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FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS DOE/NATIONAL LABOR~TO~S/INDUSTRY INTERACrlONS R_ 1: AcJ~cp~by~e~nd us=Dts~fflng~, shim, o;bjecf~es, hum and Ends Misadd be rr~do~d ~ DOE ~ pow ~ which DOE is net like end us=. The AVLIS program was initiated approximately 20 years ago. At that time, the nation had not fully appreciated either the intense international competition that U.S. industry would face in the 1990s or the impact that this competition would have on the nation's economic well-be - . In the late 1980s, the nature and impact of this competition began to emerge, leading to the creation of the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA*~. Since the AVLIS program significantly predates CRADA, it is replete with major technological and engineering achievements as well as missed opportunities for more industrial involvement and transfer of many sponsor technologies. The successful transition of a product or process from R&D status to commercial use is a difficult, expensive, and iB-defined process even within a single industrial entity. The R&D cost is typically a tenth or less Of the total cost required to bring a product or process from R&D to viable commercial use. The probability of a successful transition into the marketplace is significantly increased by early participation of all parts of the ndustnal enterprise in the R&D process. This requires the inclusion of manufacturing, product design, marketing, and testing personnel early In the R&D process. This unified approach to the development of a product or process Is now recognized as essential by most industries both in the United States and abroad. --- ~ -- - - rid-- I' ~ r ~ There are many reasons why early participation by all disciplines is needed for both product and process technologies. Some examples are to establish (1) a schedule to meet the window of opportunity in the market for the product; (2) the manufacturing cost; (3) the price of the product based on its potential impact in the market; (4) the advantage of the technology to be exploited from the standpoint of cost, performance, size, weight, etc., versus the cost of its timely insertion into a product; (5) the trade-offs among schedule, performance, manufacturability, and price considerations; and (6) the final product design with a minimum number of redesigns. For successful transition to occur, industry must be a strong partner and must develop a sense of ownership for the technology, otherwise, the probability of generating a successful product ~ reduced to an unacceptably low level. A_ 2. DOE sheath! fit He marmfac~re of combs and Ebbs to ~ nap ~ sixth] be ~D~,fi-n~gmarc In peal Hems of ate saw kind ut~se unless ~ is Beam ~ fwHa~al spray. The AVLIS program leaf the development of state-of-the-art, high-power, compact, efficient pulse power and switching power supplies; advanced copper vapor lasers; dye lasers; adaptive optics; and titanium: sapphire lasers. Many of these units were produced in-house at LLNL in many dozens of Wits to set up the AVLIS *CRADA is a relatively new government-private sector arrangement created specifically to speed the transfer of technology from federal laboratories to private companies where it can be further developed for commercial use. 9

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10 fatuity. The competitive subcontracting of such mats to industry would have assisted the emerging U.S. laser industry in advancing a technology base. This would also have provided DOE with the manufacturing cost benefits that come we ncreased volume. APPLICATIONS TO NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLES As part of DOE's responsibility in the energy field, it appears that isotopes that would make the reactor cycle safer, more economical, and more benign environmentally are of special importance. If DOE, national laboratories, and industry could successfully build upon the U.S. lead In laser isotope separation technology, it could further improve the nation's competitive position in the international fuel cycle market, a market that is currently measured ~ billions of dollars per year. Gadolinium Isotopes for Nuclear Reactors R_3 Fo~g the mccessfid ~ alA~LlS~r~um In GUAM of 357~ - ~ ~ it, The naturally occurring mature of gadolininm omdes is now used as burnable poisons in essentially all boiling water reactors and many pressuring water reactors. Other burnable poisons (boron, ZrB2, Erbia, etc.) are also used. Burnable poisons improve the core power performance and permit much greater fuel lifetimes, as well as decreasing the amount of enriched stratum consumed for a given fuel burnup [2-4,5,63. Greater improvement with Gd poison almost certainly could be achieved if ~57Gd-enuched material were available, particularly for fuel elements in which utilities expect to attain burnups of at least 50,000-60,000 MW days/metnc ton In the United States [4,7-~] and up to at least 50,000 MW days/metnc ton in Japan [13~. These higher burnups could contribute to improved economics, better safety, and reduced handing and storage of spent fuel. The availability of Gil enriched to 80% i5'G~ would mean that Gd loading In the fuel could be reduced from the current U.S. maximum of 8% [14] (10% In some reactors elsewhere [S]~. While the reduction in Gd loading cannot be established with any precision because of the major uncertainties medicated below, it would probably be In the range of two- or threefold [33. Reduced loading would assist U.S. utilities to achieve desired tw~year refueling cycles [12,LS]. Etched Gil also might offer be a valuable commodity for export markets. The AVLIS te~nolo~ is one of the likely means for providing a supply of ~5'Gd. The use of other enrichment techniques like the Calutron and the gas centrifuge are not feasible because of economic and gas limitations. Demonstration of :57G~ enrichment should be part of the overall AVLIS effort for the power reactor fuel cycle, and this demonstration should include industrial partners from the outset. If this demonstration is successful and a market for enriched ~57Gd develops, Gil enrichment should be considered for integration into any future uranium enrichment plant ha ~ rit~lic~t~1 talent for this annli~;n~ ;c not l;l"^l~r to be economic [16~. ~ ~A ~ ~e -_~^v~ ~ eve ~v The preliminary work performed at LLNL has been wed done, and technical success of the effort seems likely. Additional data, particularly for the noniaser parts of the AVLIS line (ice. vaporization and separation), are needed. Much more extensive economic analysis is urgently needed, including present and future nuclear power cycles as well as additional ~ndus~y and utility mputs. Potential benefits of ~s7Gd are real, but economic comparisons with the alternatives will be exceedingly difficult to determine because of the vast uncertainties related to (1) alternatives for incorporating enriched Gd into reactor cores [3], (23 uramurn and enrichment costs, (3) ultimate fuel lifetimes and reactor refueling assumptions or strategies, and (43 spent fuel handling and storage costs. The last two uncertainties are extremely important. The optimum time for introduction of enriched gadolinium into the fuel cycle from the simple economic point of view could be later than the benefit obtained *Biirnable poisons are materials with high neutron absorption cross-sections (poisons) that are used to compensate for excess reactivity dunug the early stages of life In the nuclear core. Such absorbers are chosen so that they Burn outs (i.e., are transmuted by neutron capture into isotopes of low capture cross-sections) somewhat faster than do fuels, so that later in core life they constitute negligible negative reactivity

