uterus, dilatation and curettage of, 61 allowance for, in analysis, 76 Variance analysis, 82, 86, 133, 137, 150 Variances, test for equality of, 84 Viral diseases effect on malformation frequency, 105 Weight of child, in relation to parental radiation, 164 X-chromosome, 88, 204 Y-chromosome, 88

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NAME INDEX Alexander, M. L., 208, 211, 230 Anderson, R. C., 53, 234 Antonov, A. N., 59, 110, 131, 230 Armitage, P., 20 Balfour, M. I., 59, 230 Barnett, H. L., 234 Bartlett, M. S., 175, 179, 230 Beadle, G. W., 1, 2, 19 Beardsley, R., 21, 230 Bell, M., 231 Bellows, M. T., 233 Bernstein, M., 89, 230 Block, M., 1 Bond, V. P., 50, 230 Bonnier, G., 208, 230 gorges, W., 33, 69, 231 Bowers, J. Z., 36, 235 Box, G. E. P., 84, 179, 230 Boxer, C. R., 24, 230 Boyd, W. C., 28, 230 Bradshaw, E. S., 55, 234 Brandt, A. E., 20, 82 Brewer, R., 53, 234 Brinkley, F., 21, 230 Bronk, D. W., 1 Brown, A., 231 Brues, A., 1 Burke, B. S., 59, 230 Butterfly, Madame, 25 Carter, C., 55, 105, 230 Charles, D. R., 2, 19, 201, 202, 230 Ciocco, A., 55, 89, 230 Cochran W. G.. 82 230 , Coffey, V. P., 105, 230 Cogan, D. G., 33, 69, 230 Collins, V. P., 49, 230 Connell, F. H., 19 Cox, G., 86 Craig, C. C., 19, 20 Cronkite, E. P., 50, 230 Crow, J. F., 203, 231 Danforth, C. H., 2 Davidson, P., 20 Dean, R. F. A., 59, 231 Dobzhansky, T., 209, 231 Dunham, C. L., 50, 230 Dwyer, P. S., 20 Ebbs, J. H., 59, 231 Eisenhart, C., 82, 231 Evans, R. D., 210, 211, 212, 231 Falk, R., 206, 231 Falls, H. F., 213, 234 Fillmore, P. G., 69, 231 Fisher, R. A., 84, 231 Folley, J. H., 33, 69, 231 Forrestal, J. T., 1 Glass, H. B., 208 Gordon, J. E., 55, 233 Green, E., 20 . 240 Gruenwald, P., 105, 231 Hadorn, E., 202, 231 Haldane, J. B. S., 209, 211, 217, 231 Hammond, E. C., 234 Harris, H., 85, 231 Harris, T., 22 Hasebe, K., 171, 231 Hayasl~i, I., 184, 188, 189, 190, 191, 231 Hechter, H., 50 Hegnauer, H., 55, 231 Hempelmann, L. H., 36, 45, 49, 231 Henshaw, P. S., 1 Hertwig, P., 200, 202, 203, 231 Hill' B., 20 Hoffman, J. G., 36, 45, 49, 231 Holmes, R., 98 House, V. L., 213, 231 Hsiao, B., 20 Hulse, F. S., 171, 232 Ingalls, T. H., 102, 234 Ives, P. T., 208, 211, 232 Izumi, T., 23, 232 Jessop, W. J. E., 105, 230 Johnson, H., 20 Kaempfer, E., 22, 24, 171, 232 Kalmus, H., 200, 232 Karn, M. N., 55, 131, 232 Kastenbaum, M., 20, 69, 233, 234 Kelley, H. C., 20 Kendall, M. G., 86, 232 Keosian, J., 216, 232 Kerkis, J. J., 206, 232 Kimura, S., 33, 69, 230 Kirk, N. T., 1 Kirkwood, J. B., 102, 234 Kitamura, S., 234 Kiyono, K., 21, 232 Kobayashi, R., 20 Kodani, M., 18, 53, 234 Komai, T., 20 Koya, Y., 19, 232 Krooth, R., 20, 75, 105, 185, 214, 232 Kuji, V., 101 Kurasaki, H., 69, 232 Lamphiear, D. E., 20 Landtman, B., 55, 105, 232 Lange, R. D., 33, 69, 232, 233 Lawrence, P. S., 200, 202, 203, 232 Lefevre, G., 208, 232 Lerner, I. M., 206, 232 LeRoy, G. V., 47, 232, 234 Liebow, A. A., 234 Lisco, H., 36, 45, 49, 231 Loeffler, R. K., 49, 230 Lorenz, E., 69, 232 Lowe, C. R., 55, 89, 232 Lucas, H. C., 20, 74 Luning, K. G., 208, 230 Lyon, G. M., 1 , . , i