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11 Dom its introduction from the environmental pout of view. This is because of the possible contribution to minimization of handing and storage of spent fuels in the United States. In other countries that use fuel reprocessing, the additional wastes that are generated would be mini. The use of natural gadolinium Is a well-established way to extend the life of fuel in today's nuclear power reactors [2~,1~L3,17-19~. Incorporation of more of the desired :57G~ isotope without disruption of the established fuel technology would have an added advantage with respect to fuel desk fabrication, and performance risks. A commercial process for the e~thment of gadolinium isotopes would have another considerable benefit. It could enrich the ~52G~ isotope as a precursor to radioactive 353G~ isotope for use In the diagnosis of osteoporosis. The present means of synthesis of this isotope Tom :5~Eu requires more neutrons than does the synthesis from enriched ~52Gi Feed materials enriched in :52G] would allow higher specific activity in the product :53Gd, with safer and more general and effective applications {20 223. Plutonium Applications R_ 4: If DOE~s tolwd a Dun facility, ~ show apply AVLlS~elated tam ~ and as expropriate to the sized emu >lewd for peon isotope 238A`, 242pu, sad At`. There are many uncertainties with regard to the makeup of the DOE weapons production complex as it progresses into the next cennIry. A significant restructuring has been discussed that involves far fewer facilities and more emphasis on environmental cleanup as well as on safeguards and security. In addition, there may be new requirements with respect to the production complex to be considered in any reorg~tion. One such requirement could involve increase<] production of 23SPU for radioisotopic thermoelectric generators for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Department of Defense (DOD) by application of proven AVLIS techniques to the recovery of 23SPU from power reactor-produced plutonium available at several sites In the world. The committee received descriptions of several alternative plutonium missions involving the areas of personnel safety and health (239Pu), NASA and DOD remote power supplies (238~), and Pluto materiel accountability (244Pu) [23~. All of these applications are within DOE's charter and should be considered in planning for the future of the complex before capabilities, people, or facilities are lost. 238PU, 244PU, and 242PU isotopes are unique and invaluable, for power sources, safeguards, and other special applications. The quantities required are tens or hundreds of kilograms for 238PU, tens of kilograr.ls for 242PU, and the order of 1 g for 244~ Add. B=a~ of Dam isotopic Frontages and very Cited ~rou~put~ production and fabrication operations are different Tom those for uranic or even those for the relatively common 239p4 which has a controversial but expanding worldwide role on a multiton scale in light-water and fast-reactor fuels. Beeves the challenge of safely and economically demonstrating the baseline AVLIS process, consideration of the use of AVLIS for 23SPU, 242PU, and 244PU faces the additional major challenges related to the extreme ~ticalities, toxicities, radiation exposures, and environmental restraints of these isotopes. The ability of the AVLIS process to effectively recover very small amounts of specific isotopes from a vapor stream allows the use of earner materials for safer and easier operations with small amounts of feed materials, as in the recovery of highly enriched 242PU and 244PU from small amounts of available feed by using relatively standard separators [16~. Planning for and building the capabilities of the future U.S. plutonium complex are very much in a state of flux Production of these valuable isotopes, possibly by AVLIS, Should be kept in mind. The need for isotopic power sources in aerospace applications is rapidly increasing worldwide. 238Pu is the most developed and Widely used isotope for aerospace moons. Alternatives such as space-based nuclear reactors are not currently optimum for use in many of these mobile, low-power applications. In the area of safeguards and security, hi{{h-~topic-assay 244PU is used for highly accurate inventory measurements In plutonium processing plants by isotopic dilution because of its negligible isotopic abundance in weapon-grade plutonium and commercial spent reactor fuel. Thus, 244Pu has a diagnostic application for domestic and International safeguards, the latter for fuel reprocessing plants. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry

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12 for accurate plutonium mass analysis requires approximately 10-6 g of 244PU per analysis. There is a projected . . ~ WO1 UW1L .~ ~ ,cm~L o1 ~ mut U.i gin, DUE odes me resm~ea Scare of limits mvento~ of - -~my material [24]. Current supplies "me from a Calutron In a process involving (1) Calutron enrichment to >88% 244PU, (2) irradiation in the High-Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORAL) to achieve the required assay (to burn out the Her isotopes), and (3) recovery of the plutonium from other actinides and fission products in a transuran~c processing facility at ORNL. The Calutrons would have to be restarted to generate new material in the United States. Vanous safeq-related renovations win be needed before these Calutrons can be restarted [25~. The costs of these competing alternatives should be carefully evaluated before a decision is made to apply AVLIS to 244PU separation ~.~ _~ ~ ~ _ ~ , , ~ . _ , _ ~ ~ , ~ ~ , ~ 238PU lS traditionally produced by neutron irradiation of 237Np in heavy water production reactors where the neutron spectrum and special operational mode yield the high-punty material that is needed for space missions. Other reactor Apes can be used to produce 238PU, but they leave undesirable isotopic contaminants. AVLIS purification capability could remove these contaminants. This would allow 238Pu production with other reactor types without necessarily altering their normal operations, in the event that future 238Pu cannot be met by the available heavy~water production reactors. An AVLIS facility could also be used for 242Pu and 244Pu applications, which seem to be receiving increased priority as congressional attention to safeguards and security increases. One key issue is the potential availability of the facility at LINL, which has the equipment, expertise, and capabilities to support these applications with mmimal development costs or times. A problem with the LLNL location is the potential difficulty in getting approval for handling the plutonium after the required environmental impact statements are submitted. Also, it Is unlikely that significant quantities of 23SPU can be separated at LLNL [26~. Another key issue Is demonstration of the required full-scale process. Also, from an economic standpoint, most adternative applications of plutonium AVLIS lose their economic payoff unless they capitalize on the primary plutonium mission of fuel-grade purification, which Is not currently funded. Removal of 93Zr and Hf from Reactor Cladding Pats ~91~*~w Most of the 413 power reactors in the world use 235U-enuched uranium oxide pellets clad in low- ha~ium zirconium. All of these reactors pay heavy penalties with regard to performance and economics because of neutron absorption by the 92Zr isotope and residual Radium in the cladding [27~. For CANDU (Canadian deuterium) heavy water reactors, the penalty also applies to coolant tubes. AVLIS offers the potential for remove this isotope and the hafai~m; other processes have been developed for the removal of Her, but they have not been applied commercially. Technology requirements and potential economic benefits for such applications of AVLIS have been carefully evaluated by LLNL [28~. Several technical challenges were revealed, but, perhaps more Importantly, it was fairly well established that reuse of 9~Zr-stnpped cladding (via reprocessing of fuel) would be required to achieve any economic benefit from the use of U.S. reactors. A benefit of $60 $100/kg of Zr per use versus a production cost of at least $180/kg is estimated by LLNL [28~. This is an important finding because reprocessing of fuel in the United States is unacceptable in the foreseeable future for technical, economic, and political reasons. Because they are used through many reactor cycles, CANDU heavy- water coopt tubes possibly could benefit without rewcing the 9lZr-stripped material. The value of etched zircons n this application Is estimated to be $1,000/kg [28~. This application would require consideration of the involvement of another country In production-scale AVLIS operations. Potential Applications of AVLIS to Commercial Nuclear Waste Disposal _ - R_ ~ A~ ~ ~f~~ ~ ~=w~ tar issues ~ ~ tang are ~ In considering the potential applications of AVI~IS to the disposal of commercial nuclear waste, two basic questions anise.

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13 1. Does it make sense to reprocess spent fuel for nuclear power resource extension and/or reduction of the hazard of the h~gh-level waste, or, alternatively, is it preferable to store and possibly dispose of the spent fuel directly? 2. Does it make sense to use AVLIS either to (a) separate the two major constituent classes of high- level waste, i.e., the actinides and the fission products, or (b) Ermines the fission products stream for isotopes of interest after the fission products have been chemically separated from the actinides? The committee's basic conclusions are as follows. 1. The common argument for reprocessing commercial spent fuel is as a means of reducing its long- term risk; such risk Is mainly due to the actinide content. Thus, it Is argued that the partitioning of the waste into separate achnide and fission product streams and the transmutation of the former in reactors or accelerators could reduce the period dunng which the risk of the remaining, mosHy fission product, waste is significant, from hundreds of tho'~cands of years to hundreds of years [29~. The basis for this contention is the use of toxicity per unit of mass as a measure of its risk.* However, toxicity ~ generally not an adequate measure of the risk of h~gh-level radioactive waste sequestered In a geologic repository. Estimates of risk must also account for the paths by which the radionuclides in the waste could reach the human environment in a given geologic setting. For example, many analyses of the risk of high-level waste In a repository assume that the risk is due mainly to the slow dissolution of waste In flowing ~oundwater and subsequent migration of the dissolved waste to the biosphere [30~. For this scenario, the maximum radiation dose due to high-level waste is dominated by the long-lived, highly soluble, and weakly sorbing fission produc4 such as 99Tc, :291, and \35Cs, rather Man the actinides. Thus, separation of actinides alone would not appreciably reduce the long-term rock of high-level waste, although it would mitigate the consequences of such low-probability events as the violent emulsion of the waste into the biosphere in the future as a result of, for example, vuica~cm. 2. In principle, these long-lived fission products as well as the actinides could be separated from the h~gh-level waste by chemical means and subsequently transmuted in reactors or accelerators. However, most of the required separation and transmutation processes, e.g., 99Tc recovery, target fabrication, and irradiation, have not yet been demonstrated, even on a laboratory scale. Moreover, such processing starts with waste streams from other separations. such as the combined ulutonium/uranium extraction (PURIST and transuranic , , , , ~ ~ ~ ~ _ A_ ~ t ~ ~ . ~ . I_ ~ _~ ~ lit . ~ ~ extraction (TIMEX) processes. TRUEX is In an early developmental stage; PUREX is well established, but data from operating processing plants in Europe and Japan indicate that its costs are high. Thus, the costs of recovery of individual fission products and actinides and their subsequent transmutation are uncertain but likely to be very high Even aside from unfavorable economics, the nsk/benefit Of astride and fission product separation and transmutation would be vitiated unless the large quantities of alpha-particle-contam~nated waste streams generated in conventional PUREX reprocessing could be substantially reduced. The technical feasibility and costs associated with such reductions have not been demonstrated. 3. Even if all the technical anti economic issues inherent In the development and deployment of new technology for partitioning and recycling of fission products and a~inides could be satisfactorily resolved, the issue of the proliferation risk associated with reprocessing remains. It was this issue that led to the deferment of U.S. commercial fuel reprocessing by President Carter in 1977 [31~. Although Carter's successor, Ronald Reagan, supported both nuclear power and the reprocessing of nuclear fuels, he viewed responsibility for the latter as belonging to the private sector. In particular, Reagan stated that it would be inappropriate for the federal government to acquire the Barnwell reprocessing facility. On the other hand, the consensus of the U.S. nuclear ~ndustry--faced with growing opposition to nuclear power in general and the likelihood of strong opposition to reprocessing on both environmental and nonproliferation grounds--was that reprocessing at Barnwell would not be a wise investment. *lThe to' ty at a given time Is the son of the activities of each radionuclide Ill the waste divided by the annual intake Iitnit of this radionublide, as defined by the International Committee on Radiation Protection.

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14 Barnwell was of fidaBy closed in December 1983, and the law of enthusiasm by the nuclear industry and the opposition among key environmental groups and members of Confess to reprocessing remain strong. Thus, the perceived benefits to waste disposal from the reprocessing of commercial spent fuel must be balanced against the widespread perception that, at the least, it makes the proliferation problem worse. In sum, removal of the actiDide elements from h~gh-leve! nuclear waste has uncertain benefits in terms of reducing the long-term risk of these wastes, while the cost of so doing by proven chemical techniques or reasonable extensions thereof are uncertain but are likely to be very high. Removal of long-lived fission products as well as the actinides has greater benefits, but the cost issue remains; so does the issue of the proliferation risk associated with reprocessing. With regard to the application of the AVLIS process to high-level waste management, several possibilities have been suggested such as the separation of all the actinide elements by ricing isotope separation, specifically the AVLIS process, Stead of chemical separation The rationale is that the high decontamination factors required to reduce the actinide inventory of the waste to the point where the maximum actinide risk Is proportional to the inventory may be more readily achievable by using isotope rather than elemental chemical separation techniques [32~. However, given the uncertain benefits of actinide partitioning, it is unlikely that reductions to these levels would be worthwhile, even assuming that such an achievement was technically feasible. Moreover, the cost of accomplishing this via the AVLIS process, using a different set of lasers for-each isotope indiv~duaDy, Is likely to be prohibitive. Other suggested applications involve the separation of individual fission product isotopes once the actinides and the fission products have been chemically separated. For example, ]3'Cs coed ~ Updated and stored on the surface, thus reducing the heat generation of the high-level waste consigned to a geologic depository. However, the separation of a high-ga~nma-emirt] sotope such as ]37Cs by the AWIS process would involve a radical revest of the technology developed for uranium and plutonium, which requires contact maintenance of the collectors at frequent intervals. Alternatively, the radiocesiu~n could be chemically separated from the high-level waste and permitted to decay on the surface for several hundred years, after which it could be mined to separate the long-lived \35 isotope for subsequent disposal in a geologic repository. Again, even if this were te~cally feasible by AVLIS, it seems unlikely that the costs would justly the waste management benefits unless a demon has been made that reprocessing of nuclear fuel is Justified. This, In turn, requires a demonstration that the benefits of reprocessing with regard to waste management and resource extension outweigh the economic costs and proliferation risks. Until there is such a demonstration, the use of Isotope separation techniques such as AVLIS does not merit further consideration. Applications in the lfitium Cycle R~ 7: Ihe ~aL~demlopedunderAVI-ISg~notbe ~ppliedio the en~ror~t~ md ~ng,D - ~ Id ~ ~ There are no processes now known in which tile elements of the AVI IS technology can be efficiently applied to the recovery or pry of tritillm. The erasing environmental problems will be solved by other means before any future AVLIS development can be applied. There may be laser-based processes of future interest [33~. ENRICHMENT OF OTHER ISOTOPES A 1982 National Research Council report details the uses of and needs for separated isotopes of many elements [343. Since AVLIS has the capability of separating urn and plutonium isotopes it is natural to consider this system for application to other elements of the penodic table. However, there Is no generic AVLIS machine. Each isotope is different and requires its own R&D program regarding vaporization, laser excitation, and collection. The strategy for separation is also Aced to be a function of the feed and product assays required. Lasers can be tuned over a continuous broad range of wavelengths that correspond to the absorption peaks of