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Name lade Macht, S. H., 200, 202, 203, 232 MacMahon, B., 55, 233 Maki, H., 20 Martin, S. F., 33, 69, 230 Matsubayashi, I., 3 Matsumoto, S., 4, 233 Matsumura, A., 171, 233 Matsunaga, H., 69, 232 Matsuoka, S., 69, 232 McCarthy, D., 105, 230 McDonald, D. J., 234 McIntosh, R., 104, 233 McKeown, T., 55, 89, 232, 234 Meerdervoort, P., 22 Merritt, K. K., 233 Metrakos, J. D., 200, 232, 235 Millis, J., i31, 233 Mitani, S., 101 Moloney, W. C., 33, 69, 232, 233 Morton, J., 19 Morton, N., 131, 233, 234 Mourant, A. E., 28, 233 Moyle, W. J., 231 Muller, H. J., 2, 203, 206, 207, 208, 210, 211, 212, 213, 215, 216, 233 Munro, N. G., 21, 233 Murdoch, J., 21, 24, 233 Murphy, D. P., 202, 233 Myers, R. J., 55, 233 Nachtsheim, H., 209, 233 Nagai, I., 20 Neel, J. V., 1, 2, 19, 45, 53, 55, 96, 208, 209, 210, 213, 233, 234 Nickson, J. J., 49, 234 Nixon, W. C. W., 59, 234 Novitski, E., 55, 89, 234 Olkin, I., 20 Oughterson, A. W., 1, 33, 233 Parkes, A. S., 200, 234 Penrose, L. S., 20, 55, 131, 215, 232, 234 Perry, Commodore, 22, 25 Phelps, L. V., 7, 20 Plough, H., 19 Prindle, R. A., 102, 234 Rao, C. R., 20, 82, 86, 137, 168, 175, 234 Record, R. G., 55, 234 Reed, T. E., 209 Rhoads, C. P., 1 Rice, R. G., 55, 236 Richards, M. R., 233 Ritterhoff, R. K., 208 Rivers, T. M., 1 Robson, E., 131, 234 Rosenbaum, J. D., 234 Roy, S. N., 78, 234 Russell, W. L., 199, 200, 201, 202, 210, 211, 234 Salber, E. J., 55, 234 Sams, C. F., 2, 20 Samuels, M. H., 233 Sansom, G. B., 21, 24, 234 Sasano, A., 23, 234 Schneider, B. A., 234 Schneidewind, J., 20 Schull, W. J., 19, 54, 105, 208, 209, 210, 234 241 Schultz, J., 207, 234 Scott, W. A., 231 Seijas, B., 20 Seng, Y. P., 132, 233 Sevitt, S., 184, 188, 191, 23S Shapiro, H. L., 172, 235 Silverberg, M., 200, 232 Sinskey, R. M., 33, 69, 235 Slatis, H. M., 210, 211, 212, 235 Smith, C. A., 59, 110, 131, 235 Smith, C. A. B., 85, 231 Smith, H. F., 20 Snedecor, G. W., 86, 235 Snyder, L. H., 2, 19 Spassky, B., 209, 231 Spassky, N., 209, 231 Spencer, W. P., 203, 207, 235 Spuhler, J. N., 212, 235 Stern, C., 19, 20, 203, 207, 235 Stevenson, S. S., 55, 230, 236 Strandskov, H. H., 89, 202, 203, 235 Stuart, H. C., 230 Sturtevant, A. H., 211, 235 Sutherland, I., 55, 235 Suzuki, M., 234 Takeshima, K., 234 Taylor, G., 19 Tessmer, C. F., 19 Thunberg, K. P., 25, 235 Tietze, C., 88, 235 Timofeeff-Ressovsky, N. W., 203, 206, 235 Tisdall, F. F., 231 Tomonaga, M., 69, 232 Trasler, 13. G., 200, 235 Tsuzuki, M., 20 Ullman, J., 20 Ullrich, F., 1 Valencia, J. I., 208 Valencia, R. M., 208 Vor der Bruegge, C. F., 36, 235 Wallace, B., 216, 235 Wallis, W. A., 73, 235 Warkany, J., 105, 110, 235 Warren, S. L., 1, 34, 235 Warren, Sh., 1, 34, 36 Weed, L. H., 1 Westergaard, M., 212, 235 Whipple, G. H., 1 Wilks, S. S., 86, 179, 235 Wilson, R. R., 34, 46, 236 Wishart, J., 137, 236 Wood, J., 234 Woodbury, L., 43, 98, 236 Woolley, W., 24, 236 Worcester, J., 55, 230, 236 Wright, S., 210, 211, 213, 236 Wright, S. W., 69, 232, 234, 236 Yamawaki, T., 33, 69, 231, 232 Yamazaki, J., 234 Yates, F., 86, 232 Yerushalmy, J., 55, 153, 232 Yesley, G., 20 Zelle, M., 19 Zirkle, R. E., 1