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AS many isotopes. Therefore, AVLIS and molecular laser isotope separation ~IS) have a substantial advantage over most other techniques in the separation of Middle isotopes such as 170 from ~60 and ~0 [34~. In many cases, the R&O necessary to bnag other isotope separation applications to fruition cannot be justified on the basis of projected markets. The current technologies of Calutrons, electromagnetic separators from the 1940s, and gas centrifuges are well known and have many years of developmental research behind them. It has previously been recommended [34], and this committee concurs, that as these facilities age, an economic analysis should be performed before any decision is made to substitute AVLIS or MLIS technology for these proven t~nolog~es for the production of small quantities of isotopes. The committee considered a number of proposals in both the industrial and medical sectors. The evaluation of each proposed element was made on the basis of its national importance, the usefulness of the AVLIS process for that element, and economic nabilitr. Isotopically lore Carbon for Producing Diamond _ ~ & A ~ bed DOF: may, and, dribs, ~ ~ sew Me flee we and fervidly of MA of isotope pure &mad IsotopicaBy pure diamond Is a matenal of Unceasing interest, mainly because of higher than elected thermal conductivity. General Electric has found the conductivity to be some 50% greater than that for diamond made from naturally occurring carbon [35~. It is the committee's belief that applications relating to the semiconductor industry are not yet relevant. The major factor limiting the conduction of heat from semiconductor circuits and modules is not controlled by the thermal conductivity of chip and substrate materials at the present time [36~. There are two applications for which increased thermal conductivity will be useful. The first pertains to the fabrication of ultrasharp diamond-cuthng knives for metal machining to be used in the optics and nuclear industries and for other specialized applications of single-point turning [37,383; the second Is for use with drilling [39] and ganding tools for difficult and precision applications. On an industrial scale, these applications would require a substantial Mount of cliamond product, on the order of kilograms per year. To implement these two applications, the AVLIS laser system can be used to obtain isotope separation of carbon from photoprediss~iation of formaldehyde [403. This process has already been successfully demonstrated with laboratory-type laser sources [413. At this time, it appears that there is no substantial cost advantage to isotonically pure carbon generated by laser isotope separation over that generated by alternative emsdog commercial sources. However, since an enormous amount of work on diamond production is berg undertaken, especially in Japan [42], an industry or ~ndustry/university type of collaboration with DOE would be a reasonable venture for utilizing the existing AVLIS facility. Use of the AVLIS facility for this purpose is recommended only if individuals in industry or at universities interested in such work can obtain beam time from LLNL on a contract basis. Potential Medical Applications of TIC, EN, ]70, Ad Aver Stable Isotopes for Use as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging Agents R_* ~-tope~on Mu zlsing~AVLlS laser system shed be ewe as a pal sauce of isotopes such as 13Cfor~r~c reS~la~8 into - gothic if He isotope of Mast con be Id at a cad of IS Cat Slog& Isotopes such as ]3C have potential applications for use as In viva enhancing agents for magnetic resonance imypog Am. These agents could be useful for providing diagnostic information on various disease states. For example, ~3C-glucose should be useful in establishing the metabolic status of tissue in the heart or brain, using approaches analogous to those used in positron enli~cion tomography [4~451. After a patient is injected with a sufficient amount of the desired agent, MRI would be performed to obtain information on the regional metabolic status of an organ. To be useful on a routine clinical basis, ]3C or other isotopes such as if

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16 or 170 would need to be available at a relatively low cost, probably ~ the range of $~$10/g.* If laser isotope separation technology could produce 23C, ION, or \70 ~ ~ rue of mst~ wow ~ about ~ order of magnitude lower than current paces for distillation, it would be worthwhile for consideration as an alternative to other Isotope separation techniques. Miscellaneous Separations _ 1~ As port~aryDOE~ to dish orrn~e ding Chin or gas ~udge}~e soon of isotopes, sib; wifhAVLI~ should be investigated on a caste beds. Over 40 years of R&D have gone into the utilization of Calutrons and gas centrifuges for the separation of minor Isotopes. These facilities are Sieging and costly, and, III some cases, they do not produce materials at costs low enough to promote wider use. DOE faces a decision to decommission or modern these facilities at the Y-12 plant built In the 1940s and l950s. At the K-25 plant In Oak Ridge, Tennessee, a number of gas centrifuges that were pilots for the U.S. project can be used for gases that have molecular weights greater than 74. Present rotor seal designs do not contain gases of lower molecular weight to the required specification. These ~ tS have been used to enrich the isotopes c)f sulfur am well a.c to nrmilit~ tan nil~ntiti~.c of r~rt~r grade uranium. Any consideration of laser technologies for the generic separation of isotopes must take into account the unique R&D start-up costs Recess with each new isotope. Because the various isotopes may require different sources, laser frequencies, or collection systems, AVLIS and MLIS are not generic isotope separators. If, after study, laser processes at appropriate scales are shown to be more economical than competitive systems, DOE should consider substitution for eking processes on a case-by-case basis. It is expected that the laser process machines would be closer to the size of those developed for the separation of plutonium isotopes and that parasitic operation on top of an e~nsdng AVLIS plant would be advantageous. Some examples of minor isotope applications follow. Numerous useful isotopes are found at very low concentrations in the natural element. One of these is 152Gd, which is used to make radioactive ~53G~ for the diagnosis of osteoporosis [2~223. It is present at a concentration of only 0.2~o in natural feed materials. Even a small multiple of that concentration win, ~ the same ratio, reduce the cost of ennthment to high purity In the Calutrons. The basic research for AVLIS enrichment has largely been done in the quest for a method to separate :57Gi Similar results would be expected for the minor isotopes of the other lanthan~des. 46Ca and 48Ca are other isotopes used for medical research and cliagnos~s. Ennch~ent of these minor isotopes by AVLIS could be a great economic advantage [34]. Another application of AVLIS involves isotopes of elements such as cadmium and tellurium that have very small neutron-capture cross-sections and that can be used for the manufacture of neutron-resistant solid- state devices. The Calutrons have not produced materials at the low cost necessary to promote mde use. A possible use for neutron-resistant materials is in the construction of instrumentation needed to resist the flux Aide a nuclear reactor or In the vanity of exploding nuclear weapons. This could be especially valuable for solid-state devices made of HgCdTe, in which a radical reduction in the neutron-capture properties of the materials may be obtained by the use of separated isotopes of all three of the elements involved. For materials made of GaAs, InP, SO or Ge, some benefits might be obtained by the use of separated isotopes. Pure 76Ge is useful for particle detectors [46 49~. Laser-based process development might be considered if the DOD or the DOE nuclear weapons branch were to demonstrate the necessity for these materials. considered. Several applications that do not appear to be attractive for AVLIS technology at this time were *A low cost Is necessary since substantial amounts of the isotope being Waged are required to obtain suitable s~gnal-to-background ratios. Based on experience with commercial diagnostic agents, a low-cost Isotope will be necessary for routine clinical applications.

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17 1. The efficiency of fluorescent lighting might be increased by a few percent by using isotopicalIy modified mercury. This application depends on demonstrating the feasibility of low-cost enrichment of ~96Hg. General use could significantly conserve electric power, but the percentage of saving to the immediate customer must be obvious. If industry is Interested enough to participate financially, DOE should assist by providing its expertise In the general field of isotope separation. Potential energy saving are more than enough to justify continued DOE interest in the field [50~. 2. AVLIS technology was also evaluated for its potential application to the separation of radioisotopes for use In Duct ear medicine. 99Uc and 20~ are important isotopes In routine Ace nuclear me~cme [51~. 20~ ARC currently produced by several manurers by Acing ~dotromc.* Me committee beheves Hat AVIS technology does not appear to provide any significant advantage over this approach. 99~c tic available in the hospital from a generator, that consists of a shielded alumina column onto which 99Mo is absorbed [52~. The 99Mo decays to 991c, which is then used to study patients. 99Mo is currently produced in nuclear reactors by fission of MU. An alternative 99~c source that can be obtained by using AVLIS technology would require 99Mo produced by neutron irradiation of 98Mo. AVLIS would then be used to separate the 99Mo from abreacted 98Mo to produce 99Mo of sufficiently high specific activity for use in the technetium generator. This application does not appear to be viable with current AVLIS technology because of exposures of personnel to the high radiation field caused by 99Mo. If systems are evenDlaBy developed to deal with this problem, the ~ ~ ~ t . . ~ . . ~ e e me . ~ ~ e n^~ ~ ~ . . t SUbJ=t womd he worm refly to amp the potently economic keenest or produce ==MO by ==g the AVL15 technology. 3. It has been proposed that 28Si may have a substantially higher thermal conductivity than does silicon that occurs In its natural isotonically impure abundant state. This conjecture is based mainly on results obtained with isotonically pure diamond, the only element for which this increase has been observed at room temperature. So far, there has been no demonstration of enhanced thermal conductivity In isotopically pure silicon. In fact, germanium, which is generally very similar to silicon in many of its fundamental physical properties, has been shown to have no increase in thermal conductivity above 200 K, making the case for silicon very dubious [53]. If this increase were to be observed in silicon, the isotonically pure element might be useful in the microelectronics industry for the enhancement of heat dissipation from silicon chips. However, at present and in the near future, heat dissipation from chips and substrates Is not the limiting factor for achieving higher circuit densities and/or smaller circuit line widths [36~. Since isotonically pure silicon and German are available for testing new applications, the committee feels that use of the AVLIS facility to obtain isotonically pure silicon should not be undertaken unless some physical advantage is confirmed by using existing sources for the pure Isotope and AVLIS is shown to be more elective than other, already demonstrated processes. MATERIAIS DESIGN AND PROCESSING Laser Material Processing A _ 11: To d~c He In for ABLE t~lofg in rno~i~s wooing applications, ME Cam make beams Awl to Ups. man~o~ The AVLIS program has developed copper vapor laser technology that is state of the art with respect to power, energy, pulse rate, bean quality, and reliability. LLNL has proposed that the copper vapor lasers, copper-p~ped dye lasers, and harmonic-wavelength convertors be used for materials processing, particularly for welding and cutting. Copper vapor laser technologies developed for AVLIS have several potential advantages over the domm ant industrial laser ~es: CO2 and N&YAG. Me shower wavelength hider bed quip, Ad high peak powers of the AVLIS copper vapor laser in conjunction with its high repetition rate provide potentially faster processing, lower machining cost per unit, and more precise machining, in addition to enabling the process of materials, especially metals such as aluminum, In ways that have heretofore been very difficult or impossible. As with other proposed applications, the evaluation of technical and economic ([aims for AVLIS technology is difficult, but in this case there appears to be a set of good initial parameters that can be tested in ore - *DuPont Pharma, North Billerica, Mass.; An Amersham Company, Arlington Heights, ID. MallickroUt Medical Inc., St. Louis, Mo.; and Medi+Physics,

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18 a straightforward and relatively~ne~ensive way. LLNL has built a very~mpressive system with reliable individual components. This system is also operational. It appears to be prudent to make portions of this facility available to outside users who wish to evaluate the benefits of this technology In their applications. Manufacturers would be expected to pay the nominal Incremental costs of operation of the lasers for this purpose. It win be necessary for LLNL to advertise the availability of such lasers to U.S. manufacturers, perhaps in a conference or workshop, which would have the further advantage of generating interest In other potential applications of this laser tenfold. Organizations such as the Society for the advancement of Matenal and Process Engineering, the American S~etv far Metals Int~rn:.tinn~1 {ARMIN anti the. American Welding Society might be included. , ~_--I,, ~I_ ~ ~^ ~ Further development of the lasers for materials working applications should not be undertaken unless U.S. manufacturers actively participate from the beaning In the development of the systems for such applications. The technology transfer process should not consist Amply of handing a set of drawings to industry, but should Evolve close cooperation between the AVLIS temn and the interested industrial partner to ensure appropriate knowledge transfer. In this regard, the committee is very pleased with the aeation of the LLNL's Center for Applications of Laser and Elec~ooptics Technologies (CALEOT) as a user facility. Co~Tosion-Resistant Materials _ 7~ LLNL Why nuzbe He sent of bee ~ Tem~ Abrasion team and its few acme to Ups. may on a cow or ~ bat The impressive array of e~erdse, capabilities, facilities, and systems approaches that LLNL has assembled to solve high-temperature corrosion technology problems In the course of the AVLIS project should be made available to U.S. industry for applications of significant national interest or competitive advantage. In the petrochemical and chemical industries, high-temperature corrosion problems come to the fore in the areas of operational health, and environmental safety. Zero-emission process plants are an industry goal, and processes involving a high-temperature corrosion environment need to be contained to be safe and environmentally acceptable. New processes involving high-temperature corrosion environments require the design of process and containment materials. Small industrial organizations might be able to get funding via Small Business Innovative Research programs or by direct grants from DOE to take advantage of the capability, while m~d-size and large compares would be able to use the services on a billed basis. Attracting potential customers win require some marketing by LLNL staff involved in the high-temperature corrosion area. Cooperation with the education and conference programs of the matenals-onented professional societies like ASMI and the National Association of Corrosion Engineers could be fruitful. COMPONENTS SPIN-OFF Subsystem and Component Transfer _ll~lhcA~Sp~7n~1mal~ebBe~pro~iateU5.~w~age~smes and~aH~dc~np~fand~b~d token Andes ~ IBM ~ ~ as Ed A number of component and subsystem spin-off technologies have been developed under the AVLIS program. All of these spin-off technologies have achieved a new state-of-the-art performance capability and may be exploitable by venous industries or government agencies. These technologies include compact high-power switching power supplies and pulsed power systems that have been developed to drive the long-life, higb- reliability copper vapor lasers; high-power copper vapor and titanium:sapphire lasers; and deformable optics. It has been proposed that technologies be developed Other so that they can be applied to submarine communications and coastline undersea mapping, research on laser propagation and atmospheric compensation, and beam control in a varieW of industrial and military laser applications.

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19 A common theme in each of these proposals was the potential for non-DOE benefit as well as the need for additional development of the tethnolo~. The committee believes that each U.S. government agency or industrial organization must make its own judgment as to the attractiveness of these capabilities and should make its own arrangements with the AVLIS program to gain access to the technology. Such organizations should also contribute to the funding required for further development of spin-off tedbnolog~es. Active participation will generate a sense of ownership in the users, which in turn win increase the probability of putting into use the rescuing technology within the scientific, defense, and commercial sectors. Iitho~aphy R_ 14: DOE Dodd not Wed It tic Option of APllS teclm410gy to n J~icr Woo ~ odd ~ Mops r' ~ _r my. Padded that such a~neru ~ ~dsing~pl~co~s for high ted Why be Wed LLNL has proposed the development of laser-based sources for x rays or deep ultraviolet (DUV) radiation for use in exposure systems for microlitho~aphy (integrated circuits [ICs]) and macrolithography (high- definition television [HDTlI1). Several programs have been initiated, including pulse compression of copper vapor lasers, studies of efficient x-ray conversion, and the construction of a lithographic facility to be built with the LLNL Laser Demonstration Facility. The committee has serious reservations concerning LLNL's plans to attempt to apply the copper vapor laser technology of AVLIS to microel~ron~cs without the direct involvement of the electronics industry. More specifically, unless LLNL has one or more commercial vendors of lithographic tools who are willing to enter into a contractual relationship to develop these technologies, LLNL should malce no further attempt to develop AVLIS technology for the microelectronics field The committee's conclusion Is derived from an analysis of (1) LLNL proposals for the application of laser technology to new lithographic concepts, (23 Interviews with the relevant LLNL personnel, and (3) a comparison with the established patterns for the lithographic strategies of the microelectronics industry. The conclusion that emerges is that LLNL has no experience in practical microelectronics manufactunug and little understanding of the development time scales involved in identifying a lithographic strategy and bringing the technology into the market Cynthia the time France that the market demands. LLNL's proposals to use copper vapor lasers for probity x-ray production are dependent on advances In pulse compression and other developments that will take several years to complete, yet the decision to use x-rays in IC chip manufacture is to be made within the next 18 months with the choice of an x-ray source largely a node. There is already a commercial vendor of laser-based x-ray steppers in the United States*; thus, if there Is a need to use a new laser technology, this decision, along with the subsequent development track, should be driven by a commercial vendor, not by LLNL. LLNL's proposal to use frequen~y-doubled copper vapor lasers as sources of light for DUV radiation is another example of the need for the dose Involvement of an optical stepper manufacturer. The rapid advance in reliability and average power of excimer lasers, along with the development of imaging systems that are more tolerant to the relatively broad line widths of these lasers, may weld reduce the technological edge claimed for the copper vapor laser by LLNL. Furthermore, DUV radiation stepper manufacturers mum make technology choices for steppers many years in advance, and thus a new laser technology, even a potentially superior one, may not be used. Again, only under the direction of a DUV radiation stepper manufacturer can LLNI~ hope to achieve any commercial success with this program. LLNL's proposal to use copper vapor lasers for a source of radiation near 100 ~ for soft x-ray projection lithography suffers from the development time necessary to convert the long-pulse laser into the correct format. Several alternative laser schemes are under development, including a new generation of commercial excimer *Hampshire Instruments, Inc., Rochester, N.Y.

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20 lasers, that have more than sufficient average power to drive soft x-ray steppers as they are currently envisioned. This potential use of AVLIS "ethnology is, however, sufficiently far in the future that Lo, together with representatives of the microelectronics industry, could initiate a research program. The LLNL proposal for the application of copper vapor te~nolo~ to macrolithography for large (> 1 ma) flat panel displays for HDTV has potentially important commercial value [163. The issue of how best to manufacture these screens has not been settled in the industry, and copper vapor laser sources could well play a role. However, there is a serious mue tot Could be carefully considered before any attempt at commerc~:Mi~tion us undertaken: there are currently no manufacturers of flat screen displays In the United States. Therefore, the prospect of transfermagAVLIS technology to a U.S. company appears remote. However, if LLNL can Snd a U.S. industrial partner to commerci~li7- this te~nolo~, the committee recommends that ~. this application be considered. AVAII^BILll~Y OF LLNL AVLIS FACILITIES R~d~ IS LLNL Todd Publish a us~f~y lo Wide bean Me and fecal supparf fur ~Lsn of the AVL15 lash mans. The committee was most impressed by the AVLIS copper vapor laser system, the dye laser, and the frequency conversion technology. The laser system has unique capabilities in power, fluence, pulse width, and repetition rate, as well as in beam quality. The committee feels, as described in detail above, that there are substantial opportunities to explore a number of potential applications of the laser system now at LLNL in the areas of photochemical processing, materials synthesis, isomer and isotope separation, etc., where (1) the applications are at a very early stage or (23 the applications, on their own merit, may not justify the capital and operating expenses for an entire system. The committee recommends that LLNL set up a laser user facility for other research agencies, industry, and government researchers to explore the benefit of applying the AVLIS system to their experiments or technical problems. The user facility shoed provide a contact person along with appropriate support to work with potential users to identify the application, clarii~requ~rements and expectations, and assist in sewing up the experiments. The user should be responsible for the set-up and funding of the experiments. The committee does not envision that such user programs could, on their own, justify the entire cost of the AVLIS facility. Some examples of Fusible investigations that could benefit from the use of such a user facility are (1) lower-cost resources for special applications, (2) lower-cost isotopes as large-volume production occurs, (3) novel, high-value chemical products, and (43 novels high-value materials. An example of the last We of investigation would be a process to produce a catalyst with unique performance characteristics by photochemical generation of metastable intermediates. Such a user facility could help to determine whether the concept of a photon olfactory is feasible where small vendors organized around narrow-niche markets could produce high-vadue-added products. Users of a facility for industrial applications of this sort would have to pay for the use of the facility on a prorated basis, once the commercial viability of the product or process had been established. Again, the recent establishment of the LLNL's CALEOT user facility Is a commendable step In the direction indicated by this recommendation PROLIX ORATION The primary basis for concern that the development of the AVLIS process for uranium enrichment will increase the risk of nuclear proliferation is that the Leigh selectivin~r of laser excitation of the uranium isotope 235U in the gas phase may make it possible to produce weapon-grade urn (WGU; ~90% 23su) in a less costly, more compact, and less detectable manner compared with the traditional methods of uranium enrichment, the gaseous diffusion and gas centrifuge processes. For example, given the fact that the AVLIS process developed In the United States should require only a single ennchment step or stage for the production of reactor-grade uranium (RGU; ~24% 235~, wee He "n~e =d lion proceed require on He order of 10 =d 14~ stages, respectively, it is reasonable to conclude that production of WGU by AVLIS may require only several

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21 enrichment stages, compared with approximately 30 and 5,0()0 stages for centrifuge and diffusion processes, respectively [54]. Besides its potential as an attractive method for the production of WGU, the AVLIS process may also spread because of the well-publicized promise that it can produce RGU at costs much lower than those for other enrichment processes. In addition, there is a high prestige value, especially for developing countries, in mastering a high-technology process such as AVLIS. On the other hand, it is also true that the high-technology nature and the current lack of operational experience with AVLIS would make it unattractive to most potential proliferants. Although DC)E has invested approximately $1 billion in the development of AVLIS for the production of RGU, the process has not yet reached the foal demonstration phase. To date, only small amounts of approximately 1% enriched material have been produced.$ The basic reason for this slow progress is that economical large-scale production of enriched uranium via AVLIS requires the reliable operation of several advanced and tightly integrated technologies, notably a sophisticated laser system and the handling of an uranium alloy in the solid, liquid, and vapor phases. While exploratory research on AVLIS, involving measurements of basic data (e.g., transitions, cross-sections, and isotope shifts) as well as the actual production of enriched uranium on a laboratory scale, is within the capability of research scientists in many countries, there is a quantum leap, especially with regard to the laser system, between such efforts and the production of enriched uranium on the scale of a 100 kg/yr.t While the latter may be feasible, it has yet to be demonstrated and is far from commercially attractive. Production of significant quantities of WGU rather than RGU presents additional challenges, such as radical redesign of the RGU collector and a development and test program at high enrichment levels." The situation with regard to the traditional methods of uranium enrichment, particularly centrifugation, is in marked contrast to the above. Building the type of simple, subcritical (operating below the first rotor resonance) centrifuges described by the engineer Gernot Zippe In 1960, or even reasonable extensions thereof, is within the capability of a growing number of countries, including some of proliferation concern, such as Palcistan, India, Brazil, and Iraq. Moreover, there need be no difference in the centrifuges used in a plant to make WGU from those used to make RGU, except for the need for simple precautions to avoid accumulation of a critical mass. Once the performance of a centrifuge has been demonstrated on natural uranium feed material, its performance at higher enrichment levels is known with certainty. Read 16- Allproposed ~eAT7I15 a~pplic~ns pose, to vazyu~g~s, a proof Chic Sum apes aid be eve on a case~case base The pupation of isotopes of the ma: ~5 is of ponder concenL *This represents less than 5 separative work units (SWU), which should be compared with the planned final demonstration of 100,000 200,000 SWU/yr for the AVLIS plant module In 1992. IThe 10~kg/yr-scale plant represents a production of several first-generation implosion-type bombs per year. Assuming a 50% capacity factor, this would require about 15 kW of copper vapor laser pump power. The largest laser available commerdaDy is rated at 70 W. Hence, about 200 such lasers would be needed. Assuming conservatively 100 hours of mean time between failures (MTBF) for commercial lasers, the number of lasers that would have to be replaced per - 7 in such a plant would be about 50. IThe implicit basis for judgment that the technical difficulty of producing WGU is at least as great as that for producing RGU is the desire for economic optimization in the context of a large-scale commercial enrichment plant. On the other hancl, it is reasonable to assume that low construction or operating costs will not be the most important criterion in the production of relatively small amounts of WGU for nuclear weapons. If a consideration other than cost becomes the driving factor, there may be a variety of other technical options for producing WGU that require less developed technical capabilities.

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22 At present, it Is highly unlikely that a proliferant country would choose an unproven technology such as AVLIS for the production of significant Entities of WGU, Oven the availability of proven means to this end, espedaDy low-technolo~ centrifuges. In the future, this situation may change if (1) AVI~IS is successfully demonstrated in the United States and other countries for production of tens of kilotons of RGU or a similar metal element isotope per year, (23 ongoing developments m laser technology make the task of reinventing AVLIS less difficult En the initial effort, and (3) political or economic considerations tend to reduce the extent of classification and export controls. The Bird consideration is the one most relevant for this study. In broad terms, the more closely a given alternative application resembles the AVLIS process for uranium enrichment, the greater the proliferation risk involved in the transfer of technology. Thus, such applications as the production of plutonium or gadolinium isotopes or other metallic elements would be more sensitive then applications of AVLIS components, such as the proposed uses of copper vapor lasers in materials process - . However, even such component applications may be sensitive because the scale and reliability of, for instance, copper vapor lasers, electron beam alms, and switching power supplies required In an industrial production facility compared tenth those required in a research laboratory are generally not available from commercial vendors. Thus, the committee concludes that: In the near term, the most likely choice of proliferants for the production of WGU is a well-established process such as low-technolo~ centrifuges. However, if the AVLIS process Is successfully demonstrated for the production of RGU, it may also become an attractive route for the production of WGU. U.S. government classification rules currently in place for uranic AVLIS should be used as a Wide for He protection of AVLIS applications. The security procedures developed by Jersey Nuclear AVCO Isotopes, Inc. (JNAI), for their AVLIS program with the concurrence of the U.S. government may serve as a useful model for the production of AVLIS applications ~ private industry.* Similarly, any export of AVLIS-like components or expertise by U.S. composes should be subject to the We regulations that apply to the uranium AVLIS process. *In the framework of its 1977 agreement with DOE, for example, JNAI agreed to treat data that DOE deemed as restricted data under specified SINAI security safeguards equivalent to DOE safeguards applicable to restricted data. For a brief review of JNAI's secunty programs [553.

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23 References 1. Memorandum Mom Admiral James D. Watkins to Assistant Secretaries for Nuclear Energy and Defense Programs, Potential Applications for AVLIS Technology, October 17, 1989. 2. Hassan, H.A., C.M. Howe, and S.W. Spetz Gadolinia Fuel Cycle Design Using Ennched :57Gd. Prepnot. B & W Co., September 1986. (Steve Herzog, LLNL, Livermore, California, March 20, 1991, and May 3, 1991~. Hove, C.M., and S.W. Spetz. 1986. Improved PWR Gadolini~ Fuel Assembly Design Using Isotopic Enrichment of 15'Gd. Procce~ of the Topical Meeting on Advances in Fuel Management, March 2-5. 4. Brown, C^, S.H. Shann, and L.F. VanSwam. 1988. Q - ification of Advanced Nuclear Fuels' PWR Desk Methodology for Rod Burnups of 62 MWd/kgM. AND 133(P). August. Advanced Nuclear Fuels Corporation, Richland, Washington. 5. Advanced Nuclear Fuels Corporation. 1991. Review. Advanced Nuclear Fuels Corporation, Bellevue, Washington. April. 6. Wolfe, B., and E. Wood, personal communication, May 3, 1991. 7. Combustion Eng~neenug, Inc. 1989. Verification of the Acceptability of a 1-Pin Burnup Limit of 60 MWd/kgM for Combustion Engineering 16X16 PWR FueL CEN-3~P. July. Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, Connecticut. 8. Papers presented in the Proceedings of the International Topical Meeting on LWR Fuel Performance, Wlllinmsburg, Virginia, April 17-20, 1988. 9. Reich, WJ., Ret. Moore, and KJ. Note 1991. Distribution of Characteristics of LWR Spent Fuel. ORNL/TM-11670. January. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 10. Beyer C.E. 1991. Letter to S.L. Wu, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, May 2, Summary of International Topical Meeting on LWR Fuel Performance, Avignon, France, April 22-26. (Proceedings have been published In two volumes.) 11. Newman, L.W., PA. Thornton, and BJ. Wrona. 1984. USDOE Contract No. DE-AC02-78ET-34212. May. DeparUnent of Energy, Washington, D.C. 12. ~ P., Department of Energy, personal communication, May 7, 1991. 13. Hansen, K, em 1990. Nuclear Power in Japan. PB90 215724. October. Japan Technology Evaluation Center. 14. Rossi CUE. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. 1990. Letter to G.N. Ward, Exxon Nuclear Co., Inc., September 26. (Available in Public Document Room, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C.) 15. Steyn, JJ. 1989. Coking at Trends in the International Uranimn Market. Nuclear Engineering International 34~4223: 17. 16. LLNL. 1990. Alternative Applications of AVLIS Technology, UCNI, L~11875. November. LLNL, Livermore, California. (1his report is hesitated UCNI [Unclassified Controlled Nuclear InformationJ. Those permitted access must be both U.S. citizens and employees of a federal government contractor or subcontractor, or employees of a prospective federal government contractor or subcontractor who will use the UCNT for the purposes of bidding on a federal government contract or subcontract.)

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24 17. Stevenson, B., President, Advanced Nuclear Fuels Corporation, Bellevue, Washington, personal communication, March 2S, 1991. 18. Gorsetti, L.V., S.C. Hatfield, and A. Jonsson. 1991. Recent Advances in PWR Fuel Desk at ABB-CE. International Topical Meeting on LWR Fuel Performance, Avignon, France, April 2;2-26. 19. Benedict, M., T.H. Pigfor~ and H. Wolfgang Levi. 1981. Nuclear Chemical Eng~neenng, 2nd ed. P. 89, Figure 34, Burnup vs Reactivity and Assay. McGraw-HiD, New York. 20. M&SE Medical and Scientific Enterprises, Inc. 1991. Letter to Sharon Atkins (and available from her). Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richmond, Washington, February 14. 21. Schenter, R. 1991. Westinghouse Hanford Company, Rithland, Washington, personal communication, March 27. 22. M&SE Medical and Scientific Enterpnses, Inc. 1991. Letter to Sharon Awns (and available from her), Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richland, Washington. March 4. 23. LLNL. 1990. Alternative Applications of AVLIS and Selected Applications for NAS/NAE Review, July 9, (~11545), submitted to the Committee on Alternative Applications of Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation, p. 1. 24. Ibid, pp. 24. 25. Ibid' pp. 2. 26. Krupke, W., LLNL, personal communication, March 19, 1991. Z7. Randall, KB. 1984. Summary of Proceedings of the First Zirconium Isotope Separation Workshop, Report No. 84306 K of the Ontario Hydro Research Division, November 19. 28. LLNL. 1990. Alternative Applications. November, L118 75, pp. 33 41. 29. Till, C.E., and V]. Chang. 1989. The Liqliid-Metal Reactor. Presentation to the Committee on Future Nuclear Power Development, National Academy of Sciences, August. 30. Pigford, T.H. 1991. Achn~de Burning and Waste Disposal. In Proceedings of the First MII Conference on the Next Generation of Nuclear Power Technology, M. Golay, ea., April. Department of Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambndge, Massachusetts. 31. See statement by former President Carter on Nuclear Power Policy, April 7, 197 7, reprinted in The Nuclear Proliferation Fac~book, prepared by the Confessional Research Service, Library of Confess, September 1977, pp. 117-119. 32. Pigford, T.H. 1991. Effect of Actinide Burning on Risk from High-Level Waste. UCB-NE=177. Transactions of the Amencan Nuclear Society. June. 33. Westinghouse Savannah River Company. l990e Tritium in the Savannah River Site Environment. Report WSRC-RP-9~42~1. May. Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, South Carolina. 34. National Research Council. 1982. Separated Isotopes: Vital Tools for Science and Medicine. Subcommittee on Nuclear and Radiothemist~y, Committee on Chemical Sciences, Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, National Research Council. Nationad Academy Press, W~on, D.C. 35. Anthony, TV., W.F. Banholzer, J.F. Fleischer, L. Wed P.K Kuo, R.L. Thomas, and R.W. Pryor. 1990. Thermal Diffusivity of Isotopically enriched SUP(12)C Diamond. Physical Reviews B42: 1104 1111.

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